Survival study of natural orifice translumenal endoscopic surgery for rectosigmoid resection using transanal endoscopic microsurgery with or without transgastric endoscopic assistance in a swine model

Department of Surgery, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, 15 Parkman Street, WACC 460, Boston, MA 02114, USA.
Surgical Endoscopy (Impact Factor: 3.26). 02/2010; 24(8):2022-30. DOI: 10.1007/s00464-010-0898-0
Source: PubMed


The feasibility of transanal rectosigmoid resection with transanal endoscopic microsurgery (TEM) was previously demonstrated in a swine nonsurvival model in which transgastric endoscopic assistance also was shown to extend the length of colon mobilized transanally.
A 2-week survival study evaluating transanal endoscopic rectosigmoid resection with stapled colorectal anastomosis was conducted with swine using the transanal approach alone (TEM group, n = 10) or a transanal approach combined with transgastric endoscopic assistance (TEM + TG group, n = 10). Gastrotomies were created using a needleknife and balloon dilation, then closed using prototype T-tags. Outcomes were evaluated and compared between the groups using Student's t-test and Fisher's exact test.
Relative to the TEM group, the average length of rectosigmoid mobilized in the TEM + TG group was 15.6 versus 10.5 cm (p < 0.0005), the length of the resected specimen was 9 versus 6.2 cm (p < 0.0005), and the mean operative time was 254.5 versus 97.5 min (p < 0.0005). Intraoperatively, no organ injury or major bleeding was noted. Two T-tag misfires occurred during gastrotomy closure and four small staple line defects requiring transanal repair including one in the TEM group and three in the TEM + TG group (p = 0.2). Postoperatively, there was no mortality, and the animals gained an average of 3.4 lb. Two major complications (10%) were identified at necropsy in the TEM + TG group including an intraabdominal abscess and an abdominal wall hematoma related to T-tag misfire. Gastrotomy closure sites and colorectal anastomoses were all grossly healed, with adhesions noted in 60 and 70% and microabscesses in 50 and 20% of the gastrotomy sites and colorectal anastomoses, respectively.
Natural orifice translumenal endoscopic surgery (NOTES) for rectosigmoid resection using TEM with or without transgastric endoscopic assistance is feasible and associated with low morbidity in a porcine survival model. Transgastric assistance significantly prolongs the operative time but extends the length of the rectosigmoid mobilized transanally, with a nonsignificant increase in complication rates related to gastrotomy creation.

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    • "Pathological characteristics of published clinical series on transanal TME with laparoscopic assistance Series Sylla et al., 2010 104 Chen et al., 2010 107 Tuech et al., 2011 109 Zorron et al., 2012 108 Dumont et al., 2012 112 Lacy et al., 2013 111 Velthuis et al., 2013 110 de Lacy et al., 2013 114 Rouanet et al., 2013 113 Sylla et al., 2013 115 Tumor size (cm) "
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    ABSTRACT: The surgical management of rectal cancer has evolved over the past century, with total mesorectal excision (TME) emerging as standard of care. As a result of the morbidity associated with open TME, minimally invasive techniques have become popular. Natural orifice translumenal endoscopic surgery (NOTES) has been held as the next revolution in surgical techniques, offering the possibility of ‘incisionless’ TME. Early clinical series of transanal TME with laparoscopic assistance (n = 72) are promising, with overall intraoperative and postoperative complication rates of 8.3% and 27.8%, respectively, similar to laparoscopic TME. The mesorectal specimen was intact in all patients, and 94.4% had negative margins. There was no oncological recurrence in average-risk patients at short-term follow up, and 2-year survivalrates in high-risk patients were comparable to that after laparoscopic TME. These preliminary studies demonstrate transanal NOTES TME with laparoscopic assistance to be clinically feasible and safe given careful patient selection, surgical expertise, and appropriate procedural training. We are hopeful that with optimization of transanal instruments and surgical techniques, pure transanal NOTES TME will become a viable alternative to open and laparoscopic TME in the future.
    Preview · Article · Jan 2014 · Digestive Endoscopy
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    • "When dissection could not be extended any further, the proctoscope was removed, and the specimen was exteriorized in preparation for specimen extraction. Transgastric assistance, when utilized, was performed as previously described [10]. In brief, following maximal transanal rectosigmoid mobilization, peroral transgastric peritoneal access was obtained using a 12.8 mm colonoscope (Pentax). "
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    ABSTRACT: The feasibility of natural orifice translumenal endoscopic surgery (NOTES) resection for rectal cancer has been demonstrated in both survival swine and fresh human cadaveric models. In preparation for transitioning to human application, our group has performed transanal NOTES rectal resection in a large series of human cadavers. This experience both solidified the feasibility of resection and allowed optimization of technique prior to clinical application. Improvement in specimen length and operative time was demonstrated with increased experience and newer platforms. This extensive laboratory experience has paved the way for successful clinical translation resulting in an ongoing clinical trial. To date, based on published reports, 4 human subjects have undergone successful hybrid transanal NOTES resection of rectal cancer. While promising, instrument limitations continue to hinder a pure transanal approach. Careful patient selection and continued development of new endoscopic and flexible-tip instruments are imperative prior to pure NOTES clinical application.
    Full-text · Article · May 2012 · Minimally Invasive Surgery
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    • "demonstrated by the fact that only 1 out of 20 animals (5%) was found to have an intra-abdominal abscess at necropsy, and likely related to the gastrotomy closure with experimental T-tags [27]. (2) Optimal visualization during rectal dissection. "
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: With a rapidly expanding international registry of cases, Natural Orifice Translumenal Endoscopic Surgery (NOTES) continues to be held as the next phase in minimally invasive surgery. While pure and hybrid transvaginal procedures predominate clinically, there is growing interest in transanal NOTES as it may potentially minimize the morbidity of colorectal resections. METHODS: Extensive experimental and clinical evidence support the fact that septic complications from intentional colotomy during colorectal procedures are minimized with adequate closure. Other advantages of transanal NOTES include the favorable ergonomics of transanal endoscopy and availability of Transanal Endoscopic Microsurgery (TEM) as a particularly well-suited endoscopic platform. RESULTS: Since the description of transanal endoscopic rectosigmoid resection using TEM in 2007, extensive evaluation in swine acute and survival studies has demonstrated that this technique is feasible, safe, and easily reproducible using conventional instrumentation. Validation of this approach in human cadavers has confirmed the feasibility of transanal total mesorectal excision using a standardized technique. In the first clinical report published to date, transanal endoscopic rectosigmoid resection with TME was performed using laparoscopic assistance in a female patient with a stage III mid-rectal cancer treated with neoadjuvant therapy. CONCLUSIONS: Although preliminary, these results highlight the potential impact of this approach in minimizing the morbidity associated with rectal cancer resection, and warrant further investigation with respect to safety and long-term oncologic outcomes. Improvements in the design of currently available endoscopic platforms and instrumentation will be important for widespread clinical application in the future, and if pure NOTES transanal resection remains the ultimate goal. KeywordsNOTES–Transanal–Rectal cancer–TME–TEM
    Preview · Article · Jun 2011 · European Surgery
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