Biomass and nutrient concentration of sweet corn roots and shoots under organic amendments application

Department of Natural Resources & Environmental Management, University of Hawaii-Manoa, Honolulu, Hawaii, USA.
Journal of Environmental Science and Health Part B Pesticides Food Contaminants and Agricultural Wastes (Impact Factor: 1.2). 09/2009; 44(7):742-54. DOI: 10.1080/03601230903163921
Source: PubMed


Two field experiments were conducted at the Waimanalo research station on the island of O'ahu, Hawaii to study the effect of chicken (CM) and dairy (DM) manures on biomass and nutrient concentration in sweet corn roots and shoots. Sweet corn (super sweet 10, Zea Mays L. subsp. mays) was grown for two consecutive growing seasons under four rates of application (0, 168, 337, and 672 kg ha(-1) total N equivalent) and one time (OTA) or two time (TTA) applications of organic manure types and rates. There were significant effects of types, rates, and number of manure applications on dry biomass and macro- and micro-nutrient concentration in roots and shoots tissues. Results of root tissue indicated a significant accumulation of N and C under CM and DM treatments compared with the control treatment. Manure application rates significantly increased the accumulation of N and C in root tissue. Dry weight of roots and shoots and both macro- and micro-nutrient contents in the plant tissues significantly increased under TTA treatment compared with OTA treatment. There was a significant correlation (r(2) = 0.46 to 0.81) between root biomass, macro-, and micro-nutrient contents during both growing seasons. The results of the study indicates that amending soils with CM at the highest application rate provided the best crop performance in terms of root and shoot biomass, crop N, C, and other macro- and micro-nutrients.

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    • "Percentage root was significantly higher under the TTA than the OTA at the top 15 cm depth, while it was opposite (significantly higher under OTA) at the 16-30 cm depth (Fig. 9). The reversed effect of OTA at the 16-30 cm depth might be related to the decline of fertility at the top 15 cm of soil due plants uptake and nutrient lose from the first growing season, which forced the roots to grow deeper to look for nutrient and water, while the addition of manure (TTA) into the field regain its top layer fertility and supported plant growth (Ahmad et al., 2009; Rehman et al., 2013). "

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    ABSTRACT: Manure applications can change soil porosity, bulk density, hydraulic conductivity, and nutrient availability, thus affecting root growth and distribution. Information on root distribution is important to developing more efficient irrigation strategies that meets crop water requirement and reduce excess irrigation. Two field experiments were conducted in Hawaii to study the effect of 1) types, 2) rates, and 3) frequency of manure application on root distribution of sweet corn (Zea mays cv. Supersweet 10). The studied variables were roots density, root percentage at 0-15 cm and 16-30 cm depths, and total dry roots per plant. The application of manures and their rates significantly increased the values of all the studied variables except the root percentage at 16-30 cm depth which was highest in the control treatment and was decreased by increasing the application rate. Two-time manure application significantly increased the values of the studied variables at both depths, except for the root percentage at the 16-30 cm depth which decreased under the two time application compared to the one-time application.
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