Hepatic steatosis associated with increased central body fat by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and uncontrolled HIV in HIV/hepatitis C co-infected persons

Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, USA.
AIDS (London, England) (Impact Factor: 5.55). 02/2010; 24(6):811-7. DOI: 10.1097/QAD.0b013e3283333651
Source: PubMed


To evaluate the relationship between regional body composition and liver disease (fibrosis or steatosis) in HIV/HCV co-infected individuals.
Whole body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) was performed in 173 HIV/HCV co-infected persons within 12 months of a liver biopsy. Significant fibrosis was defined as a METAVIR stage greater than 1. Steatosis was graded as: 0, none; 1, steatosis involving less than 5% of hepatocytes; 2, 5-29%; 3, 30-60%; 4 greater than 60%, and was defined as more than 0. Poisson regression with robust variance was used to estimate prevalence ratios of the outcome measures.
The population was 62% male and 84% black with a median body mass index of 25.2 kg/m (interquartile range 22.5, 29.3 kg/m). No differences in regional body fat or fat distribution were observed in 42 patients with significant fibrosis compared to others with less fibrosis. However, the 77 individuals (45%) with steatosis had greater central fat than those without steatosis [prevalence ratio 1.04 per kg trunk fat; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.04, 1.11], after adjusting for hepatic fibrosis (prevalence ratio 1.77; 95% CI 1.29, 2.42), uncontrolled HIV replication (viral load >400 copies/ml) (prevalence ratio 1.57; 95% CI 1.12, 2.22), age, sex, race and diabetes mellitus.
In HIV/HCV co-infected individuals, measures of regional body fat or fat distribution were not associated with hepatic fibrosis. In contrast, increased central adiposity by DXA, as well as concomitant fibrosis and uncontrolled HIV, were associated with hepatic steatosis. The extent to which weight loss and effective antiretroviral therapy can reduce the risk of steatosis deserves further investigation.

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    ABSTRACT: The percent fat in soft tissues adjacent to the lumbar spine and proximal femur, which are required parameters in the calculation of bone mineral by conventional dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) of the spine and hip, were analyzed for their relationship with the total-body soft tissue-scanning derivatives. The cohort (N=149), consisting of stable actively treated male human immunodeficiency virus HIV-positive patients, was split in half to obtain prediction equations with one half to be validated by the other half. Prediction equations for the dependent variables total-body fat, total-body lean mass, trunk fat, total arm + leg fat, and leg fat were derived by step-down multiple regression. A Bland-Altman comparison of the predicted and observed values showed that the limits of agreement were too large to be clinically helpful. The correlations of the ratio of adjacent spine/hip fat with ratios of trunk/arm + leg fat and trunk/leg fat, markers of peripheral lipoatrophy in HIV, were 0.725 and 0.780, respectively. The 3 ratios were compared with the clinical diagnosis of the presence or absence of peripheral lipoatrophy by receiver operating characteristic analysis. The area under the curve was 0.720 for adjacent spine/hip fat ratio and 0.655 and 0.699 for trunk/arm + leg fat and trunk/leg fat, respectively; they were not significantly different. In conclusion, for male HIV-positive patients, the difference between predicted values and actual values rendered limits of agreement that were too wide to be clinically acceptable. The ratio of percent fat in the lumbar spine region to percent fat in the proximal femur region reflected the presence of peripheral lipoatrophy as effectively as the trunk/peripheral fat ratio that was derived from the total-body scan.
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    ABSTRACT: Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART)-related hepatotoxicity, a relevant side effect in HIV/hepatitis C virus (HCV) co-infected patients, has evolved over time. Antiretroviral therapy might have a positive effect on the liver of HIV/HCV co-infected patients, but data are conflicting. HIV treatments have evolved and we have currently a drug armamentarium with a good liver safety profile. Most of the current first-line HAART regimens recommended by guidelines fit well to HIV/HCV co-infected patients. There are now multiple retrospective studies that suggest a possible benefit of HIV control and protection of CD4 cell counts to the liver of HIV/HCV co-infected patients. However, data are conflicting at times. This factor along with the methodological limitations of these studies prevent us from drawing definitive conclusions. Even assuming a positive effect, HAART does not appear to fully correct the adverse effect of HIV infection on HCV-related outcomes. In the era of HCV direct antiviral agents, the timing of HIV and HCV therapies has to be individualized in HIV/HCV co-infected patients given the variety of scenarios. With current HIV drug armamentarium it is possible to construct HAART regimens with optimal liver safety profile for HCV co-infected patients. The possible positive effect of HAART on the HCV-infected liver should not distract from the main intervention, which is HCV eradication with specific treatment.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2011 · Current opinion in HIV and AIDS
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