Konstantinidou V, Covas MI, Muñoz-Aguayo D, Khymenets O, de la Torre R, Saez G, et al. In vivo nutrigenomic effects of virgen olive oil polyphenols within the frame of the Mediterranean diet: a randomized controlled trial. FASEB

Cardiovascular Risk and Nutrition Research Group, Institut Municipal d'Investigació Mèdica (IMIM-Hospital del Mar), Centro de Investigación Biomédica Eu Red (CIBER) de Fisiopatología de la Obesidad y Nutrición, Barcelona, Spain.
The FASEB Journal (Impact Factor: 5.04). 02/2010; 24(7):2546-57. DOI: 10.1096/fj.09-148452
Source: PubMed


The aim of the study was to assess whether benefits associated with the traditional Mediterranean diet (TMD) and virgin olive oil (VOO) consumption could be mediated through changes in the expression of atherosclerosis-related genes. A randomized, parallel, controlled clinical trial in healthy volunteers (n=90) aged 20 to 50 yr was performed. Three-month intervention groups were as follows: 1) TMD with VOO (TMD+VOO), 2) TMD with washed virgin olive oil (TMD+WOO), and 3) control with participants' habitual diet. WOO was similar to VOO, but with a lower polyphenol content (55 vs. 328 mg/kg, respectively). TMD consumption decreased plasma oxidative and inflammatory status and the gene expression related with both inflammation [INF-gamma (INFgamma), Rho GTPase-activating protein15 (ARHGAP15), and interleukin-7 receptor (IL7R)] and oxidative stress [adrenergic beta(2)-receptor (ADRB2) and polymerase (DNA-directed) kappa (POLK)] in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. All effects, with the exception of the decrease in POLK expression, were particularly observed when VOO, rich in polyphenols, was present in the TMD dietary pattern. Our results indicate a significant role of olive oil polyphenols in the down-regulation of proatherogenic genes in the context of a TMD. In addition, the benefits associated with a TMD and olive oil polyphenol consumption on cardiovascular risk can be mediated through nutrigenomic effects.

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    • "Hence, it is possible that mechanisms may rely on vascular pathways, although this interpretation remains speculative. Moreover, the beneficial effect of the MeDi on vascular risk factors (e.g., lipid profile, blood pressure, insulin resistance, adiposity, inflammation, and oxidative stress [42] [43] [44] [45] [46] [47]) is well established. So overall, there is a strong biological plausibility for a role of the MeDi in preserving brain vascular health. "
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    ABSTRACT: The Mediterranean diet (MeDi) has been related to a lower risk of Alzheimer's disease; yet, the underlying mechanisms are unknown. We hypothesized that protection against neurodegeneration would translate into higher gray matter volumes, whereas a specific association with preserved white matter microstructure would suggest alternative mechanisms (e.g., vascular pathways). We included 146 participants from the Bordeaux Three-City study nondemented when they completed a dietary questionnaire and who underwent a 3-T magnetic resonance imaging at an average of 9 years later, including diffusion tensor imaging. In multivariate voxel-by-voxel analyses, adherence to the MeDi was significantly associated with preserved white matter microstructure in extensive areas, a gain in structural connectivity that was related to strong cognitive benefits. In contrast, we found no relation with gray matter volumes. The MeDi appears to benefit brain health through preservation of structural connectivity. Potential mediation by a favorable impact on brain vasculature deserves further research. Copyright © 2015 The Alzheimer's Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2015 · Alzheimer's & dementia: the journal of the Alzheimer's Association
    • "Also for these reasons, research on the anti-inflammatory properties of natural compounds is particularly active and has led to substantiate with some molecular details the already documented efficacy of EVOO and of its phenolic component in this respect. For example, significant reductions in serum leukotriene B4 and thromboxane B2 concentrations at 2 and 6 h after consumption of EVOO, but not after consumption of either olive oil or corn oil (both poor in phenols) were observed (Bogani et al. 2007); a three-month intervention with a MD characterised by EVOO as the main source of fats determined a decrease in the expression of inflammation related genes (INF-γ, Rho GTPase-activating protein-15 and interleukin-7 receptor) higher than that coming from the adoption of a MD containing an olive oil poor in phenols (Konstantinidou et al. 2010); 50 µM OLE (a concentration that was supposed to be reached in plasma by individuals consuming an EVOO-rich diet) inhibited tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) induced matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9) expression and secretion in THP-1 human monocytic leukaemia cells by impairing NF-κB -mediated genes transcription (Dell'Agli et al. 2010); similar oleuropein and HT concentrations inhibited PMA-stimulated COX-2 and MMP-9 expression and activities thus reducing inflammatory angiogenesis in cultured endothelial cells (Scoditti et al. 2012); in this case too a reduction in the ROS-sensitive NF-κB transactivation was observed. However, the opposite result was obtained in a different cell type (embryonic kidney HEK293 cells stably expressing APP) where oleuropein seemed to increase MMP-9 gelatinolytic activity in the culture medium (Kostomoiri et al. 2013). "
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    ABSTRACT: Amyloid diseases are characterized by the deposition of typically aggregated proteins/peptides in tissues, associated with degeneration and progressive functional impairment. Alzheimer's disease is one of the most studied neurodegenerative amyloid diseases and, in Western countries, a significant cause of dementia in the elderly. The so-called "Mediterranean diet" has been considered for long as the healthier dietary regimen, characterised by a great abundance in vegetables and fruits, extra virgin olive oil as the main source of fat, a moderate consumption of red wine and a reduced intake of proteins from red meat. Recent epidemiological studies support the efficacy of the Mediterranean diet not only against cardiovascular and cancer diseases (as previously demonstrated) but also against the cognitive decline associated with ageing, and several data are highlighting the role played by natural phenols, of which red wine and extra virgin olive oil are rich, in such context. In the meantime, studies conducted both in vivo and in vitro have started to reveal the great potential of the phenolic component of extra virgin olive oil (mainly oleuropein aglycone and oleocanthal) in counteracting amyloid aggregation and toxicity, with a particular emphasis on the pathways involved in the onset and progression of Alzheimer's disease: amyloid precursor protein processing, amyloid-beta (Aβ) peptide and tau aggregation, autophagy impairment, neuroinflammation. The aim of this review is to summarize the results of such research efforts, showing how the action of these phenols goes far beyond their renowned antioxidant activity and revealing their potential as multi-targeting agents against Alzheimer's disease.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2015 · Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
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    • "In a separate controlled clinical trial of 90 healthy volunteers, a separate group measured the effects of a traditional MD with virgin olive oil or with washed olive oil (i.e., reduced phenolic content). Compared with a control diet, both of the MDs decreased oxidative and inflammatory plasma markers and affected the expression of genes involved in inflammation and oxidative stress; enhanced effects were seen in the high polyphenol group, and the authors concluded that the olive oil polyphenols had a significant role in the downregulation of proatherogenic genes in the context of a traditional Mediterranean diet [45] "
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    ABSTRACT: The Mediterranean diet is recognized as one of the most healthy in the world, and variations of it seem to be the most successful nutritional regimens for reducing cardiovascular risk factors. But what is the Mediterranean diet? Is it the same for everyone? The answer to the first question is exhaustively treated by other contributors to this book. To answer the second question, this chapter looks at recent nutrigenomic research applied to the Mediterranean diet. It is divided into three sections: (1) nutrigenetics, the use of the Mediterranean diet to neutralize potentially negative effects of some common genetic variants; (2) nutrigenetics, individual differences in the response to the Mediterranean diet; and (3) nutrigenomics, the effects of the Mediterranean diet on gene expression.
    Full-text · Chapter · Nov 2014
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