Superior temporal gyrus volume in antipsychotic-naive people at risk of psychosis

ArticleinThe British journal of psychiatry: the journal of mental science 196(3):206-11 · March 2010with1 Read
Impact Factor: 7.99 · DOI: 10.1192/bjp.bp.109.069732 · Source: PubMed
Abstract

Morphological abnormalities of the superior temporal gyrus have been consistently reported in schizophrenia, but the timing of their occurrence remains unclear. To determine whether individuals exhibit superior temporal gyral changes before the onset of psychosis. We used magnetic resonance imaging to examine grey matter volumes of the superior temporal gyrus and its subregions (planum polare, Heschl's gyrus, planum temporale, and rostral and caudal regions) in 97 antipsychotic-naive individuals at ultra-high risk of psychosis, of whom 31 subsequently developed psychosis and 66 did not, and 42 controls. Those at risk of psychosis had significantly smaller superior temporal gyri at baseline compared with controls bilaterally, without any prominent subregional effect; however, there was no difference between those who did and did not subsequently develop psychosis. Our findings indicate that grey matter reductions of the superior temporal gyrus are present before psychosis onset, and are not due to medication, but these baseline changes are not predictive of transition to psychosis.

    • "However, it is not clear if these improvements are associated with underlying neurobiological changes (Wood et al., 2011). Neuroimaging studies using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have indicated that ARMS showed brain alterations in the prefrontal (Borgwardt et al., 2006; Borgwardt et al., 2008; Koutsouleris et al., 2009; Mechelli et al., 2011; Wood et al., 2010), cingulate (Fornito et al., 2008; Koutsouleris et al., 2009), superior (Takahashi et al., 2009; Takahashi et al., 2010) and medial temporal (Borgwardt et al., 2007b; Tognin et al., 2014), insular (Smieskova et al., 2010 ) and cerebellar regions when compared to healthy controls. Furthermore, ARMS individuals with subsequent transition to psychosis showed volumetric reductions in the prefrontal, insular and cingulate cortex compared to those without transition (Smieskova et al., 2010). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Individuals with at-risk mental state for psychosis (ARMS) often suffer from depressive and anxiety symptoms, which are clinically similar to the negative symptomatology described for psychosis. Thus, many ARMS individuals are already being treated with antidepressant medication. To investigate clinical and structural differences between psychosis high-risk individuals with or without antidepressants. We compared ARMS individuals currently receiving antidepressants (ARMS-AD; n = 18), ARMS individuals not receiving antidepressants (ARMS-nonAD; n = 31) and healthy subjects (HC; n = 24), in terms of brain structure abnormalities, using voxel-based morphometry. We also performed region of interest analysis for the hippocampus, anterior cingulate cortex, amygdala and precuneus. The ARMS-AD had higher 'depression' and lower 'motor hyperactivity' scores than the ARMS-nonAD. Compared to HC, there was significantly less GMV in the middle frontal gyrus in the whole ARMS cohort and in the superior frontal gyrus in the ARMS-AD subgroup. Compared to ARMS-nonAD, the ARMS-AD group showed more gray matter volume (GMV) in the left superior parietal lobe, but less GMV in the left hippocampus and the right precuneus. We found a significant negative correlation between attenuated negative symptoms and hippocampal volume in the whole ARMS cohort. Reduced GMV in the hippocampus and precuneus is associated with short-term antidepressant medication and more severe depressive symptoms. Hippocampal volume is further negatively correlated with attenuated negative psychotic symptoms. Longitudinal studies are needed to distinguish whether hippocampal volume deficits in the ARMS are related to attenuated negative psychotic symptoms or to antidepressant action.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2015 · NeuroImage: Clinical
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    • "Longitudinally, a Time  Group interaction for N100 and P200 has been reported with deepening deficits in high risk individuals transitioning to psychosis (van Tricht et al., 2010 Tricht et al., , 2011 Tricht et al., , 2012). Several studies have shown that N100 abnormalities are present in unaffected relatives/twins of schizophrenia patients (Blackwood et al., 1991; Frangou et al., 1997; Ahveninen et al., 2006; Anokhin et al., 2006; Foxe et al., 2011), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies of gray matter have shown reduction of superior temporal gyrus at illness onset (Shenton et al., 1992; McCarley et al., 1999; Shenton et al., 2001 ), in young schizophrenia patients (Rajarethinam et al., 2004) and in clinical high risk individuals whether they later develop schizophrenia or not (Borgwardt et al., 2007; Takahashi et al., 2010; Mechelli et al., 2011). We note that in another study with similar subject samples, the N100 evoked by standard stimuli in a visual oddball task was decreased in FESZ but not in CHR (Oribe et al., 2013). "
    Full-text · Dataset · Feb 2015
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    • "Longitudinally, a Time  Group interaction for N100 and P200 has been reported with deepening deficits in high risk individuals transitioning to psychosis (van Tricht et al., 2010 Tricht et al., , 2011 Tricht et al., , 2012). Several studies have shown that N100 abnormalities are present in unaffected relatives/twins of schizophrenia patients (Blackwood et al., 1991; Frangou et al., 1997; Ahveninen et al., 2006; Anokhin et al., 2006; Foxe et al., 2011), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies of gray matter have shown reduction of superior temporal gyrus at illness onset (Shenton et al., 1992; McCarley et al., 1999; Shenton et al., 2001), in young schizophrenia patients (Rajarethinam et al., 2004) and in clinical high risk individuals whether they later develop schizophrenia or not (Borgwardt et al., 2007; Takahashi et al., 2010; Mechelli et al., 2011). We note that in another study with similar subject samples, the N100 evoked by standard stimuli in a visual oddball task was decreased in FESZ but not in CHR (Oribe et al., 2013). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The clinical high risk (CHR) period is a phase denoting a risk for overt psychosis during which subacute symptoms often appear, and cognitive functions may deteriorate. To compare biological indices during this phase with those during first episode schizophrenia, we cross-sectionally examined sex- and age-matched clinical high risk (CHR, n=21), first episode schizophrenia patients (FESZ, n=20) and matched healthy controls (HC, n=25) on oddball and novelty paradigms and assessed the N100, P200, P3a and P3b as indices of perceptual, attentional and working memory processes. To our knowledge, this is the only such comparison using all of these event-related potentials (ERPs) in two paradigms. We hypothesized that the ERPs would differentiate between the three groups and allow prediction of a diagnostic group. The majority of ERPs were significantly affected in CHR and FESZ compared with controls, with similar effect sizes. Nonetheless, in logistic regression, only the P3a and N100 distinguished CHR and FESZ from healthy controls, suggesting that ERPs not associated with an overt task might be more sensitive to prediction of group membership. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2014 · Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging
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