Infant Nutritional Factors and Functional Constipation in Childhood: The Generation R Study

Department of the Generation R Study Group, Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.
The American Journal of Gastroenterology (Impact Factor: 10.76). 03/2010; 105(4):940-5. DOI: 10.1038/ajg.2010.96
Source: PubMed


Food allergy and celiac disease may lead to childhood constipation. Early introduction of food allergens and gluten in the first year of life has been suggested to have a function in these food intolerances, but it is unclear whether this also holds true for development of childhood constipation. The aim of this study was to assess the association between the timing of introduction of food allergens and gluten early in life and functional constipation in childhood.
This study was embedded in the Generation R study, a population-based prospective cohort study from fetal life until young adulthood. Functional constipation at 24 months of age was defined in 4,651 children according to the Rome II criteria of defecation frequency <3 times a week or the presence of mainly hard feces for at least 2 weeks.
At the age of 24 months, 12% of the children had functional constipation. Children with functional constipation got introduced to gluten more often before or at the age of 6 months than children without functional constipation (37% and 27%, respectively). After adjustment for birth weight, gestational age, gender, ethnicity, maternal education, and family history of atopy and chronic intestinal disorders, functional constipation was significantly associated with early gluten introduction (odds ratio (OR): 1.35; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.10-1.65). No association was found between timing of introduction of cow's milk, hen's egg, soy, peanuts, and tree nuts with functional constipation. A history of cow's milk allergy in the first year of life was significantly associated with functional constipation in childhood (OR: 1.57; 95% CI: 1.04-2.36).
These results suggest that early gluten introduction in the first year of life provide a trigger for functional constipation in a subset of children. In case of functional constipation, there also might be a role for cow's milk allergy initiated in the first year of life.

1 Follower
17 Reads
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A microwave switch based on a novel nitride based metal-oxide-semiconductor heterostructure field effect transistor (MOSHFET) is proposed and demonstrated. Due to record high saturation current and breakdown voltage, negligible gate leakage current and low gate capacitance, the proposed switch allows for less than 0.3 dB insertion loss and more than 35 dB isolation. The unique feature of the MOSHFET based switch is the maximum switching power, in excess of 80 W for a 1 mm wide active element.
    No preview · Conference Paper · Feb 2002
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The Generation R Study is a population-based prospective cohort study from fetal life until young adulthood. The study is designed to identify early environmental and genetic causes of normal and abnormal growth, development and health during fetal life, childhood and adulthood. The study focuses on four primary areas of research: (1) growth and physical development; (2) behavioural and cognitive development; (3) diseases in childhood; and (4) health and healthcare for pregnant women and children. In total, 9,778 mothers with a delivery date from April 2002 until January 2006 were enrolled in the study. General follow-up rates until the age of 4 years exceed 75%. Data collection in mothers, fathers and preschool children included questionnaires, detailed physical and ultrasound examinations, behavioural observations, and biological samples. A genome wide association screen is available in the participating children. Regular detailed hands on assessment are performed from the age of 5 years onwards. Eventually, results forthcoming from the Generation R Study have to contribute to the development of strategies for optimizing health and healthcare for pregnant women and children.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2010 · European Journal of Epidemiology
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We aimed to review the published literature regarding the epidemiology of constipation in the general paediatric and adult population and to assess its geographic, gender and age distribution, and associated factors. A search of the Medline database was performed. Study selection criteria included: (1) studies of population-based samples; (2) containing data on the prevalence of constipation without obvious organic aetiology; (3) in paediatric, adult or elderly population; (4) published in English and full manuscript form. Sixty-eight studies met our inclusion criteria. The prevalence of constipation in the worldwide general population ranged from 0.7% to 79% (median 16%). The epidemiology of constipation in children was investigated in 19 articles and prevalence rate was between 0.7% and 29.6% (median 12%). Female gender, increasing age, socioeconomic status and educational level seemed to affect constipation prevalence.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2011 · Best practice & research. Clinical gastroenterology
Show more