3D Fast Spin Echo With Out-of-Slab Cancellation: A Technique for High-Resolution Structural Imaging of Trabecular Bone at 7 Tesla
Department of Radiology, University of Pennsylvania Medical Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104, USA.Magnetic Resonance in Medicine (Impact Factor: 3.57). 03/2010; 63(3):719-27. DOI: 10.1002/mrm.22213
Spin-echo-based pulse sequences are desirable for the application of high-resolution imaging of trabecular bone but tend to involve high-power deposition. Increased availability of ultrahigh field scanners has opened new possibilities for imaging with increased signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) efficiency, but many pulse sequences that are standard at 1.5 and 3 T exceed specific absorption rate limits at 7 T. A modified, reduced specific absorption rate, three-dimensional, fast spin-echo pulse sequence optimized specifically for in vivo trabecular bone imaging at 7 T is introduced. The sequence involves a slab-selective excitation pulse, low-power nonselective refocusing pulses, and phase cycling to cancel undesired out-of-slab signal. In vivo images of the distal tibia were acquired using the technique at 1.5, 3, and 7 T field strengths, and SNR was found to increase at least linearly using receive coils of identical geometry. Signal dependence on the choice of refocusing flip angles in the echo train was analyzed experimentally and theoretically by combining the signal from hundreds of coherence pathways, and it is shown that a significant specific absorption rate reduction can be achieved with negligible SNR loss.
Conference Paper: Atmospheric plasma induced sterilization and chemical neutralization[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Summary form only given, as follows. We are studying chemical neutralization and surface decontamination using atmospheric plasma discharges. The plasma can be generated using either DC, AC or pulsed discharges. The electrodes which generate the plasma consist of a ground plane and an array of pins. The array is constructed so that various gases, like argon or helium, can be flowed past the pins where the discharge is initiated. Results indicate that the atmospheric plasma is effective in sterilizing surfaces with biological contaminants like E-coli and bacillus. Exposure times of less than four minutes in an air plasma result in a decrease in live colony counts by six orders of magnitude. Results on neutralization of chemical warfare agent simulants will also be presented. The decomposition chemistry, by-product formation, and electrical energy consumption of the system will be discussed. Standard characterization techniques for determining composition of the processed gaseous and liquid effluents, like gas chromatography and mass spectroscopy, are being utilized
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: To assess the performance of a 3D fast spin echo (FSE) pulse sequence utilizing out-of-slab cancellation through phase alternation and micro-magnetic resonance imaging (μMRI)-based virtual bone biopsy processing methods to probe the serial reproducibility and sensitivity of structural and mechanical parameters of the distal tibia at 7.0T. The distal tibia of five healthy subjects was imaged at three timepoints with a 3D FSE sequence at 137 × 137 × 410 μm(3) voxel size. Follow-up images were retrospectively 3D registered to baseline images. Coefficients of variation (CV) and intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) for measures of scale and topology of the whole tibial trabecular bone (TB) cross-section as well as finite-element-derived Young's and shear moduli of central cuboidal TB subvolumes (8 × 8 × 5 mm(3) ) were evaluated as measures of reproducibility and reliability. Four additional cubic TB subregions (anterior, medial, lateral, and posterior) of similar dimensions were extracted and analyzed to determine associations between whole cross-section and subregional structural parameters. The mean signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) over the 15 image acquisitions was 27.5 ± 2.1. Retrospective registration yielded an average common analysis volume of 67% across the three exams per subject. Reproducibility (mean CV = 3.6%; range, 1.5%-5%) and reliability (ICCs, 0.95-0.99) of all parameters permitted parameter-based discrimination of the five subjects in spite of the narrow age range (26-36 years) covered. Parameters characterizing topology were better able to distinguish two individuals who demonstrated similar values for scalar measurements (≈ 34% difference, P < 0.001). Whole-section axial stiffness encompassing the cortex was superior at distinguishing two individuals relative to its central subregional TB counterpart (≈ 8% difference; P < 0.05). Interregion comparisons showed that although all parameters were correlated (mean R(2) = 0.78; range 0.57-0.99), the strongest associations observed were those for the erosion index (mean R(2) = 0.95, P ≤ 0.01). The reproducibility and structural and mechanical parameter-based discriminative ability achieved in five healthy subjects suggests that 7T-derived μMRI of TB can be applied towards serial patient studies of osteoporosis and may enable earlier detection of disease or treatment-based effects.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: A Helmholtz-pair local transmit RF coil with an integrated four-element receive array RF coil and foot immobilization platform was designed and constructed for imaging the distal tibia in a whole-body 7T MRI scanner. Simulations and measurements of the B(1) field distribution of the transmit coil are described, along with SAR considerations for operation at 7T. Results of imaging the trabecular bone of three volunteers at 1.5T, 3T and 7T are presented, using identical 1.5T and 3T versions of the 7T four-element receive array. The spatially registered images reveal improved visibility for individual trabeculae and show average gains in SNR of 2.8× and 4.9× for imaging at 7T compared to 3T and 1.5T, respectively. The results thus display an approximately linear dependence of SNR with field strength and enable the practical utility of 7T scanners for micro-MRI of trabecular bone.
Data provided are for informational purposes only. Although carefully collected, accuracy cannot be guaranteed. The impact factor represents a rough estimation of the journal's impact factor and does not reflect the actual current impact factor. Publisher conditions are provided by RoMEO. Differing provisions from the publisher's actual policy or licence agreement may be applicable.