Brass LF, Akabas MH, Burnley LD et al.Are MD-PHD programs meeting their goals? An analysis of career choices made by graduates of 24 MD-PHD programs. Acad Med 85:692-701

Department of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104, USA. .
Academic medicine: journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges (Impact Factor: 2.93). 02/2010; 85(4):692-701. DOI: 10.1097/ACM.0b013e3181d3ca17
Source: PubMed


MD-PhD training programs provide an integrated approach for training physician-scientists. The goal of this study was to characterize the career path taken by MD-PhD program alumni during the past 40 years and identify trends that affect their success.
In 2007-early 2008, 24 programs enrolling 43% of current trainees and representing half of the National Institutes of Health-funded MD-PhD training programs submitted anonymous data on 5,969 current and former trainees.
The average program enrolled 90 trainees, required 8.0 years to complete, and had an attrition rate of 10%. Nearly all (95%) of those who graduated entered residencies. Most (81%) were employed in academia, research institutes, or industry; 16% were in private practice. Of those in academia, 82% were doing research and at least 61% had identifiable research funding. Whereas two-thirds devoted more than 50% effort to research, only 39% devoted more than 75% effort. Many with laboratory-based PhDs reported doing clinical, as well as basic and translational, research. Emerging trends include decreasing numbers of graduates who forego residencies or hold primary appointments in nonclinical departments, increasing time to graduation, and expanding residency choices that include disciplines historically associated with clinical practice rather than research.
Most MD-PhD program graduates follow career paths generally consistent with their training as physician-scientists. However, the range of their professional options is broad. Further thought should be given to designing their training to anticipate their career choices and maximize their likelihood of success as investigators.

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    • "This raises questions as to whether these programs are focussing adequately on producing enough students who will be devoted to fundamental research (Ahn et al. 2007; Whitcomb 2007). Nevertheless, a recent study showed that a large proportion of internal medicine physicians trained through research pathways remained research active 10 years later (Lipner et al. 2012), and similar positive trends were shown in a study of MD–PhD alumni in 24 programs over 40 years (Brass et al. 2010). "
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