Article

Chicken manure increased concentration of organic sulfur compounds in field-grown onions

Authors:
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the authors.

Abstract

A field study was conducted at Kentucky State University (KSU) Research Farm. The soil in five plots was mixed with sewage sludge, five plots were mixed with yard waste compost, five plots were mixed with laying hen manure each at 15 t acre(-1), and five unamended plots that never received soil amendments were used for comparison purposes. Plots were planted with onion, Allium cepa L. var. Super Star-F1. The objectives of this investigation were to: 1) determine the concentrations of two organosulfur compounds (dipropyl disulfide and dipropyl trisulfide) in onion bulbs and 2) investigate the effect of mixing soil with three amendments (sewage sludge, yard waste, and chicken manure) on the concentration of dipropyl disulfide and dipropyl trisulfide in onion bulbs. Gas chromatographic/mass spectrometric (GC/MS) analyses of onion oil in chloroform extracts revealed the presence of two major fragment ions that correspond to dipropyl disulfide and - trisulfide. Concentration of these two organic sulfur compounds was greatest (1.5 and 0.8 mg 100 g(-1) fresh weight, respectively) in onion bulbs of plants grown in chicken manure and lowest (0.4 and 0.07 mg 100 g(-1) fresh weight, respectively) in onion bulbs of plants grown in yard waste compost treatments. We concluded that chicken manure could be exploited in growing onions with health-promoting properties.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the authors.

... g kg −1 [32]; the chicken manure contained an even higher sulfur concentration (0.5-1% on a dry matter basis or 2.8-3.2 g kg −1 ) [32,34]. On the other hand, OMW was not expected to contribute into sulfur production much, since it is the lowest element contained in this waste (0.16% of total weight) [35]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Biogas plants have been started to expand recently in Greece and their positive contribution to the economy is evident. A typical case study is presented which focuses on the long-term monitoring (lasting for one year) of a 500 kW mesophilic biogas plant consisting of an one-stage digester. The main feedstock used was cow manure, supplemented occasionally with chicken manure, corn silage, wheat/ray silage, glycerine, cheese whey, molasses and olive mill wastewater. The mixture of the feedstocks was adjusted based on their availability, cost and biochemical methane potential. The organic loading rate (OLR) varied at 3.42 ± 0.23 kg COD m−3 day−1 (or 2.74 ± 0.18 kg VS m−3 day−1) and resulted in a stable performance in terms of specific biogas production rate (1.27 ± 0.12 m3 m−3 day−1), biogas yield (0.46 ± 0.05 m3 kg−1 VS, 55 ± 1.3% in methane) and electricity production rate (12687 ± 1140 kWh day−1). There were no problems of foaming, nor was there a need for trace metal addition. The digestate was used by the neighboring farmers who observed an improvement in their crop yield. The profit estimates per feedstock indicate that chicken manure is superior to the other feedstocks, while molasses, silages and glycerin result in less profit due to the long distance of the biogas plant from their production source. Finally, the greenhouse gas emissions due to the digestate storage in the open air seem to be minor (0.81% of the methane consumed).
... The oilseed cakes are rich in nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and potassium (K) and often used as alternative nutrient sources to chemical fertilizer (Lee 2010;Lee, Lee, and Kim 2004;Singh and Pokhriyal 1997). Antonious, Perkins, and Cantor (2009) have reported that the concentration of organic sulfur (S) compounds was greater in onion bulbs grown in soil amended with chicken manure than with yard waste or sewage sludge because of improved soil physical capacity and more S content in chicken manure. Limited N supply among mineral nutrition is typically associated with higher levels of phenolic compounds in the plant (Manach et al. 2004). ...
Article
Full-text available
This study aimed to evaluate the effect of years and different locations, beef cattle manure compost (BCMC) and mixed oilseed cake (MOC) application rates on bulb and scale characteristics, nutrient content and nutrient uptake in bulb and leaf, and storage quality of intermediate-day onions (Allium cepa L.) at two organic onion growers' fields during the 2012/2013 and 2013/2014 growing seasons. Treatments included BCMC applied at rates of 0, 30 ton·ha⁻¹ and MOC applied at rates of 0, 3, 6, 9 t·ha⁻¹. Average temperature at two experimental locations during the growing season in 2013/2014 was 1.2°C higher than in 2012/2013, while total rainfall was 206.6 mm higher in 2012/2013 than in 2013/2014. Onion bulb diameter, bulb fresh weight, scale thickness and fresh leaf weight were significantly greater in 2013 than in 2014, but bulb dry matter was greater in 2014 than in 2013. Nitrogen, potassium (K) and magnesium (Mg) contents and uptakes in bulb were significantly higher in 2013/2014 than in 2012/2013. BCMC application at 30 t·ha⁻¹ rate increased K and Mg contents in bulb and leaf as compared with no BCMC. Total soluble solids (TSSs), pyruvic acid (PA), total phenolics (TPs) and total flavonoids (TFs) contents were higher in 2013/2014 than in 2012/2013. BCMC application at 3 t·ha⁻¹ decreased TSSs and PA content compared with no BCMC. MOC application increased PA content. Rot and weight loss on 8 September in cold room storage were lower in 2013/2014 than in 2012/2013, but the loss on 14 October and 10 December were not significantly different between two years. In conclusion, high air temperature and low rainfall in Mar. and Apr. increased fresh bulb weight and bulb thickness, while high temperature, low rainfall and long sunshine duration increased TSSs, PA, TPs and TFs contents. Compost and oilseed cake application increased fresh bulb weight, scale thickness, while they decreased TSSs and did not affect organic compounds.
... The oilseed cakes are rich in nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and potassium (K) and often used as alternative nutrient sources to chemical fertilizer (Lee 2010;Lee, Lee, and Kim 2004;Singh and Pokhriyal 1997). Antonious, Perkins, and Cantor (2009) have reported that the concentration of organic sulfur (S) compounds was greater in onion bulbs grown in soil amended with chicken manure than with yard waste or sewage sludge because of improved soil physical capacity and more S content in chicken manure. Limited N supply among mineral nutrition is typically associ- ated with higher levels of phenolic compounds in the plant ( Manach et al. 2004). ...
Book
Full-text available
양파는 노지에서 재배되고, 겨울을 나는 저온성 채소이기 때문에 다른 채소와 비교해서 재배하기 쉬운 작물로 여겨왔다. 그러나 최근에 기후변화로 인한 빈번한 이상기상 현상으로 여러 가지 병해충과 생리장해 발생이 늘어나고 있다. 또한 양파를 생산하는 농민들이 재배과정에서 많은 어려움을 호소하고 있다. 양파는 7월에 모상 밭을 준비하여 9월에 씨앗을 뿌리고 이듬해 초여름인 6월에 수확하기 때문에 일 년 내내 주의를 기울여야 하는 채소이다. 예를 들면, 8월에 비가 잦으면 모상 밭 태양열 소독을 제대로 못하게 되어 모잘록병, 고자리파리 유충과 잡초 발생이 늘어날 수 있고, 9월에 비가 잦으면 파종작업이 늦어지고, 기온이 높으면 모잘록병 발생이 많아진다. 해에 따라서 9월과 10월에 비가 잦거나 태풍이 지나가면 어린모에서 습해나 세균병, 잿빛곰팡이병이 심하게 발생하기도 한다. 10월 하순과 11월 상순에 비가 잦으면 정식작업이 늦어지고 뿌리활착이 제대로 되지 않아 서릿발 피해를 받는가 하면, 11월, 12월에 기온이 높으면 겨울 동안에 양파 포기가 너무 많이 자라서 분구나 추대 발생이 많아진다. 또한 3, 4월에 양파 포기가 한창 자라는 시기에 비가 많이 내리면 습해를 받아 뿌리가 상하게 되어 영양생장이 불량해지고, 노균병과 잎마름병이 심하게 발생하기도 한다. 5월 이후에 기온이 높고 가물면 총채벌레 피해가 심해지고, 구 비대가 불량해서 큰 구를 수확하지 못하는 경우도 있다. 따라서 양파 생산농민들이 제때에 대책을 세울 수 있도록 양파 생산 과정 중에 발생할 수 있는 병해충과 생리장해에 대하여 그동안의 국내·외 연구 성과를 정리하여 이 책에 수록하였다. 병해충 관리와 생리장해 억제는 세심한 관찰과 조기 대응이 중요하다. 이 책을 통하여 양파 생산농민은 물론 현장에서 양파재배기술을 컨설팅하시는 분들이 양파 밭에서 발생하는 여러 문제들에 대하여 신속히 대처하는 데 작은 도움이 되기를 바란다.
Article
Full-text available
The horticultural literature shows that there are two pre-harvest factors that can reduce fruit and vegetable quality, i.e., nitrogen and water. An excess of either soil nitrogen or water can increase harvestable yield but it will decrease post-harvest quality. Compost and other organic amendments, e.g., mulch, green mulch, biogas slurry and biofertiliser, and compost tea, affect soil properties that in turn affect soil nitrogen and water availability. The effect of compost and other organic amendments on soil nitrogen will be explained in terms of their effect on the soil nitrogen cycle, especially N mobilisation and immobilisation and the carbon/nitrogen (C/N) ratio which is an important determinant of the available soil nitrogen. The research on the effects of compost and other organic amendments on post-harvest quality will be summarised. In general, the published research shows that compost and other organic amendments can improve post-harvest quality parameters but not always. Recent research is showing that integrating various composting strategies and combining with other crop management factors, e.g., water management, improves post-harvest benefits more than just implementing composting alone.
Article
A field study was conducted to investigate the impact of soil amendments on concentrations of two volatile organic compounds, 2-undecanone and 2-tridecanone, in onion bulbs. The soil in five plots was mixed with sewage sludge, five plots were mixed with yard waste compost, five plots were mixed with laying hen manure each at 15 t acre(-1), and five unamended plots that never received soil amendments were used for comparison purposes. Plots (n = 20) were planted with onion, Allium cepa L. var. Super Star-F1 bulbs. Gas chromatographic/mass spetrometric (GC/MS) analyses of mature onion bulbs crude extracts revealed the presence of two major fragment ions that correspond to 2-undecanone and 2-tridecanone. Soil amended with yard waste compost enhanced 2-undecanone and 2-tridecanone production by 31 and 59%, respectively. Soil amended with chicken manure enhanced 2-undecanone and 2-tridecanone production by 28 and 43%, respectively. Concentrations of 2-undecanone and 2-tridecanone were lowest in onion bulbs of plants grown in sewage sludge and unamended soil, respectively. The increased concentrations of 2-undecanone and 2-tridecanone in onion bulbs may provide a protective character against insect and spider mite attack in field grown onions.
Article
The mobility of heavy metals from soil into the food chain and their subsequent bioaccumulation has increased the attention they receive as major environmental pollutants. The objectives of this investigation were to: i) study the impact of mixing native agricultural soil with municipal sewage sludge (SS) or chicken manure (CM) on yield and quality of cabbage and broccoli, ii) quantify the concentration of seven heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Mo, Cu, Zn, Pb, and Ni) in soil amended with SS or CM, and iii) determine bioavailability of heavy metals to cabbage leaves and broccoli heads at harvest. Analysis of the two soil amendments used in this investigation indicated that Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, Mo, Cd, Pb, and organic matter content were significantly greater (P < 0.05) in premixed sewage sludge than premixed chicken manure. Total cabbage and broccoli yields obtained from SS and CM mixed soil were both greater than those obtained from no-mulch (bare) soil. Concentration of Ni in cabbage leaves of plants grown in soil amended with CM was low compared to plants grown in no-mulch soil. No significant differences were found in Cd and Pb accumulation between cabbage and broccoli. Concentrations of Ni, Cu, Zn, and Mo were greater in broccoli than cabbage. Total metals and plant available metals were also determined in the native and amended soils. Results indicated that the concentration of heavy metals in soils did not necessary reflect metals available to plants. Regardless of soil amendments, the overall bioaccumulation factor (BAF) of seven heavy metals in cabbage leaves and broccoli heads revealed that cabbage and broccoli were poor accumulators of Cr, Ni, Cu, Cd, and Pb (BAF <1), while BAF values were >1 for Zn and Mo. Elevated Ni and Mo bioaccumulation factor (BAF >1) of cabbage grown in chicken manure mixed soil is a characteristic that would be less favorable when cabbage is grown on sites having high concentrations of these two metals.
Article
Full-text available
Three onion (Allium cepa L.) cultivars were grown to maturity at five S fertility levels and analyzed for S-alk(en)yl-L-cysteine sulfoxide (ACSO) flavor precursors, γ− γ− glutamyl peptide (γ− (γ− GP) intermediates, bulb S, pyruvic acid, and soluble solids content. ACSO concentration and composition changed with S fertility, and the response was cultivar dependent. At S treatments that induced S deficiency symptoms during active bulbing, (+)S-methyl-L-cysteine sulfoxide was the dominant flavor precursor, and the flavor pathway was a strong sink for available S. As S fertility increased to luxuriant levels, trans(+)-S-(1-propenyl)-L-cysteine sulfoxide (PRENCSO) became the dominant ACSO. (+)S-propyl-L-cysteine sulfoxide was found in low concentration relative to total ACSO at all S fertility treatments. With low S fertility, S rapidly was metabolized and low γ− γ− GP concentrations were detected. As S fertility increased, γ− γ− GP increased, especially γ− γ− L-glutamyl-S-(1-propenyl)-L-cysteine sulfoxide, the penultimate compound leading to ACSO synthesis. Nearly 95% of the total bulb S could be accounted for in the measured S compounds at low S fertility. However, at the highest S treatment, only 40 % of the total bulb S could be attributed to the ACSO and γ− γ− GP, indicating that other S compounds were significant S reservoirs in onions. Concentrations of enzymatically produced pyruvic acid (EPY) were most closely related to PRENCSO concentrations. Understanding the dynamics of flavor accumulation in onion and other vegetable Alliums will become increasing important as the food and phytomedicinal industries move toward greater product standardization and characterization.
Article
Full-text available
Chemical pollution of the environment has become a major source of concern. Studies on degradation of organic compounds have shown that some microorganisms are extremely versatile at catabolizing recalcitrant molecules. By harnessing this catabolic potential, it is possible to bioremediate some chemically contaminated environmental systems. Composting matrices and composts are rich sources of xenobiotic-degrading microorganisms including bacteria, actinomycetes and lignolytic fungi, which can degrade pollutants to innocuous compounds such as carbon dioxide and water. These microorganisms can also biotransform pollutants into less toxic substances and/or lock up pollutants within the organic matrix, thereby reducing pollutant bioavailability. The success or failure of a composting/compost remediation strategy depends however on a number of factors, the most important of which are pollutant bioavailability and biodegradability. This review discusses the interactions of pollutants with soils; look critically at the clean up of soils contaminated with a variety of pollutants using various composting strategies and assess the feasibility of using composting technologies to bioremediate contaminated soil.
Article
Full-text available
Allium vegetables have been shown to have beneficial effects against several diseases, including cancer. Garlic, onions, leeks, and chives have been reported to protect against stomach and colorectal cancers, although evidence for a protective effect against cancer at other sites, including the breast, is still insufficient. The protective effect appears to be related to the presence of organosulfur compounds and mainly allyl derivatives, which inhibit carcinogenesis in the forestomach, esophagus, colon, mammary gland, and lung of experimental animals. The exact mechanisms of the cancer-preventive effects are not clear, although several hypotheses have been proposed. Organosulfur compounds modulate the activity of several metabolizing enzymes that activate (cytochrome P450s) or detoxify (glutathione S-transferases) carcinogens and inhibit the formation of DNA adducts in several target tissues. Antiproliferative activity has been described in several tumor cell lines, which is possibly mediated by induction of apoptosis and alterations of the cell cycle. Allium vegetables and organosulfur compounds are thus possible cancer-preventive agents. Clinical trials will be required to define the effective dose that has no toxicity in humans.
Article
Full-text available
Trace elements are added to poultry feed for disease prevention and enhanced feed efficiency. High concentrations are found in poultry litter (PL), which raises concerns regarding trace element loading of soils. Trace metal cation solubility from PL may be enhanced by complexation with dissolved organic carbon (DOC). Mineralization of organo-As compounds may result in more toxic species such as As(III) and As(V). Speciation of these elements in PL leachates should assist in predicting their fate in soil. Elemental concentrations of 40 PL samples from the southeastern USA were determined. Water-soluble extractions (WSE) were fractionated into hydrophobic, anionic, and cationic species with solid-phase extraction columns. Arsenic speciation of seven As species, including the main As poultry feed additives, roxarsone (ROX; 3-nitro-4-hydroxyphenylarsonic acid) and p-arsanilic acid (p-ASA; 4-aminophenylarsonic acid), was performed by ion chromatography-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (IC-ICP-MS). Total As concentrations in the litter varied from 1 to 39 mg kg(-1), averaging 16 mg kg(-1). Mean total Cu, Ni, and Zn concentrations were 479, 11, and 373 mg kg(-1), respectively. Copper and Ni were relatively soluble (49 and 41% respectively) while only 6% of Zn was soluble. Arsenic was highly soluble with an average of 71% WSE. Roxarsone was the major As species in 50% of PL samples. However, the presence of As(V) as the major species in 50% of the PL samples indicates that mineralization of ROX had occurred. The high solubility of As from litter and its apparent ready mineralization to inorganic forms coupled with the large quantity of litter that is annually land-applied in the USA suggests a potential detrimental effect on soil and water quality in the long term.
Article
Full-text available
Sulfur is essential for life. Its oxidation state is in constant flux as it circulates through the global sulfur cycle. Plants play a key role in the cycle since they are primary producers of organic sulfur compounds. They are able to couple photosynthesis to the reduction of sulfate, assimilation into cysteine, and further metabolism into methionine, glutathione, and many other compounds. The activity of the sulfur assimilation pathway responds dynamically to changes in sulfur supply and to environmental conditions that alter the need for reduced sulfur. Molecular genetic analysis has allowed many of the enzymes and regulatory mechanisms involved in the process to be defined. This review focuses on recent advances in the field of plant sulfur metabolism. It also emphasizes areas about which little is known, including transport and recycling/degradation of sulfur compounds.
Article
Full-text available
Protective effects of Allium vegetables against cancers have been shown extensively in experimental animals and epidemiologic studies. We investigated cell proliferation and the induction of apoptosis by onion oil extracted from Allium cepa, a widely consumed Allium vegetable, in human lung cancer A549 cells. GC/MS analysis suggested that propyl sulfides but not allyl sulfides are major sulfur-containing constituents of onion oil. Onion oil at 12.5 mg/L significantly induced apoptosis (13% increase of apoptotic cells) as indicated by sub-G1 DNA content. It also caused cell cycle arrest at the G2/M phase; 25 mg/L onion oil increased the percentage of G2/M cells almost 6-fold compared with the dimethyl sulfoxide control. The action of onion oil may occur via a reactive oxygen species-dependent pathway because cell cycle arrest and apoptosis were blocked by the antioxidants N-acetylcysteine and exogenous glutathione. Marked collapse of the mitochondrial membrane potential suggested that dysfunction of the mitochondria may be involved in the oxidative burst and apoptosis induced by onion oil. Expression of phospho-cdc2 and phospho-cyclin B1 were downregulated by onion oil, perhaps accounting for the G2/M arrest. Overall, these results suggest that onion oil may exert chemopreventive action by inducing cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in tumor cells.
Article
To determine the extent to which sulfur (S) and nitrogen (N) fertility interact to influence the flavor biosynthetic pathway in onion (Allium cepa L.), 'Granex 33' onions were grown in hydroponic solution culture with varying levels of S and N availability. Plants were grown at 5, 45, or 125 mg·L-1 sulfate (SO42-), and 10, 50, 90, or 130 mg·L-1 N, in a factorial combination. Total bulb S, total and individual flavor precursors and their peptide intermediates in intact onion tissue were measured. To measure the effect of S and N on alliinase activity, flavor precursors were also measured in onion macerates. Sulfur and N availability in the hydroponics solution interacted to influence all flavor compounds except S-methyl-L-cysteine sulfoxide. Levels of S-methyl-L-cysteine sulfoxide were influenced by N and S levels in the solutions; however, no interaction was present. At the lowest SO42- or N levels, most precursors and peptides measured were present in very low concentrations. When SO42- or N availability was adequate, differences among flavor compounds were small. Results indicated that S fertility had a greater influence on trans-S-1-propenyl-L-cysteine sulfoxide (1-PRENCSO) accumulation, while N availability had a greater influence on S-methyl-L-cysteine sulfoxide levels. Flavor precursors remaining in the onion macerates revealed that the percentage of intact precursors hydrolyzed by alliinase were not significantly influenced by either SO42- or N levels in the solutions, except for 1-PRENCSO, which was affected by N levels. Nitrogen and S fertility interacted to influence the flavor biosynthetic pathway and may need to be considered together when manipulating onion flavor compounds.
Chapter
Although onions are an important vegetable and have nutritional value in diets around the world, they are primarily consumed for their distinctive flavor or their ability to enhance flavors in other foods. Onion flavor is dominated by organosulfur compounds arising from the enzymatic decomposition of S-alk(en)yl-L-cysteine S-oxide flavor precursors following tissue disruption. Compounds arising from precursor decomposition, such as the lachrymatory factor and various thiosulfinates give onions their characteristic flavors. Sulfate is absorbed by the plant and incorporated through cysteine to glutathione. From glutathione, sulfur can proceed through several peptide pathways and terminate in the synthesis of one of three flavor precursors. Flavor intensity is governed by genetic factors within the onion and environmental conditions under which the onions grow. Onion cultivars differ in the ability to absorb sulfate and in the efficiency of synthesizing flavor precursors. Increased sulfate fertility, higher growing temperatures and dry growing conditions all contribute to increased flavor intensity in onion.
Article
To test the effects of high nitrogen (N) fertilization levels on onion quality and bulb flavor, 'Granex 33' onions (Allium cepa L.) were greenhouse grown in hydroponic solution culture with increasing N concentrations. Nitrogen was adjusted in the solutions with NH4NO3 and increased incrementally from 0.22 g · L-1 to 0.97 g · L-1 over five treatments. Plants were harvested at maturity and subjected to quality, flavor, and mineral analysis. As solution N increased, bulb fresh weight and bulb firmness decreased linearly. Gross flavor intensity, as measured by enzymatically developed pyruvic acid (EPY) increased linearly for N concentrations between 0.22 and 0.78 g · L-1, but EPY was reduced slightly in bulbs grown at the highest N level (0.97 g · L-1). Soluble solids content was unaffected by solution N concentration. Solution N had an affect on flavor quality. Methyl cysteine sulfoxide, which gives rise to cabbage (Brassica L. sp.) and fresh onion flavors upon eating, generally increased in concentration as solution N increased. 1-Propenyl cysteine sulfoxide, which imparts heat, mouth burn, pungency, and raw onion flavors increased between the two lowest N concentrations, and then decreased as solution N increased. Propyl cysteine sulfoxide, which imparts fresh onion and sulfur flavors upon eating, generally increased with increasing solution N concentration. Several minerals were also affected by solution N concentration. Total bulb N and NO3- increased linearly while B, Ca, and Mg decreased linearly. Total bulb S and K increased and then decreased quadratically in response to increasing solution N. Nitrogen fertility can have a pronounced affect on onion flavor and as a consequence, needs to be considered when growing onions for specific flavor quality and nutritional attributes.
Article
Oilseed rape was grown in a sand culture experiment in a glasshouse to derive values for plant testing for the diagnosis of sulfur (S) deficiency and for the prediction of seed yield. Five rates of S, combined factorially with 4 rates of nitrogen (N), maintained constant throughout the experiment, were used to determine critical concentrations of S fractions and ratios (total S, St; sulfate-S, SO4; total N/total S, N/St; SO4/St). The most satisfactory indices of rapeseed S status for diagnosis or prediction were St and SO4. Whole shoots and youngest fully expanded leaves exhibited similar critical values in plants at the rosette stage, and critical values (St = 0.20–0.25%; SO4 = 230–460 mg/kg) changed little with time. Critical values for N/St changed with time, required 2 analyses, and gave no indication of the degree of deficiency when used to predict yield. Critical values of SO4/St depended on N supply, so 3 analyses were needed. It is argued that high critical values reported previously for prediction of seed yield have been obtained when there was a decline in soil-available S and plants relied on S taken up during early growth.
Article
Sewage sludge addition to agricultural lands requires judicious management to avoid environmental risks arising from heavy metal and nitrate contamination of surface water and accumulation in edible plants. A field study was conducted on a silty-loam soil of 10% slope at Kentucky State University Research Farm. Eighteen plots of 22 x 3.7 m each were separated using metal borders and the soil in six plots was mixed with sewage sludge and yard waste compost mix (SS-YW) at 15 t acre(-1), six plots were mixed with sewage sludge (SS) at 15 t acre(-1), and six unamended plots that never received sludge were used for comparison purposes. Plots were planted with eggplant, Solanum melongena L. as the test plant. The objectives of this investigation were to: 1) assess the effect of soil amendments on the transport of NO3, NH4, and heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Ni, Pb, Zn, Cu, and Mo) into surface water; 2) investigate the effect of soil amendments on heavy metal bioavailability in eggplant fruits at harvest; and 3) assess chemical and physical properties of soil following addition of soil amendments and their impact on the yield and quality of eggplant fruit. SS-YW treatments reduced runoff water by 63% while plots incorporated with sewage sludge alone reduced runoff water by 37% compared to control treatment. The SS-YW treatments transported more mineral nitrogen (NO3-N and NH4-N) in runoff water than SS treatments. Total marketable yield (lbs acre(-1)) and number of eggplant fruits were greatest in SS-YW treatments. This response may be due to improved soil porosity, water, and nutrient retention of the soil amended with SS-YW mixture. Concentrations of heavy metals in soil amended with sludge were below the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) limits. Chromium, Ni, Zn, and Cu were taken up by eggplant fruits but their concentrations were below the Codex Commission allowable levels.
Article
Results from case-control studies and laboratory tests indicate that consumption of allium vegetables may considerably reduce the risk of stomach cancer. The association between onion and leek consumption, garlic supplement use, and the incidence of stomach carcinoma was studied. The association was investigated in the Netherlands Cohort Study on diet and cancer, which started in 1986 with 120,852 men and women ranging in age from 55 to 69 years. Dietary data were available for 139 stomach carcinoma cases diagnosed during 3.3 years of follow-up and for 3123 subjects of the randomly selected subcohort. The rate ratio for stomach carcinoma in the highest onion consumption category (> or = 0.5 onions/day) was 0.50 (95% confidence interval, 0.26-0.95) compared with the lowest category (0 onions/day) after adjustment for other risk factors. The reduction in risk was restricted to carcinoma in the noncardia part of the stomach (P = 0.002) and was also found among subjects without a history of stomach disorders (P = 0.01). The consumption of leeks and the use of garlic supplements were not associated with stomach carcinoma risk. The Netherlands Cohort Study provides evidence for a strong inverse association between onion consumption and stomach carcinoma incidence.
Article
Herbs have been used as food and for medicinal purposes for centuries. Research interest has focused on various herbs that possess hypolipidemic, antiplatelet, antitumor, or immune-stimulating properties that may be useful adjuncts in helping reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease and cancer. In different herbs, a wide variety of active phytochemicals, including the flavonoids, terpenoids, lignans, sulfides, polyphenolics, carotenoids, coumarins, saponins, plant sterols, curcumins, and phthalides have been identified. Several of these phytochemicals either inhibit nitrosation or the formation of DNA adducts or stimulate the activity of protective enzymes such as the Phase II enzyme glutathione transferase (EC 2.5.1.18). Research has centered around the biochemical activity of the Allium sp. and the Labiatae, Umbelliferae, and Zingiberaceae families, as well as flaxseed, licorice root, and green tea. Many of these herbs contain potent antioxidant compounds that provide significant protection against chronic diseases. These compounds may protect LDL cholesterol from oxidation, inhibit cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase enzymes, inhibit lipid peroxidation, or have antiviral or antitumor activity. The volatile essential oils of commonly used culinary herbs, spices, and herbal teas inhibit mevalonate synthesis and thereby suppress cholesterol synthesis and tumor growth.
Article
The metabolism of dipropyl disulfide (DPDS), an Allium sulfur compound, was investigated in rat liver cell subfractions and in an isolated perfused rat liver. DPDS is oxidized to dipropyl thiosulfinate (DPDSO) by rat microsomes. The contribution of cytochrome P450 enzymes (CYPs) or flavin-containing monooxygenases (FMO) to the formation of DPDSO from its precursor was investigated. In rat microsomes, the reaction followed Michaelis-Menten kinetics with a K(m) = 0.52 +/- 0.1 mM and a V(max) = 5.91 +/- 0.5 nmol/min/mg of protein, respectively (mean +/- S.E., n = 4). Both FMOs and CYPs were involved in DPDS oxidation, although the contribution of CYPs was predominant. Liver microsomes from phenobarbital-treated rats showed a 3.2-fold increase in the rate of formation of DPDSO. Among many CYP isoform-specific inhibitors, only CYP2B1/2 inhibitors decreased the formation of DPDSO and the best correlation between the rate of DPDS oxidation with specific monooxygenase activities was found with a marker of CYP2B1/2 activity. The action of phase II enzymes on DPDS metabolism was studied by incubating DPDS or DPDSO with liver cytosols or microsomes. Two metabolites were formed from DPDS: propylglutathione sulfide conjugate and propylmercaptan, whereas with DPDSO, only the glutathione conjugate was observed. No conjugate compound was detected in the presence of UDP-glucuronyl transferases. When isolated rat liver was perfused with DPDS, different metabolites were obtained in the output and in the liver tissues: propylmercaptan appeared in the output, whereas methylpropyl sulfide, methylpropyl sulfone, and propylglutathione sulfide were detected in the liver tissue.
Article
Phytochemicals present in the genus Allium have potential pharmacological effects, such as antimicrobial, antithrombotic, antitumor, hypolipidaemic and hypoglycemic activities. In this present study, we examined the effects of garlic and onion oils on human promyelocytic leukemia cells, HL-60. Incubation of HL-60 with garlic or onion oil (20 microg/ml) caused a marked suppression of HL-60 proliferation; the suppression was almost identical with those obtained by all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA) or dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) used as positive controls. These oils induced the generation of nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT)-reducing activity, and about 20% of the HL-60 cells became NBT positive. CD11b, another marker of the differentiation of these cells, was also significantly induced by garlic oil or onion oil. The combination of garlic or onion oil with ATRA was more effective than either alone. These data suggest that garlic and onion oils have the ability to induce differentiation of HL-60 cells into those of the granulocytic lineage.
Article
There is evidence that onions and garlic protect against cancer in humans. It has been suggested that this effect is due to the organosulfur compounds in these vegetables and that these substances act through induction of phase II detoxification enzymes. In the present studies, we have compared the ability of diallyl sulfide, dially disulfide, and diallyl trisulfide, compounds that are derived from garlic, to increase the activity of the phase II enzymes quinone reductase and glutathione transferase in a variety of rat tissues. We have also examined the onion-derived substances, dipropyl sulfide, dipropyl disulfide, dipropenyl sulfide, and dipropenyl disulfide, under identical conditions. Diallyl trisulfide and diallyl disulfide were potent inducers of the phase II enzymes. Dipropenyl disulfide was much less active, while little effect on enzyme activity was seen in animals dosed with dipropyl disulfide. Diallyl sulfide and dipropyl sulfide were weak inducers of quinone reductase and glutathione transferase, but dipropenyl sulfide was very active, with an effect similar to that of diallyl disulfide. It is possible that diallyl disulfide and diallyl trisulfide are important in the anticancer action of garlic, while dipropenyl sulfide could be involved in the beneficial action of onions.
Article
Yard waste compost provides an organic amendment useful for improving soil structure and nutrient status. The activities of the enzymes hydrolyzing urea (urease) and sucrose (invertase) in the rhizosphere of potato plants were determined under field conditions. Soil urease and invertase activities were monitored in compost amended soil, grass buffer strips, and in adjacent bare soils during 35 d following soil treatment. Soil urease activity was increased by application of yard waste compost compared to untreated soil which provide evidence of increased soil microbial population following application of compost. Some transitional effects on urease activities were observed following Pyrethrins and Neemix-4E application, these effects were neither drastic nor prolonged enough to be considered deleterious to the soil microorganisms and their activities important to soil fertility. No relationship was found between invertase activity and the three management practices or soil organic matter content. It is suggested that application of botanical insecticides like pyrethrins and Neemix-4E may be useful in delaying urea fertilizer mineralization to maintain N in a form less leachable, so that the duration of N availability to plants is prolonged. The present study may also provide information on urease activity as a sensitive bioindicator of soil quality that reflects the effects of land management on soil quality and may assist land managers in monitoring long-term productivity and sustainability of agricultural lands.
Article
The Allium genus includes approximately 500 species. Commonly used allium vegetables include garlic, onion, leeks, chives, scallions which are used all over the world in different delicacies. Some allium vegetables have been employed for millenia in the traditional medical practice to treat cardiovascular diseases. They have been shown to have applications as antimicrobial, antithrombotic, antitumor, hypolipidaemic, antiarthritic and hypoglycemic agents. In recent years, extensive research has focused on the anticarcinogenic potential of allium vegetables and their constituents, viz., allylsulfides and flavonoids (particularly quercetin which is present abundantly in onion). Epidemiological studies have shown that higher intake of allium products is associated with reduced risk of several types of cancers. These epidemiological findings are well correlated with laboratory investigations. Organosulfur compounds present in Allium vegetables, are considered to be responsible for the beneficial effects of these herbs. Several mechanisms have been proposed to explain the cancer-preventive effects of Allium vegetables and related organosulfur compounds. These include inhibition of mutagenesis, modulation of enzyme activities, inhibition of DNA adduct formation, free-radical scavenging, and effects on cell proliferation and tumor growth. Although there is a large body of evidence supporting these mechanisms, they are still speculative, and further research is needed to support causality between such properties and cancer-preventive activity in experimental animals. This article reviews current knowledge concerning allium vegetables and cancer prevention.
Article
A field study was conducted on a Lowell silty loam soil of 2.7% organic matter at the Kentucky State University Research Farm, Franklin County, Kentucky. Eighteen universal soil loss equation (USLE) standard plots (22 x 3.7 m each) were established on a 10% slope. Three soil management practices were used: (i) class-A biosolids (sewage sludge), (ii) yard waste compost, each mixed with native soil at a rate of 50 ton acre(-1) on a dry-weight basis, and (iii) a no-mulch (NM) treatment (rototilled bare soil), used for comparison purposes. Devrinol 50-DF "napropamide" [N,N-diethyl-2-(1-naphthyloxy) propionamide] was applied as a preemergent herbicide, incorporated into the soil surface, and the plots were planted with 60-day-old sweet bell pepper seedlings. Napropamide residues one hour following spraying averaged 0.8, 0.4, and 0.3 microg g(-1) dry soil in sewage sludge, yard waste compost, and no-mulch treatments, respectively. Surface runoff water, runoff sediment, and napropamide residues in runoff were significantly reduced by the compost and biosolid treatments. Yard waste compost treatments increased water infiltration and napropamide residues in the vadose zone compared to sewage sludge and NM treatments. Total pepper yields from yard waste compost amended soils (9187 lbs acre(-1)) was significantly higher (P < 0.05) than yield from either the soil amended with class-A biosolids (6984 lbs acre(-1)) or the no-mulch soil (7162 lbs acre(-1)).
Article
Poultry litter (PL) is used as fertilizer on agricultural lands because of its high nutrient content. However, the litter also contains trace elements such as As, Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn. On land application of PL, these trace elements may be absorbed by crops, leach into groundwater, or enter the aquatic system as run-off. The objective of this research was to study the effect of the addition of montmorillonite clay-mineral (CM) in reducing the release of trace elements from PL. Cd, Cu, and Zn showed significant decreases of 29, 34, and 22%, respectively, in PL aqueous leachate (compared with the control-PL without CM) on mixing with 0.05 g CM but no change in As, Co, and Cr concentrations was observed. Lead showed a significant increase in PL aqueous leachate on mixing with 0.2 g CM but Pb concentration was two orders of magnitude less than in CM aqueous leachate alone. On washing, the settled precipitate (PL+CM) in the centrifuge tubes with water (desorption study) most of the adsorbed metals (Cd 85%, Cu 61%, and Zn 100%) were released. The results of this study show that the addition of CM resulted in significant adsorption of Cd and Cu from PL.
Article
Agricultural use of organic residues offers an attractive method for their safe disposal and a valuable source of organic amendments and nutrients. A field experiment was conducted to investigate the influences of 0, 25, 50 and 100 t/ha spent mushroom compost (SMC), forced aeration compost (FAC) and inorganic fertilizer on soil properties and yield of barley (Hordeum vulgare). The considered soil properties (0-15 cm), after a growing season, included pH, EC, available P, Kjeldahl N, available cations, DTPA extractable elements, soil OC content, and bulk density and grain yield was also determined. Application of organic materials increased organic status of the soil and nutrient content. The effectiveness of the two composts on improving the productivity of the soil varied. SMC produced strongest correlations between soil nutrient levels and plant yield. Neither compost raised soil copper and zinc to levels that were of concern and high application rates decreased iron content.
Land application of poul-try litter. The Ohio State University Fact Sheet
  • J W Johnson
  • D J Eckert
Johnson, J.W.; Eckert, D.J. Land application of poul-try litter. The Ohio State University Fact Sheet, 2008, ANR-4-98. http://ohioline.osu.edu/anr-fact/0004.html (accessed October 2008).
Quantification of copper and other minerals in poultry manure produced in the State of Yucatan
  • J A Pacheco
  • J L Rosciano
  • W A Villegas
  • V M Alcocer
Pacheco, J.A.; Rosciano, J.L.; Villegas, W.A.; Alcocer, V.M.; Castel-lanos, A.F. Quantification of copper and other minerals in poultry manure produced in the State of Yucatan, Mexico. Tec. Pecu. Mex. 2003, 41, 197–207.
http://www.shivaexportsindia. com/essential-oils/Onion-Esseential-Oil.htm
  • Shiva
  • India
Shiva Exports India, 2005–2007. http://www.shivaexportsindia. com/essential-oils/Onion-Esseential-Oil.htm (accessed October 2008).
Effects of metal-contaminated organic wastes on microbial biomass and activities: A review
  • K Chakrabarti
  • P Bhatacharya
  • A Chakraborty
Chakrabarti, K.; Bhatacharya, P.; Chakraborty, A. Effects of metal-contaminated organic wastes on microbial biomass and activities: A review. In Heavy Metal Contamination of Soil, Ahmed, I., Hayat, S., Pichtel, J., Eds.; Since Publishers: Plymouth, UK, 2005; p 195–204.
  • Jackson B. P.