Article

Do African American Mothers Really "Love" Their Sons and "Raise" Their Daughters?

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Abstract

This study assessed 1500 adolescents from the National Longitudinal Study of Youth to test the hypothesis that African American mothers differentially socialize their girls and boys. The results showed that later-born boys had fewer chores, argued more with their mothers, lived in less cognitively stimulating homes, and were not allowed to make the same decisions as were the girls or firstborn boys at the same age. The later-born boys were also lowest in achievement and highest in externalizing behaviors. Parenting differences accounted for the achievement differences but not for the externalizing behavior differences. It was concluded that the later-born boys would achieve at the same rates as their siblings if they were socialized in the same manner as their siblings.

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... Despite evidence of links between cognitive stimulation in the home and adolescent academic achievement, very little research has focused on cognitive stimulation in the home as a predictor of academic achievement specifically for African American adolescents. In a cross-sectional study of African American children (10 to 14 years), cognitive stimulation in the home was positively related to achievement test scores (Mandara et al. 2010). In a longitudinal study of children from a wider age range (0 to 13 years), cognitive stimulation in the home was related to academic test scores for African American children and the strength of this relationship was consistent across age groups (Bradley et al. 2001). ...
... A dearth of studies has focused on gender differences with regard to parental involvement in the education of African American adolescent sons and daughters. There is evidence from a study of 10 to 14 year old African American children that girls experience more cognitive stimulation than boys (Mandara et al. 2010). Previous studies that focused on punitive and nonpunitive responses to grades have examined racial differences in parental responses but have not examined how mothers respond to inadequate grades on the part of girls compared to boys (Robinson and Harris 2013;Tang and Davis-Kean 2015). ...
... Punitive parenting and punitive disciplinary strategies, more broadly, are associated with negative socioemotional adjustment outcomes for children and youth (Robinson and Harris 2013;Roche et al. 2007Roche et al. , 2011Tang and Davis-Kean 2015). Although little attention has been paid to cognitive stimulation in the home and its relation to academic achievement for African American adolescents, the broader literature points to salutary effects for younger children (Ansari and Gershoff 2016;Powell et al. 2012), and a small number of studies have also suggested benefits for adolescents (Longo et al. 2017;Mandara et al. 2010;Tang and Davis-Kean 2015). Therefore, cognitive stimulation in the home is expected to be positively associated with academic achievement for African American adolescents. ...
Article
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Parental involvement in education has generally been shown to foster adolescent academic achievement, yet little is known about whether two important forms of parental involvement—how parents respond to academic underachievement and how parents provide cognitive stimulation in the home—are related to academic achievement for African American adolescents. This study uses two waves of data to evaluate whether these forms of parental involvement are related to future academic achievement for low-income African American adolescents and whether there are gender differences in these associations. African American mothers and adolescents (N = 226; 48% girls) were interviewed when adolescents were ages 14 and 16. Mothers of girls reported higher mean levels of punitive responses to grades than mothers of boys, but child gender did not moderate associations between parental involvement and academic achievement. Cognitive stimulation in the home was related to changes in academic achievement from 14 to 16 years of age, controlling for age 14 academic achievement. This study provides evidence that nonpunitive responses to inadequate grades and cognitive stimulation at home are linked to academic achievement among African American adolescents.
... Fathers' claims regarding the permissiveness of mothers are supported by self-report and observational studies which document mothers' differential treatment of her children based on gender (Gryczkowski, Jordan, & Mercer, 2010;Mandara, Murray, Telesford, Varner, & Richman, 2012;Mandara, Varner, & Richman, 2010). It is also consistent with some African Americans' belief that mothers "raise" their daughters and "love" their sons (Mandara et al., 2010). ...
... Fathers' claims regarding the permissiveness of mothers are supported by self-report and observational studies which document mothers' differential treatment of her children based on gender (Gryczkowski, Jordan, & Mercer, 2010;Mandara, Murray, Telesford, Varner, & Richman, 2012;Mandara, Varner, & Richman, 2010). It is also consistent with some African Americans' belief that mothers "raise" their daughters and "love" their sons (Mandara et al., 2010). This belief is further supported by research on African American families that demonstrates that mothers are less demanding of their sons and have lower expectations for their sons' participation in chores and academic achievement, compared with daughters (Mandara et al., 2012;Mandara et al., 2010). ...
... It is also consistent with some African Americans' belief that mothers "raise" their daughters and "love" their sons (Mandara et al., 2010). This belief is further supported by research on African American families that demonstrates that mothers are less demanding of their sons and have lower expectations for their sons' participation in chores and academic achievement, compared with daughters (Mandara et al., 2012;Mandara et al., 2010). African American mothers' decreased levels of demands from and expectations of their sons was related to increased arguments between sons and mothers, and increased externalizing behaviors among later-born sons, compared with first-born sons and daughters (Mandara et al., 2010). ...
Article
Current descriptions of coparenting (i.e., shared decision making between parents and the coordination of parenting activities; Feinberg, 2002; McHale & Kuersten-Hogan, 2004) often are not informed by diverse cultural or family contexts, or by the perspectives of fathers. One group that has been notably absent in the coparenting literature is African American fathers. We conducted semistructured, qualitative interviews with 30 African American fathers (28-60 years of age) of a preadolescent, biological son at-risk for depression, aggression, or both. Informed by grounded theory, we systematically identified emergent themes in the data (Strauss & Corbin, 1998). Fathers provided descriptions of both positive and negative coparenting experiences, which were nuanced at times by their residential and marital status. The findings highlight the importance of gender-based parenting differences, fathers' belief in the importance of the father-son relationship, and the significance of discipline and communication as key coparenting domains for this sample of fathers. The framework presented here represents a critical step toward the advancement of coparenting conceptualizations that incorporate diverse cultures, nontraditional family types, and fathers. This framework is a starting point from which theoretical conceptualizations can be further developed. The findings challenge negative perceptions of African American fathers and highlight modifiable factors (e. g., communication) relevant for interventions that support African American fathers, youth, and families.
... These include one-toone parent-child interactions involving discussions that guide adolescents toward positive outcomes, as well as working with youths to teach skills that promote academic development and risk prevention (e.g., Bradley 1998;Hill and Tyson 2009;Hill et al. 2018;McHale et al. 2006). African-American parents also leverage their resources via provision strategies (e.g., buying learning materials and signing youths up for after-school activities), as well as the use of social connections and supports (e.g., extended kin and community; Francois et al. 2013;Jarrett et al. 2011;Mandara et al. 2010). African-American parents' regulatory strategies, such as monitoring and rule regulation, also play a large role in daily family life, especially for youths living in high-risk neighborhoods (Burton and Jarrett 2000;Gutman et al. 2002;Jarrett and Jefferson 2003;O'Donnell et al. 2012). ...
... One limitation in the field's understanding of African-American families, however, is that studies tend to only focus on a small number of parental beliefs and strategies, inviting questions as to whether studies have comprehensively captured all of the variety in parents' risk concerns and strategies to address different developmental goals (e.g., Cleveland et al. 2018;Gutman and McLoyd 2000;Hill et al. 2018;Mandara et al. 2010;Jarrett et al. 2011). Moreover, though hypothesized to be universal, studies focusing on a wide range of strategies have largely involved European-American families with younger children (e.g., Simpkins et al. 2015). ...
... Family scholars also pose differential child-rearing socialization patterns across adolescents' gender. A common adage within African-American communities is that "mothers love their sons and raise their daughters" (Mandara et al., 2010;McLoyd 1990). African-American parents monitor daughters more than sons (Cunningham and Swanson 2010;Varner and Mandara 2013), whereas they are less demanding but more supportive and validating towards sons than daughters (Mandara et al. 2010;Smetana et al. 2000). ...
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Parental socialization entails purposeful and goal-driven strategies that promote positive youth development and prevent youth-related risks and challenges. Guided by a family management perspective, we examined the variety in African-American mothers’ academic expectations and risk concerns for adolescents, and the parenting strategies they employ to address each of these beliefs. We also examined the associations between mothers’ beliefs and strategies, as well as variations across adolescent gender and socioeconomic status (SES). We used open-response data collected from 619 African-American mothers of eighth-graders from Prince George’s County, Maryland, varying in adolescent gender, maternal education, family income, and family structure. We systematically coded interview data and tabulated main categories, subcategories, and first-round codes. Then, we conducted multivariate regression analyses to examine the relations between academic expectations, risk concerns, socialization strategies, and socio-demographic characteristics. Overall, mothers held high academic expectations, perceived contextual and behavioral problems for adolescents, and reported strategies that positioned them as direct and positive socializers. When mothers reported concerns for underachievement, they had increased odds of providing necessary materials and services, holding discussions, and expressing negative reactions. Finally, adolescent gender and family SES predicted academic expectations and risk concerns, as well as parenting strategies. Our study highlights the importance for studies to consider the purposeful nature of parenting, as socialization strategies were linked to specific developmental goals. Our findings call for the development of measures that capture a wider range of parenting strategies and contextualize these strategies to parents’ aims.
... A popular adage in African American communities holds that African American mothers "love their sons and raise their daughters," which implies that African American mothers display more warmth toward sons and greater tolerance for their misbehavior, and give daughters more responsibilities and subject them to more rules and discipline (Mandara, Varner, and Richman, 2010;Stanik, Riina, and McHale, 2013). Scholars posit that gendered differential treatment is driven by the perception that African American boys need higher levels of protection and support because they are more vulnerable to dangers and risks and face steeper odds due to racism than African American girls (Hill, 2001;Hill and Zimmerman, 1995), but ironically may impede African American boys' development and contribute to gender gaps in behavioral adjustment and academic achievement (Mandara et al., 2010). ...
... A popular adage in African American communities holds that African American mothers "love their sons and raise their daughters," which implies that African American mothers display more warmth toward sons and greater tolerance for their misbehavior, and give daughters more responsibilities and subject them to more rules and discipline (Mandara, Varner, and Richman, 2010;Stanik, Riina, and McHale, 2013). Scholars posit that gendered differential treatment is driven by the perception that African American boys need higher levels of protection and support because they are more vulnerable to dangers and risks and face steeper odds due to racism than African American girls (Hill, 2001;Hill and Zimmerman, 1995), but ironically may impede African American boys' development and contribute to gender gaps in behavioral adjustment and academic achievement (Mandara et al., 2010). ...
... Hill and Zimmerman's (1995) in-depth interviews with lowincome African American mothers of children with sickle cell disease revealed that mothers of sons perceived their children as sicker, were more likely to restrict their activities, and invested more effort in taking care of them than did mothers of daughters. Mandara et al.'s (2010) investigation of single African American mothers and their adolescents, 50% of whom had income below the poverty threshold, also yielded findings that are congruent with the adage, if "love" is construed to mean lower levels of demandingness and not necessarily greater warmth and closeness. Youth gender interacted with birth order in predicting mothers' behaviors, consistent with evidence that parental treatment of children often depends on whether children are first or later born. ...
Chapter
This chapter begins with an overview of the broader context within which African American parenting occurs, with special attention to race-related economic and spatial dimensions and their linkage to historical and contemporary racism. It focuses on six domains of African American parenting such as behavioral control, discipline, emotion socialization, paternal involvement, parental involvement in education, and racial socialization. The chapter discusses implications of our current knowledge about African American parenting for future research, practice, and policy. African American parents bear the same responsibilities as European Americans for the survival, care, and upbringing of their children. African Americans are more likely to be rearing their children in the context of adverse economic conditions, single parenthood, significant neighborhood disadvantages, and less favorable employment conditions. A broader perspective on African American parents’ strong emphases on obedience, respect, and behavioral control is afforded by looking at other cultural groups that espouse similar emphases.
... Depending upon the gender of the child, parents may socialize their children differently (Brown et al., 2009). Girls experience different socialization from their parents compared with their brothers or later-born sisters; for example, girls have more chores, more responsibilities, and are monitored more closely (Mandara et al., 2010). Firstborn girls are perceived as more responsible and dependable than later-born siblings, and parents invest more time and resources toward their future success (Mandara et al., 2010). ...
... Girls experience different socialization from their parents compared with their brothers or later-born sisters; for example, girls have more chores, more responsibilities, and are monitored more closely (Mandara et al., 2010). Firstborn girls are perceived as more responsible and dependable than later-born siblings, and parents invest more time and resources toward their future success (Mandara et al., 2010). ...
Article
Black girls experience numerous challenges to their academic development. This study examines the literature from the last 30 years related to the influences on the academic talent development of school-aged Black girls. Environmental and intrapersonal influences to Black girls academic talent development are explored. Using a systematic approach, 43 articles are reviewed and summarized. Thematic analysis conducted on the results and findings sections from each article reveal four major themes related to personal attributes, racial identity, relationships, and institutions. The themes expand the understanding of the complexity of talent development of Black girls and identify several intrapersonal and environmental influences that can promote or hinder academic achievement. Implications for future research are discussed.
... Mandara and colleagues (2010) examined outcomes for 1,500 Black adolescents sampled from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth and reported that overall, Black boys who were not first-born were assigned fewer chores, exhibited more behavioral issues, argued more with their mothers, were less cognitively stimulated, were not held as accountable for decision making, and exhibited lower academic achievement than their Black sisters. While parenting style and differential socialization specifically accounted for the lower achievement (Mandara et al., 2010), it is clear that different socialization experiences for Black boys and girls influences, at least in part, outcomes for these children over time (Mandara et al., 2010). Also noteworthy is how the contrasting expectation that Black girls develop into Black women who are both stereotypically strong and allencompassing in their responsibility to the family unit is limiting to the healthy development of both Black boys and girls. ...
... Mandara and colleagues (2010) examined outcomes for 1,500 Black adolescents sampled from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth and reported that overall, Black boys who were not first-born were assigned fewer chores, exhibited more behavioral issues, argued more with their mothers, were less cognitively stimulated, were not held as accountable for decision making, and exhibited lower academic achievement than their Black sisters. While parenting style and differential socialization specifically accounted for the lower achievement (Mandara et al., 2010), it is clear that different socialization experiences for Black boys and girls influences, at least in part, outcomes for these children over time (Mandara et al., 2010). Also noteworthy is how the contrasting expectation that Black girls develop into Black women who are both stereotypically strong and allencompassing in their responsibility to the family unit is limiting to the healthy development of both Black boys and girls. ...
Article
Full-text available
This study reports the secondary analysis of a theme that emerged from a larger study on Black women’s perceptions of Black men’s depression. This emerging theme was concerning the role of Black women in rearing Black boys. Eight focus groups with Black women (N = 46) were used to further explore this theme. Our secondary analysis identified three subthemes, including the (a) presence (or absence) of fathers in parenting Black children, (b) Black women’s role in coddling Black boys, and (c) Black women’s role in “raising” Black girls. Study implications include the contextual lens that underscores parenting variations within Black families.
... Another possible explanation for this study finding for boys may stem from differential treatment by parents (Hill & Zimmerman, 1995;Mandara, Varner, & Richman, 2010;McLoyd, 1990). Perceived age constitutes an important determinant of how parents approach and interact with their children; this impression may be highly misleading as children enter puberty (e.g., Paikoff & Brooks-Gunn, 1992;Ruiselova, 1998). ...
... Specifically, the effect of pubertal status and pubertal timing (actual) on harm avoidance and physical symptoms was stronger for African American girls than it was for African American boys. African American mothers' and fathers' differential socialization of their sons' and daughters' may partially explain these findings (Hill & Zimmerman, 1995;Mandara & Murray, 2000;Mandara, Murray, & Joyner, 2005;Mandara et al., 2010;McLoyd, 1990;Wilson, 1992). African American mothers' tend to give their daughters' more responsibilities, expect them to stay closer to home, monitor their whereabouts more, have higher educational expectations, and are more demanding of them than they are of their sons'; whereas fathers tend to do the opposite with their daughters'. ...
Article
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This study examined the effects of pubertal status, pubertal timing (actual and perceived), and youth biological sex on symptom dimensions of anxiety (i.e., social, separation, harm avoidance, physical) in African Americans (n = 252; ages 8-12). For girls, results indicated that pubertal status and timing (actual) exerted similar effects for some symptom dimensions of anxiety but not others. Early pubertal timing predicted high levels of physical symptoms, whereas beginning puberty (i.e., no menarche, but either breasts or pubic hair growth) and early pubertal timing predicted high levels of harm avoidance. For boys, only perceived pubertal timing predicted high levels of social, separation, harm avoidance, and physical symptoms. Pubertal effects (status and timing [actual]) on harm avoidance and physical symptoms were stronger for girls than for boys. These findings extend the literature on anxiety in African American youth and may help identify novel, high-risk subgroups of this population for targeted prevention and intervention programs.
... However, African American girls consistently outperform African American boys on these assessments. The mathematics performance of African American girls although not consistently statistically significantly higher than African American boys does have practical significance because African American girls are the only female racial subgroup to consistently outperform their male counterparts (Mandara, Varner, & Richman, 2010). This phenomenon represents one explanation for the skewed representation in scholarship related to African American male achievement. ...
... African American girls mathematics identity is constructed through different socialization patterns. Mandara et al. (2010) suggest that this differential socialization accounts for the large achievement disparities between African American adolescent males and females. Despite these differences, studies that investigate the development of African American girls as mathematics learners remain elusive. ...
Chapter
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This chapter shares how mathematics teachers can engage African American girls in mathematics by considering the sociocultural influences of African American girls, in the context of the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics’ process standards and the common core mathematics standards. Verve, a dimension of African American culture is used a tool of cultural affirmation to contextualize and strengthen math instruction.
... This narrative of Black boys' vulnerability may have significant consequences for parents' socialization strategies and for boys' outcomes. For example, Mandara, Varner, and Richman (2010) found that Black parents are more demanding of their daughters than of their sons. The authors suggested that these higher behavioral expectations for daughters are due to parents' assumptions that girls are more capable than boys. ...
... It is not surprising, then, that later-born boys had significantly lower achievement than either firstborn boys and girls or later-born girls. Even among first-born girls and boys, girls were higher achieving and exhibited less externalizing behavior (Mandara et al., 2010). ...
Article
The discourse on Black boys tends to suggest that Black boys are in complete peril. We begin with evidence that Black boys are excelling in certain contexts (i.e., in certain states, in certain schools, and in certain courses). We then discuss the ways in which the narratives used by parents, teachers, and Black boys themselves may serve to further reinforce views that Black boys are beyond hope. Research on Black parents suggests that they tend to view their sons as vulnerable and have lower expectations for sons than for daughters. Studies of teachers show that they tend to view Black boys as unteachable, as social problems, and as scary. Research on Black boys shows that they are sometimes complicit in supporting these narratives by engaging in negative or ste reotypical behavior. We also include recent research that includes counter-narratives of Black boys. We end with suggestions for future research.
... Importantly, we found that conflict with both mothers and fathers was related to changes in academic functioning. This finding adds to the growing body of research regarding normative processes among African American families (Mandara, Varner, & Richman, 2010;Smetana, 2000) and the inclusion of fathers in research (Caldwell et al., 2004;Cooper, 2009;Parke, 2000). Further, incorporating both parent and adolescent reports of warmth, we found that adolescents' perceptions of warmth were more predictive of academic functioning than were parents' perceptions of warmth. ...
... In addition, this study demonstrated the important role of family relationships as they relate to changes in academic trajectories. With some exceptions (Caldwell et al., 2004;Cooper, 2009;Mandara et al., 2010;Smetana, 2000) there is very little research on parent-adolescent relationship quality among African American families, and our study makes an important contribution by connecting changes in relationship quality to adolescents' academic adjustment. Gender Differences in School Self-Esteem Growth Trajectory Note. ...
Article
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This study explored trajectories of African American youths' academic functioning and assessed whether changes in parent–adolescent relationships were associated with changes in youths' academic functioning. The data were drawn from a 3-year longitudinal study of gender socialization and development in two-parent African American families and included 197 families. Findings revealed gender differences in achievement trajectories and indicated that boys not only had lower levels of academic achievement compared to girls, but also experienced steeper declines in school self-esteem during adolescence. Changes in parent–adolescent relationship quality were linked to changes in academic functioning: Increases in conflict were related to decreases in GPA, school bonding, and school self-esteem and increases in warmth were related to increases in school bonding and school self-esteem.
... For instance, girls reported higher levels of restriction from social activities (e.g., establishing curfews on school evenings) and privileges (e.g., getting a license) when their mother and father endorsed more traditional gender role attitudes. Similarly, Mandara et al. (2010) found that African American mothers also developed relationships with their adolescents that reflected traditional gender role attitudes: Mothers gave their daughters more responsibilities and monitored their activities more. Additionally, results supported the hypothesis that differences in girls' and boys' academic achievement would be explained by mothers' differential socialization practices: Boys had lower levels of achievement because mothers delegated boys fewer responsibilities and monitored their activities less frequently. ...
... These associations were not found to vary by youths' gender, indicating that the effect of mothers' warmth on parenting practices in predicting academic outcomes was the same for boys and girls. Although prior research has found that ethnic minority mothers' differential treatment of girls and boys explained differences in youths' outcomes (e.g., Mandara et al. 2010), the results from the current investigation support a more gender neutral perspective on mothers' socialization of minority youth (Hill 1999;Martin 2005). This rationale is supported by results from a study by McHale et al. (1999), which found that contrary to the hypotheses, mothers' gender role attitudes did not explain differences in youths' sex-typed behaviors. ...
Article
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Guided by the integrative model of parenting, the present study investigated the relationship between parental monitoring and racial/ethnic minority adolescents' school engagement and academic motivation as a function of parental warmth, and explored whether these associations varied for boys and girls. Participants (60 % female) were 208 sixth through eighth grade students (63 % African American, 19 % Latino, 18 % Multiracial) from an urban middle school in the Midwestern United States. Youth completed an in-school survey with items on parenting (parental monitoring, mothers'/fathers' warmth), cognitive engagement (school self-esteem), behavioral engagement (school trouble), and academic motivation (intrinsic motivation). As hypothesized, mothers' warmth enhanced the association between parental monitoring and youths' engagement and motivation. No gender differences in these associations emerged. Fathers' warmth strengthened the negative association between parental monitoring and school trouble, and this association was stronger for boys. Implications regarding the importance of sustaining a high level of monitoring within the context of warm parent-adolescent relationships to best support academic outcomes among minority youth are discussed.
... Furthermore, many socialization practices are highly dependent on gender (Raley & Bianchi, 2006). Consequently, research consistently concludes that differences in socialization lead to differential achievement outcomes for Black boys and girls (Annunziata et al., 2006;; Kapungu et al., 2006;; Mandara, Varner, & Richman, 2010). These differences affect student success across the entire achievement spectrum. ...
Article
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Black girls are unique K-­12 learners that bring specific funds of knowledge to the reading classroom. These experiential learning tools are underutilized as pedagogical scaffolds -­ apparent by the consistent challenges Black children present on national assessments. This study showcases a single group summary of the achievement of Black girls in 4th grade reading over a decade of NAEP administrations. The achievement results of 25,527 Black girls suggest that despite the consistent rhetoric of underachievement from 2003 to 2013 Black girls have made statistically significant gains. Based on the specific achievement gains and growth patterns of Black girls, the study provides strength based recommendations for teachers, families, and Black girls to spark a reading revolution -­ one book and one girl at a time.
... Although these findings cannot be generalized to a healthy sample, the authors suggested that small size and physical disability were viewed by mothers as more debilitating for boys than girls in the context of greater constraints on the adult roles of African American men. Finally, Mandara, Varner, and Richman (2010) found evidence of an interaction between youth gender and birth order for mothers' behaviors; compared to second-born daughters, second-born sons had fewer responsibilities, less cognitive stimulation, and more mother -child conflict. ...
Article
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Using multi-informant data from 134 two-parent African American families, the goals of this study were to (a) describe parent - adolescent warmth and shared time as a function of parent and youth gender and (b) assess links between these indices of relationship quality and adolescent adjustment. Mixed-model ANCOVAs revealed that mothers reported warmer relationships with adolescents than fathers, and both parents reported warmer relationships with younger versus older offspring. Interparental differences in time spent with sons and daughters and older and younger siblings were also found. Tests of multilevel models indicated that greater maternal warmth was associated with fewer depressive symptoms and less risky behavior for sons, and more paternal warmth and shared time with fathers were associated with less risky behavior in youth. Discussion highlights the utility of cultural ecological and family systems perspectives for understanding parent-adolescent relationships and youth adjustment in African American families.
... Using a sample from diverse socioeconomic and community settings, Varner and Mandara (2013) found that gender differences in parents' academic expectations for their children, level of conflict, and parent-child communication accounted for gender differences in academic achievement favoring girls. In a second study that used a national sample of early adolescents, Mandara, Varner, and Richman (2010) found that gender and birth order differences in parenting (e.g., cognitive stimulation, decision making, rules) explained achievement differences. More specifically, first-born girls had the highest achievement test scores, whereas later born boys-who lived in less cognitively stimulating homes, were given fewer household chores, and who had less latitude in decision making-had the lowest achievement. ...
Article
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Using the organizing framework of Ruble, Martin, and Berenbaum (2006), we summarized literature on gender development in African American youth within six content areas: biological/categorical sex, activities and interests, personal-social attributes, social relationships, styles and symbols, and values regarding gender. Results with African Americans were compared with what is known about gender processes in other U.S. racial groups, and gaps in the literature were noted. Finally, we summarized the literature on socialization influences on gender development in African American youth, focusing particularly on parents and media. Our review shows that gender, along with race, plays a significant role in the development of African American youth, with many of these processes similar to what is found in youth of other racial/ethnic groups. Contextual factors such as family structure and racial context are important to take into account to best understand individual differences in the gender development of Black youth.
... For purposes of the current study, child gender was treated as a control variable, however, parenting practices (Hill, 2006;Mandara, Varner, & Richman, 2010) and conduct problems (Deater-Deckard & Dodge, 1997;Florsheim, Tolan, & Gorman-Smith, 1996) have been shown to vary by gender. An extension of this work could be to assess the differences within externalizing problems between ethnic minority boys and girls, given differences in parenting and experience with discrimination (Brody et al., 2006). ...
Article
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The relationship between racial discrimination, parental functioning, and child adjustment is not well understood. The goal of the present study was to assess parental reports of discrimination in relation to depression and parenting practices, as well as on subsequent child internalizing and externalizing problems in low-income Black families. Data include a subsample of the Early Steps project, a multisite longitudinal study of financial and behaviorally at-risk families. Structural equation modeling was used to analyze our hypothesized model. Excellent model fit was established after removing externalizing problems from the model. As predicted, indirect associations were found from discrimination to parental depression, parenting, and child internalizing problems; and direct associations were found from discrimination to child internalizing problems. The results are consistent with findings suggesting that discrimination is negatively associated with adult well-being; moreover, contribute to the sparse literature on the effects of discrimination beyond the direct recipient. Finally, that parent discrimination was directly associated with child emotional problems suggests the continued need to address and treat discriminatory practices more generally.
... However, it is also the case that a child's characteristics impact the parenting practices of mother and fathers (Belsky, 1984). For instance, a child's weight status, gender, birth order, and other individual traits influence parents behavior toward offspring (Mandara, Varner, & Richman, 2010;McHale, Updegraff, Jackson-Newsom, Tucker, & Crouter, 2000;. We posit that the same may be true for skin tone. ...
Article
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Racism has historically been a primary source of discrimination against African Americans, but there has been little research on the role that skin tone plays in explaining experiences with racism. Similarly, colorism within African American families and the ways in which skin tone influences family processes is an understudied area of research. Using data from a longitudinal sample of African American families (n = 767), we assessed whether skin tone impacted experiences with discrimination or was related to differences in quality of parenting and racial socialization within families. Findings indicated no link between skin tone and racial discrimination, which suggests that lightness or darkness of skin does not either protect African Americans from or exacerbate the experiences of discrimination. On the other hand, families displayed preferential treatment toward offspring based on skin tone, and these differences varied by gender of child. Specifically, darker skin sons received higher quality parenting and more racial socialization promoting mistrust compared to their counterparts with lighter skin. Lighter skin daughters received higher quality parenting compared with those with darker skin. In addition, gender of child moderated the association between primary caregiver skin tone and racial socialization promoting mistrust. These results suggest that colorism remains a salient issue within African American families. Implications for future research, prevention, and intervention are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).
... Indeed, in the article by Nelson et al. (2012), African American mothers of boys perceived the most negative consequences for the display of their children's negative emotions compared to European American mothers, perhaps leading them to engage in emotion socialization practices aimed at discouraging signs of weakness in male children. Alternatively, it may be that African American mothers are more likely to ignore their boys' emotional reactions rather than respond in any explicit way, or that they devote more of their effort and energy to socializing girls than boys (Mandara, Varner, & Richman, 2010). ...
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Objective: This study examined ethnicity (African American, European American, and Lumbee American Indian) and child gender as moderators of gender differences in parents' emotion socialization behaviors. Design: Mothers and fathers from two samples responded to questionnaires assessing self-expressiveness in the family (N=196) or reactions to children's negative emotions (N=299). Results: Differences between mothers and fathers varied as a function of ethnicity. Mothers and fathers showed similar levels of negative expressiveness in European American and African American families, whereas fathers were more negatively expressive than mothers in Lumbee families. Mothers reported more supportive reactions than fathers among European Americans and Lumbees, but African American mothers and fathers reported nearly equal levels of supportive reactions. Parent gender x ethnicity interactions were further moderated by child gender. Mothers were generally more supportive of girls' negative emotions than fathers across all ethnicities. For boys, however, parent gender differences in supportive reactions to negative emotions varied by ethnicity. Mothers were more supportive than fathers among European American parents of boys, but mothers were less supportive than fathers among African American parents of boys. Conclusions: Results highlight the contextualized nature of emotion socialization, and the need to consider ethnicity and child gender as influences on mothers' and fathers' gender-specific emotion socialization.
... 37 in addition, it has been suggested African-American parents socialize youth differently based on the child's sex, with more demands being placed on girls than boys (e.g., greater monitoring, higher educational expectations). 38,39 evidence supports the effect of differential socialization of boys versus girls on youth health behaviors. 30,[40][41][42] in one qualitative study, African-American girls reported receiving more emotional and negative support (e.g., being required to take care of and play outside with siblings) from parents for PA than boys, who reported receiving more tangible support. ...
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Background: Given the cultural and developmental relevance of family members and peers in the lives of African-American adolescents, the present study used a bioecological framework to qualitatively explore the parenting context as well as specific family factors (support, rules, monitoring) and peer factors (support) related to weight status, physical activity (PA), and healthy eating in low-income African-American boys versus girls. Methods: Qualitative data were obtained from African-American adolescents through focus groups. Adolescents (n = 45, 100% African American, 51% girls, 12.6 ± 1.2 years, 51% overweight/obese) were from two underserved communities in South Carolina (median income ≈$17,000-$22,000, high crime levels). Sessions were audiotaped, transcribed, and coded by independent pairs of raters (r = 0.75). QSR NVivo 8 was used to analyze data, and themes were categorized separately for boys and girls. Results: Adolescents reported themes of family warmth and control practices consistent with an authoritative style of parenting. Although adolescents wanted increased autonomy, they viewed parental monitoring as a favorable part of their relationship. Boys reported receiving more constructive feedback from parents about weight status and greater overall support for PA and diet than did girls. Girls reported more honest feedback from peers about weight status than did boys. Overall, adolescents acknowledged the unique opportunities of parents and peers in improving their health behaviors. Conclusions: Findings suggest parents and peers interact in different ways with African-American boys and girls regarding their weight status and health behaviors. Future obesity prevention efforts in minority youth may need to target parenting skills that provide greater support to African-American girls. In addition, given peers influence PA and diet differently in boys and girls, interventions should strategically include parenting strategies that involve monitoring peer-adolescent interactions.
... As a result, it may be that parents are more vigilant in the parenting of their daughters. Another explanation for this double standard may be partially explained by Mandara et al.'s (2010) suggestion that a possible cause for the high rates of African American male drug use, risky sexual behavior, and conduct problems compared with their sisters may be partly due to their mothers' strict parenting (e.g., monitoring, etc.) of daughters but not sons. Given these gender differences, preventative intervention programs should help parents navigate their parenting behaviors in a way that is consistent for sons and daughters. ...
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Research has documented a negative relationship between religion and risky sexual behavior. Few studies, however, have examined the processes whereby religion exerts this effect. The present study develops and tests a model of various mechanisms whereby parental religiosity reduces the likelihood of adolescents' participation in risky sexual behavior (early sexual debut, multiple sexual partners, and inconsistent condom use). Structural equation modeling, using longitudinal data from a sample of 612 African American adolescents (55% female), provided support for the model. The results indicated that parental religiosity influenced adolescent risky sexual behavior through its impact on authoritative parenting, adolescent religiosity, and adolescent affiliation with less sexually permissive peers. Some mediating mechanisms differed by the gender of the respondent, suggesting a "double-standard" for daughters but not for sons. Findings also indicated the importance of messages about sexual behavior that are transmitted to adolescents by their peers. Theoretical and policy implications of the findings are discussed.
... Alternatively, parents described the need for fostering independence of male children. Existing research demonstrates that among African-American children, later-born sons reported fewer household responsibilities and less monitoring than later-born girls (Mandara et al. 2010); however, little is known about differences in parenting practices with sons and daughters involved in the CWS. Despite the described need for more strict parenting practices for daughters, parents also noted that disciplining daughters was a particularly difficult parenting task for fathers. ...
Article
Existing research demonstrates that parent and child gender may influence important aspects of family relationships; however, most research in this area has been conducted with non-clinical samples. As clinicians, it is important to consider how gender impacts family relationships, particularly among vulnerable families. This study examined the intersections of gender role attitudes and parenting practices among 34 parents involved with the child welfare system and referred for clinical intervention. Using a mixed methods design, themes regarding gender role beliefs and parenting practices were found through qualitative interviews with parents. Findings suggested that fathers felt responsible for financially providing for their families and expressed challenges in communicating with mothers, and mothers described challenges they face because of a lack of father involvement. Parents also discussed a perceived need to monitor daughters closely while fostering the independence of their sons. Results of the qualitative analyses were supported by quantitative findings indicating significant differences in harsh and inconsistent discipline practices and clear expectations for girls compared to boys. The discussion addresses implications for clinicians, including how a feminist family therapy perspective may help promote client influence over traditional gender norms by questioning gender role attitudes and exploring alternate narratives that may impact family dynamics.
... Furthermore, many socialization practices are highly dependent on gender (Raley & Bianchi, 2006). Consequently, research consistently concludes that differences in socialization lead to differential achievement outcomes for Black male and female students (Annunziata, Hogue, Faw, & Liddle, 2006;Kapungu, Holmbeck, & Paikoff, 2006;Mandara, Varner, & Richman, 2010). These differences affect student success across the entire achievement spectrum. ...
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The purpose of this study was to utilize an ethnically homogeneous design to examine Black female student U.S. History content-specific knowledge. The study aims to elucidate the importance of single-group analyses as an alternative to between-group comparative designs. The present study utilized a critical, quantitative, descriptive research design to examine the achievement of Black girls in U.S. History from a strength-based and growth-focused perspective. The study contributes to the literature on Black girls' achievement by applying a quantitative approach to intersectional research. This study utilized two subsamples of Black 8 th grade girls from the 2006 and 2010 National Assessment of Educational Progress (N = 4,490). Mean differences in Black girls' specialized U.S. History content knowledge were assessed using both descriptive statistics and an analysis of variance (ANOVA). The results indicate statistically significant growth overall, and on the democracy and world role domains. Data also indicate that scores on the democracy and culture domains were statistically significantly higher than scores on the technology and world role domains. This study provides implications for middle grades U.S. History achievement and the specific needs of Black girls.
... Specifically, twice as much empirical research is dedicated to the experiences of Black girls compared to Black women. This is important because in order to prepare the next generation of Black children, we must educate Black girls in light of the research on the relationship between a mother's level of education and a student's success (Darensbourg and Blake 2014;Jeynes 2003;Mandara et al. 2010;Suizzo et al. 2008). The results also indicate that empirical research on Black girls in middle and elementary school is limited. ...
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Black female-focused scholarship continues to grow within the field of urban education. However, what remains unknown are the thematic and empirical trends that characterize this area of specialization. To address this challenge, a quantitative content analysis of 30 high-impact journals was conducted. From the pool of several thousand studies, 39 empirical studies with a specific focus on Black women and girls were identified. Results indicate that except for urban education focused journals, most journals lacked studies examining Black female educational trends. The researcher provides recommendations based on categorized frequency data from the methodological, thematic, and historical trends in the literature.
... For instance, the phrase "be strong" is widely communicated in order to combat societal misconceptions and denigrating stereotypes of Black women (Settles et al., 2008). Accordingly, some Black women may socialize their daughters to exude personal and emotional strength to navigate the challenges of racism, sexism, and stereotypical images (see West, 1995West, , 2004 of Black women in the United States (Mandara et al., 2010;Settles et al., 2008). Hence, for some Black women, the SBW role has been found to provide a positive representation of behavioral and emotional characteristics that oppose these denigrating stereotypes (Woods-Giscombé, 2010). ...
Article
Black women are among the most undertreated groups for depression in the United States. Few studies have addressed perceptions of help-seeking for depression among Black women. In this study, we interviewed 30 Black women and explored the help-seeking process for depression vis-a-vis social constructivism, intersectionality theory, and the Strong Black Woman (SBW) role, a gendered and racialized role consisting of adherence to strength through independence, emotion regulation, and caretaking. Qualitative analysis revealed that despite positive attitudes toward help-seeking, many participants declined or hesitated to seek treatment. We identified three themes that informed the help-seeking process: (a) You should see somebody; I just would not; (b) Do I really need to go and see somebody; and (c) Self-care despite what others may say. With regard to the influence of the SBW role, we also identified three themes: (a) Masking or ignoring pain, (b) Inability to ask for help, and (c) Lack of self-care. Our findings emphasized the importance of considering how the SBW role may be associated with help-seeking for depression among Black women.
... Gender differences in socialization practices are common among African American families, as we observed. 32 The elevated concern among mothers of daughters may represent their perceived vulnerability to civil unrest. ...
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Objectives: To examine changes in maternal-child health surrounding the April 2015 civil unrest in Baltimore, Maryland, following Freddie Gray's death while in police custody. Methods: We conducted cross-sectional Children's HealthWatch surveys January 2014 through December 2015 in pediatric emergency departments and primary care clinics on maternal-child health and June 2015 through October 2015 on daily and community routines. We used trend analysis and piecewise logistic regression to examine effects of time, residential proximity moderation, and mediation analysis to assess proximity and maternal-child health relations via maternal concerns. Results: Participants comprised 1095 mothers, 93% of whom were African American and 100% of whom had public or no insurance; 73% of participants' children were younger than 24 months. Following the unrest, prevalence of maternal depressive symptoms increased significantly in proximal, but not distal, neighborhoods (b = 0.41; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.03, 0.79; P = .03). Maternal concerns were elevated in proximal neighborhoods and associated with depressive symptoms; mediation through maternal concern was not significant. Five months after the unrest, depressive symptoms returned to previous levels. Conclusions: Civil unrest has an acute effect on maternal depressive symptoms in neighborhoods proximal to unrest. Public Health Implications. To mitigate depressive symptoms associated with civil unrest, maintain stability of community routines, screen for maternal depressive symptoms, and provide parent-child nurturing programs. (Am J Public Health. Published online ahead of print July 20, 2017: e1-e8. doi:10.2105/AJPH.2017.303876).
... Regarding vicarious racism, because of children's dependency on their caregivers, young children may be particularly vulnerable when caregivers or loved ones are being mistreated (Dominguez, Dunkel-Schetter, Glynn, Hobel, & Sandman, 2008). Researchers indicate the importance of intersectionality in RRS, noting the possibility for gender-differential susceptibility to racism for young girls who may be socialized to be more aware of familial interpersonal stress (Ford, Hurd, Jagers, & Sellers, 2013;Mandara, Varner, & Richman, 2010). Finally, experiences with RRS may negatively impact various aspects of family functioning. ...
Article
Despite the proclamation of a "postracial" society, racism in the United States remains "alive and sick" (S. P. Harrell, 2000), negatively impacting the physical, psychological, and emotional well-being of Black Americans. Moreover, the complex impact of racism throughout the life span is inadequately understood. Coping with the insidiousness of racism in its myriad forms requires recognizing how it expresses across development. In this developmental overview, we apply a life-course perspective (Gee, Walsemann, & Brondolo, 2012) to investigate racism-related stress and coping over time. Within each period of development, we first explore how racism-related stress may present for Black Americans and then document what coping from this stress looks like, highlighting extant strategies and interventions where they exist. This work concludes with a set of definitional, methodological, and clinical future directions and recommendations for improving the field's ability to mitigate the deleterious impact of racism-related stress. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).
... Because a number of investigations have found that father and child demographic factors are robustly related to socialization and involvement (e.g., Bronte-Tinkew et al., 2006;Mandara, Varner, & Richman, 2010), this study included multiple demographic and contextual variables in preliminary and descriptive analyses: 1) fathers' age; 2) education level (1 = less than high school degree or equivalent (i.e., G.E.D.); 5 = College degree or greater); 3) work status (0 = not currently employed; 1 = currently employed); 4) marital status (1 = single or separated; 2 = married or living together); 5) sexual orientation (1 = gay/bisexual/pansexual; 2 = heterosexual); and 6) biological status (1 = biological; 2 = non-biological). ...
Article
The current investigation utilizes a profile-oriented methodological approach to identify coping strategies among African American fathers of sons. Additionally, this study examines how identified coping strategies are related to fathers' parenting practices, generally and in the face of racial discrimination. Four hundred thirty-eight fathers (M = 38.39; SD = 9.86) with sons between the ages of 8 and 17 years of age (M = 12.01; SD = 2.84) participated in this investigation. Latent profile analyses identified 8 distinct coping profiles among African American fathers. Results also indicated that these coping profiles were associated with fathers' discrimination experiences and parenting practices. High coping fathers (i.e., higher levels across multiple coping dimensions) noted greater experiences with racial discrimination and also reported greater involvement and ethnic-racial socialization with their sons. Fathers with a more avoidant coping strategy indicated less engaged parenting with their sons. Highlighting intergenerational processes, findings have implications for African American fathers' and sons' coping assets and adaptation.
... Also well documented are the reciprocal links between children's personality qualities and mothers' and fathers' parenting behaviors (Egberts et al. 2015;Latzman et al. 2009). Although personality can be assessed on numerous dimensions, gender is an important organizer of family life, as exemplified by mothers' and fathers' different roles inside and outside the family, and their distinctive interactions with sons and daughters (Mandara et al. 2010;Shanahan et al. 2007). As such, the gendered personality traits of parents and their children, such as expressivity, a stereotypically feminine trait, may have implications for parent-child relationship dynamics during adolescence. ...
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Objectives Parents’ and youth’s personality qualities are associated with parent-child relationships. Given that gender shapes the organization and structure of family life, gender typed personality qualities may also have implications for relationships between parents and children. We examined longitudinal linkages between expressivity, a gender typed personality quality, and parent-child warmth and conflict in a sample of African American families and tested if parental stress moderated these associations. Methods Data came from mothers, fathers, and two adolescent-aged siblings (53% girls) from 185 families who participated in a three-year longitudinal study. In home interviews, parents and youth rated their own expressive qualities and perceptions of their relationship. Mothers and fathers also reported their family and work-related stress. Results Results from Actor-Partner Interdependence Models showed that youth’s expressivity positively predicted their own and their parents’ perceptions of relationship warmth and negatively predicted their own and their parents’ perceptions of conflict. Mothers’ expressivity positively predicted their own and youth’s perceptions of warmth and fathers’ expressivity positively predicted only their own perceptions of warmth. Parents’ expressivity was unrelated to conflict. Parental stress moderated the expressivity parent-youth relationship linkages differently for mothers and fathers. Youth’s expressivity more strongly predicted maternal warmth among mothers who experienced low versus high stress. Youth’s expressivity predicted lower conflict among fathers who experienced high stress. Conclusions Findings underscore the utility of moving beyond biological sex to examine the role of gender typed qualities in parent-child relationships during adolescence, as well as the contexts in which those processes are embedded.
... Differences in socialization affect student success across the entire achievement spectrum. Research consistently concludes that differences in socialization contribute to differential achievement outcomes for Black boys and girls (Annunziata, Hogue, Faw, & Liddle, 2006;Kapungu, Holmbeck, & Paikoff, 2006;Mandara, Varner, & Richman, 2010). According to Wood, Kaplan, and Mcloyd (2007), Black student achievement on tests is directly related to differences in parent socialization based on gender. ...
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The racial achievement gap is one of the most persistent and pervasive issues in educational research. Unfortunately, the current research on Black student achievement lacks empirical studies that address the academic strengths and challenges facing Black girls. Specifically, there is a dearth of resources in the form of books, articles, and policies to support the learning of Black girls. Therefore studies that isolate gender as a contributing factor are warranted. The author presents an argument to explicate why the dearth of research supporting the achievement of Black girls is unjustified. Three research and data integrity considerations are presented to support this argument.
... Furthermore, many socialization practices are highly dependent on gender (Raley & Bianchi, 2006). Consequently, research consistently concludes that differences in socialization lead to differences in achievement outcomes for Black male and Black female students (Annunziata et al., 2006;Kapungu, Holmbeck, & Paikoff, 2006;Mandara, Varner, & Richman, 2010). These differences affect student success across the entire achievement spectrum. ...
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The achievement socialization of Black girls is highly dependent upon the interactions within their sphere of socialization. Black gender socialization patterns may build an academic resilience in Black women that gives them the capacity to navigate the U.S. educational system substantially better than their male counterparts. In this chapter, the authors describe how parents and teachers can leverage the racial, disciplinary, and academic identities of Black girls to increase their performance in mathematics. This chapter equips teachers and parents with explicit tools to build on the trends observed in prior research. These tools can help parents and teachers build bridges to mathematics success for Black girls.
... Furthermore, many socialization practices are highly dependent on gender (Raley & Bianchi, 2006). Consequently, research consistently concludes that differences in socialization lead to differences in achievement outcomes for Black male and Black female students (Annunziata et al., 2006;Kapungu, Holmbeck, & Paikoff, 2006;Mandara, Varner, & Richman, 2010). These differences affect student success across the entire achievement spectrum. ...
Chapter
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The achievement socialization of Black girls is highly dependent upon the interactions within their sphere of socialization. Black gender socialization patterns may build an academic resilience in Black women that gives them the capacity to navigate the U.S. educational system substantially better than their male counterparts. In this chapter, the authors describe how parents and teachers can leverage the racial, disciplinary, and academic identities of Black girls to increase their performance in mathematics. This chapter equips teachers and parents with explicit tools to build on the trends observed in prior research. These tools can help parents and teachers build bridges to mathematics success for Black girls.
... African American boys reported more racial discrimination experiences than girls in a nationally representative sample (Seaton, Caldwell, Sellers, & Jackson, 2008). African American parents also have higher academic expectations of girls and engage in more monitoring, rule enforcement, and communication with girls than boys (Mandara, Varner, & Richman, 2010;Varner & Mandara, 2013;Wood, Kaplan, & McLoyd, 2007). In addition, Cooper and McLoyd (2011) found that the interaction between mother-adolescentrelationship and racial barrier socialization on African American adolescents' self-esteem and depressive symptoms differed by gender. ...
Article
Objectives: The purpose of this study was to test whether parenting profiles based on racial socialization and involved-vigilant parenting would compensate for or moderate associations between racial discrimination experiences and academic outcomes and psychological well-being among African American adolescents. Method: Participants were 1,363 African American adolescents (Mage = 14.19; 52.3% female) from 3 Midwestern suburban school districts. Latent profile analysis was used to examine whether there were distinct combinations of parenting. The relationships among racial discrimination experiences, parenting profiles, and adjustment were examined using structural equation modeling (SEM). Results: Three distinct parenting profiles were found: moderate positive (n = 767; moderately high involved-vigilant parenting and racial barrier, racial pride, behavioral, and egalitarian messages, and low negative messages), unengaged (n = 351; low racial socialization messages and moderately low involved-vigilant parenting), and high negative parenting (n = 242; high negative messages, moderate other racial socialization messages, and moderately low involved-vigilant parenting). Racial discrimination experiences were negatively associated with youth adjustment. Moderate positive parenting was related to the best academic outcomes and unengaged parenting was associated with more positive academic outcomes than high negative parenting. Moderate positive parenting was associated with better psychological well-being than unengaged or high negative parenting although the benefits were greater for adolescents with fewer racial discrimination experiences. Conclusions: Distinct patterns of racial socialization messages and involved-vigilant parenting contribute to differences in African American youth adjustment. (PsycINFO Database Record
... Furthermore, many socialization practices are highly dependent on gender (Raley & Bianchi, 2006). Consequently, research consistently concludes that differences in socialization lead to differential achievement outcomes for Black boys and girls (Annunziata, Hogue, Faw, & Liddle, 2006;Kapungu Holmbeck, & Paikoff, 2006;Mandara, Varner, & Richman, 2010). These differences affect student success across the entire achievement spectrum. ...
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Black girls represent a unique subpopulation of science learners. Black girls are unique because they consistently outperform Black boys in science. Despite this trend, Black girls often face dual marginalization in STEM classrooms and professions. Racial and gender marginalization can inhibit the success of Black girls in science if researchers, teachers and parents do not address the most salient factors. This exploratory analysis investigates how the specialized science content knowledge of Black girls is differentiated on the NAEP and how the dispositions, opportunities to learn, and parental involvement mechanisms are characterized by the NAEP assessment data. This within-group, content-specific analysis identifies teaching and learning strengths and weaknesses for Black girls that are difficult to assess using between-group designs. This study offers educators, researchers, and parents a holistic view of the performance profile of Black girls, as learners and doers of science. The results indicate that Black girls possess a basic understanding in life and physical sciences, however earth science remains the greatest challenge. Overall, the data shows that Black girls have a positive academic disposition towards science, yet are not engaged with the content. Recommendations for researchers, teachers, parents and other educational stakeholders to further meet the needs of Black girls in science are provided.
Article
Discrimination concerns and parental expectations were examined as mediators of the relations between gender and parenting practices among 796 African American mothers of 11- to 14-year-olds from the Maryland Adolescent Development in Context Study. Mothers of sons had more concerns about racial discrimination impacting their adolescents' future, whereas mothers of daughters had more gender discrimination concerns. Racial discrimination concerns, but not gender discrimination concerns, were related to lower maternal academic and behavioral expectations. Maternal expectations were related to mothers' responsiveness, rule enforcement, monitoring, and parent-adolescent conflict. The relations between gender and parenting practices were partially explained through mothers' racial discrimination concerns and expectations. These findings demonstrate the importance of contextual factors on African American family processes.
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Purpose: Rural Black men experience escalating rates of binge drinking during emerging adulthood. We hypothesized that exposure to racial discrimination would predict growth in their binge drinking trajectories and that protective parenting, including emotional and instrumental support and high expectations for success, would attenuate the influence of racial discrimination on growth in binge drinking. Methods: Hypotheses were tested with 3 waves of data from 505 men (ages 20.3, 21.9, and 23.1) participating in the African American Men's Project. Conditional and multigroup latent growth curve models (LGCM) were implemented using Mplus. Results: LGCM indicated that binge drinking frequency increased linearly across time; exposure to racial discrimination at baseline predicted growth in binge drinking (β = .19, p < .01). Multigroup comparison procedures indicated significant moderation by protective parenting. When protective parenting was high, racial discrimination had no significant influence on rates of young men's binge drinking (β =.01, p = .51). In contrast, when protective parenting was low, the influence of discrimination was heightened (β = .21, p < .01). Conclusions: Racial discrimination is a pernicious stressor that contributes to increases in binge drinking among young Black men. When parents engaged in emotionally and instrumentally supportive parenting, however, racial discrimination had little influence on binge drinking trajectories during emerging adulthood. Study findings underscore the importance of the emerging adult transition as a period of vulnerability and suggest directions for targeting alcohol preventive interventions. Implications and contribution: After high school, young Black men are exposed to racial discrimination that can increase rates of binge drinking. When young men's parents were emotionally and instrumentally supportive toward them, however, racial discrimination did not predict increases in binge drinking.
Approximately 7.1 million children in the US suffer from asthma. An exploratory qualitative study using a stratified purposive sampling method was conducted. The sample included four Latina and four African American female caregivers of children (ages 6-12) who had asthma. Caregivers were asked open-ended questions about perceptions of their children's emotional responses to asthma. Major themes and subthemes were identified with content analysis. Sons were reported as quiet when experiencing asthma. Daughters were described as being verbal, worried, excited. A question from the study was whether the children's responses were related to caregivers' (a) actions, (b) responses to asthma, and/or(c) race/ethnicity.
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With the increasing focus on racial and ethnic diversity in studies of adolescence, this review highlights trends in this research over the past decade. Not only is the sheer number of studies incorporating diverse youth increasing, this research has penetrated many areas of the study of adolescence. Some of this research has attempted to recognize and also capture the contextual and/or sociocultural processes that may explain racial and ethnic diversity or differences among youth in the United States and other countries. Research examining sociocultural and contextual processes underlying racial and ethnic differences is especially evident in the areas of parenting and family socialization. A considerable amount of research on ethnic minority and immigrant youth has also been conducted on their ethnic identity and acculturation, including processes of ethnic identity development, discrimination experiences, and the role of ethnic identity and discrimination in relation to adolescents' well-being. The theoretical implications of this research will be addressed in terms of what we have learned from studying diverse youth and how this focus has contributed to our theories of adolescence.
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Previous studies have reported that children from single-parent households fare worse behaviorally than those from two-parent households. Studies examining single-parent households often fail to distinguish between single-mother and single-father households. Further, there are inconsistent findings regarding the effect of family structure on boys and girls. This study examined the relationship between family structures and behavior problems among 515 predominantly ethnic minority children in an urban setting, while taking into account the role of children’s gender. Results indicated that children from two-parent families consistently scored lower on measures of externalizing behavior and hyperactivity when compared to children from parent-absent households, but not when compared to those from single-parent households. Moderation analyses revealed significant interactions between family structure and children’s gender. Girls in single-mother households scored higher in externalizing behavior and hyperactivity than those in two-parent households. Behavior problems for boys in single-mother households did not differ from those in two-parent households. These findings encourage further research on parenting practices and child’s gender within various family structures.
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This study charted the development of gendered personality qualities, activity interests, and attitudes across adolescence (approximately ages 9-18) among 319 African-American youth from 166 families. The relations between daily time spent with father, mother, and male and female peers-the gendered contexts of youth's daily activities-and (changes in) these gender role orientations were also assessed. Boys and girls differed in their gender role orientations in stereotypical ways: interest in masculine and feminine activities, and attitude traditionality generally declined, but instrumentality increased across adolescence and expressivity first increased and later decreased. Some gender differences and variations in change were conditioned by time spent with same- and other-sex gender parents and peers. The most consistent pattern was time with male peers predicting boys' stereotypical characteristics.
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African American mother‐child dyads (N = 99) were observed interacting on a collaborative puzzle exercise. Raters blind to the purpose of the study rated the dyads on several mother and child behaviors. Mothers of daughters were rated as more empathetic, encouraging, warm, and accepting and less negative than mothers of sons. Male children were more challenging and less happy, relaxed, and engaged. Mediation analyses found that the differences in mother‐child relationships explained the gender differences in child behavior. These patterns were consistent across different child age groups and after controlling for family socioeconomic status. It was concluded that many of the gender disparities may be reduced with empirically informed and culturally sensitive parent training interventions that teach parents the necessity of being warm and loving as well as encouraging both male and female children to excel.
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Differential parenting based on gender and birth order status was examined as an explanation for the achievement differences between African American males and females. In a sample of 796 African American adolescents from the MADICS study, girls were found to have much higher GPAs and test scores compared with boys. Girls reported receiving more monitoring, communication, and rule enforcement, but less autonomy in decision making than later-born boys. Mothers also reported higher expectations for girls than boys. A significant percent of the GPA and test score gap was accounted for by the parenting differences in both married and single mother–headed households. It was concluded that reducing differential parenting could help narrow gender differences in achievement among African American adolescents.
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Trajectories of depressive symptoms were compared between European American and African American boys and girls from ages 8 to 14 in a longitudinal sample of 130 children born to adolescent mothers. Mixed-effects regression modeling was used to analyze individual and group differences in level of depressive symptoms and their changes over time. Time-varying predictors included rigid parenting attitudes, maternal depression, and maternal educational attainment. African American boys reported more symptoms of depression at age 8 than African American girls or European American boys or girls. Symptoms of depression increased over time only for European American girls. Rigid parenting attitudes, but not maternal depression or maternal educational attainment, were associated with children's depressive symptoms. Results substantiate the importance of differentiating groups by gender and race in conceptual models of depression.
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This study examined whether demanding relations with extended family moderated the association of distressing mother–adolescent relations with poorer social and psychological functioning. Participants were one hundred-thirty, low-income, African American mother–adolescent dyads. For mothers distressing mother–adolescent relations and demanding relations with extended family were linked to decrease in mother’s optimism and increase in depressive symptoms. Distressing mother–adolescent relations were also linked to increase in mother’s negative interpersonal relations. Distressing mother–adolescent relations were linked to decrease in adolescent’s self-esteem. Demanding kin relations exacerbated the link between distressing mother–adolescent relations and decrease in mother’s optimism. Demanding kin relations also exacerbated the link between distressing mother–adolescent relations and increase in adolescent’s problem behavior. Findings were discussed in terms of the need for more research on social networks of at-risk families.
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In this qualitative study, we examined perceptions of the strong Black woman (SBW) or superwoman role in a sample of 30 Black women. We found that participants conceptualized the SBW/superwoman role through five characteristics: independent, taking care of family and others, hardworking and high achieving, overcoming adversity, and emotionally contained. Most participants were ambivalent about their relationship with this role, given historical accounts and familial examples of Black women. Many participants appropriated the SBW/superwoman role by redefining it in ways that were more empowering and freeing. Several participants were critical of and rejected the SBW/superwoman role, focusing on its problematic and rigid view of strength. All of these perspectives underscore the importance of increasing awareness of restrictive gendered and racialized role expectations as well as the desire to maintain connections to the cultural legacy of Black women. Several important contextual factors (e.g., social status, family relationships) emerged that are relevant to the identified themes. Results from this study highlight how the discourse of strength and familiarity with the SBW/superwoman role are pervasive among Black women. Our findings underscore the need for practitioners to understand the complexity in how Black women make meaning of this role relative to help seeking for physical and mental health.
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In this research, the ecology of perceived social support was examined across multiple contexts (i.e., parents, teachers, classmates, and close friends) in relation to self-perception indices among African American school-age children. Social support is multifaceted and includes positive regard from others, practical support, and stability of care. While there is ample evidence that levels of perceived social support are predictive of self-perceptions, there is less information regarding ecologies of social support. African American children are subject to disparate discipline in schools which can create discontinuity in social support across home and school. Furthermore, research has suggested African American boys and girls have different experiences and expectations across parent, school, and peer contexts. Hence, the question arises as to what ecologies of social support are more or less impactful, and for whom? Cluster and canonical correlation analyses were employed to identify and create relevant ecologies across adult and peer social support items. The results suggested the following: a) continuous positive social support was associated with enhanced self-perceptions, b) some patterns of discontinuity were particularly germane for self-perceptions, and c) relations between perceived social support and self-perceptions outcomes varied by gender. Practical implications are discussed.
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An Autoethnography of African-American Motherhood: Things I Tell My Daughter is a Black feminist autoethnography focusing on mothering and motherhood. As an anti-racist and anti-misogynist text, it situates the everyday life experiences of a Black mother as she contends with multiple forms of systemic racial and gendered oppression while navigating the challenging terrain of motherhood. Moreover, it is a multi-generational text that blends the author’s experience with that of her mother’s, grandmother’s, and her daughter’s in an effort to engage in a larger discussion of U.S. Black mother/womanhood. It is the first full-length explicitly identified autoethnographic text on African American motherhood.
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Associations among three dimensions of parenting (support, behavioral control, psychological control) and measures of adolescent depression, delinquency, and academic achievement were assessed in a sample of African American youth. All data were adolescent self-reports by way of school-administered questionnaires in random samples of classrooms in southeastern U.S. metropolitan areas. Path analysis revealed several associations between parenting dimensions and youth outcomes, including negative relationships between paternal support and depression and between parental behavioral control and delinquency. Group comparisons (by youth grade level, gender, and family socioeconomic status [SES]) were also conducted, and no age or SES differences were noted.
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This study assessed the effects of father's absence on drug use among 86 African American adolescents. No differences between father-present and father-absent girls' self-reported drug usage were found.The results did reveal, however, that father-absent boys were much more likely than father-present boys or either group of girls to use drugs. These findings persisted even when background factors such as SES, extent of neighborhood crime, parental monitoring, and degree of peer drug usage were controlled. Friends' drug use was the main predictor of drug use for girls, while father's absence was for boys. It was concluded that father-absent African American boys might be at risk for drug use problems relative to other African American adolescents. Implications for after-school programs were also discussed.
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This study examined 148 Asian American and European American late adolescents' perceptions of differential affection and control by mothers and fathers as predictors of academic achievement and self-perceptions of intellectual ability and global self-worth. Overall, analyses generally confirmed the hypotheses that the more differentially favorable the treatment (more affection or less control) or the less differential treatment (above and beyond which sibling was favored) reported in the home, the more positive late adolescents' outcomes. Perceptions of differential parental treatment predicted up to 13% of the variance in achievement and self-perceptions. Several findings were moderated by ethnicity or gender. Finally, and perhaps most importantly, perceptions of differential parental treatment predicted a significant and unique amount of variance in outcomes beyond that predicted by perceptions of absolute levels of affection and control.
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This study investigated the ways in which 2 indicators of parental autonomy granting, adolescents' decision-making input and parental knowledge of adolescents' daily experiences, differed as a function of contextual factors (i.e., parents' gender role attitudes or sibling dyad sex composition) and boys' and girls' personal qualities (i.e., gender, pubertal status, developmental status, or birth order) in a sample of 194 families with firstborn (M = 15.0 years) and second-born (M = 12.5 years) adolescents. Firstborns were granted more autonomy than second borns, especially in families with firstborn girls and second-born boys. Girls in families marked by traditional maternal gender role attitudes were granted fewer autonomy opportunities. Postmenarcheal second-born girls were granted more opportunities for autonomy than were premenarcheal second-born girls, but only in families with less traditional maternal gender role attitudes.
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Background: Parents' use of physical discipline has generated controversy related to concerns that its use is associated with adjustment problems such as aggression and delinquency in children. However, recent evidence suggests that there are ethnic differences in associations between physical discipline and children's adjustment. This study examined race as a moderator of the link between physical discipline and adolescent externalizing behavior problems, extending previous research beyond childhood into adolescence and considering physical discipline at multiple points in time. Methods: A representative community sample of 585 children was followed from pre-kindergarten (age 5) through grade 11 (age 16). Mothers reported on their use of physical discipline in the child's first five years of life and again during grades 6 (age 11) and 8 (age 13). Mothers and adolescents reported on a variety of externalizing behaviors in grade 11 including aggression, violence, and trouble at school and with the police. Results: A series of hierarchical linear regressions controlling for parents' marital status, socioeconomic status, and child temperament revealed significant interactions between physical discipline during the child's first five years of life and race in the prediction of 3 of the 7 adolescent externalizing outcomes assessed and significant interactions between physical discipline during grades 6 and 8 and race in the prediction of all 7 adolescent externalizing outcomes. Regression slopes showed that the experience of physical discipline at each time point was related to higher levels of subsequent externalizing behaviors for European American adolescents but lower levels of externalizing behaviors for African American adolescents. Conclusions: There are race differences in long-term effects of physical discipline on externalizing behaviors problems. Different ecological niches may affect the manner in which parents use physical discipline, the meaning that children attach to the experience of physical discipline, and its effects on the adjustment of children and adolescents.
Researchers often conduct mediation analysis in order to indirectly assess the effect of a proposed cause on some outcome through a proposed mediator. The utility of mediation analysis stems from its ability to go beyond the merely descriptive to a more functional understanding of the relationships among variables. A necessary component of mediation is a statistically and practically significant indirect effect. Although mediation hypotheses are frequently explored in psychological research, formal significance tests of indirect effects are rarely conducted. After a brief overview of mediation, we argue the importance of directly testing the significance of indirect effects and provide SPSS and SAS macros that facilitate estimation of the indirect effect with a normal theory approach and a bootstrap approach to obtaining confidence intervals, as well as the traditional approach advocated by Baron and Kenny (1986). We hope that this discussion and the macros will enhance the frequency of formal mediation tests in the psychology literature. Electronic copies of these macros may be downloaded from the Psychonomic Society's Web archive at www.psychonomic.org/archive/.
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The authors examined siblings' dyadic and differential experiences of parental warmth from 7 to 19 years of age. Participants were first- and second-borns from 201 families who reported on their warmth with each parent in 4 home interviews spaced over 5 years. Supporting an individual development hypothesis, multilevel model analyses revealed declines in parental warmth from early through midadolescence but no changes or increases in warmth in middle childhood and later adolescence. Consistent with a learning-from-experience hypothesis, declines in paternal warmth were less pronounced for second-borns than for firstborns. The results also suggest gender intensification in differential warmth for parents of mixed-gender sibling dyads. Within-family comparisons of youth provide unique insights about family relationship development.