Exercise and the metabolic syndrome with weight regain

ArticleinJournal of Applied Physiology 109(1):3-10 · February 2010with10 Reads
DOI: 10.1152/japplphysiol.01361.2009 · Source: PubMed
Weight loss improves metabolic syndrome (MetS) factors, but risk may return with weight regain. This study was designed to determine if exercise training can maintain improvements in MetS risk factors during weight regain. In a randomized control trial,102 overweight or obese (body mass index 25.0-39.9 kg/m(2)) men and women (age 21-52 yr), with characteristics of the MetS, lost 10% of body weight with supervised walking/jogging at 60% of maximal oxygen consumption (Vo(2 max)) (-400 kcal/session), 5 days/wk, and caloric restriction (-600 kcal/day) over a 4- to 6-mo period. After weight loss, 77 remaining subjects underwent programmed weight regain (+50% of lost weight) for 4-6 mo with random assignment to two groups: no exercise (NoEX) or continued supervised exercise (EX). Blood pressure, regional fat, glucose homeostasis, lipids, and inflammatory markers were assessed at baseline, post-weight loss, and post-weight regain. Groups were compared by two-way repeated-measures ANOVA on the 67 subjects. After weight loss (9.7 +/- 0.2% of body weight), significant (P < 0.05) improvements were observed in almost all parameters assessed. Following weight regain (54.4 +/- 1.6% of lost weight), the NoEX group exhibited deterioration in most metabolic markers, while the EX group maintained improvements in Vo(2 max), blood pressures, glucose homeostasis, high- and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C and LDL-C), oxidized LDL, and other markers of inflammation, but did not maintain improvements in triglyceride and cholesterol concentrations or abdominal fat. Results of this design of controlled human weight regain suggest that aerobic exercise can counter the detrimental effects of partial weight regain on many markers of disease risk.
    • "Studies Reporting Weight Regain. The majority of trials in this category demonstrate that total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and triglyceride concentrations return to baseline when 2–6% of weight is regained [21–25, 27, 28]. As for HDL cholesterol, surprising improvements in this lipid parameter were noted with sustained decreases in visceral fat (even with overall weight regain) [24, 25, 27, 28]. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Dietary restriction interventions are effective for weight loss and reduction of chronic disease risk. Unfortunately, most people tend to regain much of this lost weight within one year after intervention. While some studies suggest that minor degrees of weight regain have no effect on metabolic disease risk parameters, other studies demonstrate a complete reversal in metabolic benefits. In light of these conflicting findings, it is of interest to determine how complete weight maintenance versus mild weight regain affects key risk parameters. These findings would have important clinical implications, as they could help identify a weight regain threshold that could preserve the metabolic benefits of weight loss. Accordingly, this review examined the impact of no weight regain versus mild regain on various metabolic disease risk parameters, including plasma lipids, blood pressure, glucose, and insulin concentrations, in adult subjects.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2014
    • "Weight gain and obesity can have many negative health implications. Not only does it result in increased visceral or WAT but is associated with impaired glucose regulation (Thomas et al. 2010) and increased systemic inflammation . Visceral adiposity has been associated both with impaired peripheral insulin sensitivity (Kelley et al. 2000; Miyazaki et al. 2002) and adipose and hepatic insulin resistance (IR; Miyazaki et al. 2002). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: As white adipose tissue (WAT) expands under obesogenic conditions, local WAT hypoxia may contribute to the chronic low-grade inflammation observed in obesity. Aerobic exercise training is beneficial in treating WAT inflammation after obesity is established, but it remains unknown whether exercise training, while on a concomitant high-fat (HF) diet, influences WAT inflammation during the development of obesity. We sought to determine the effects of 4, 8, and 12 weeks of HF feeding and/or moderate intensity treadmill exercise training (EX) on the relationship between inflammatory and hypoxic gene expression within mouse WAT. Male C57Bl6/J mice (n = 113) were randomized into low-fat (LF)/sedentary (SED), LF/EX, HF/SED, or HF/EX groups. The low-fat and high-fat diets contained 10% and 60% energy from fat, respectively. Exercise training consisted of treadmill running 5 days/week at 12 m/min, 8% incline, 40 min/day. Quantitative real-time PCR was used to assess gene expression. HF diet impaired glucose regulation, and upregulated WAT gene expression of inflammation (IL-1β, IL-1ra, TNFα), macrophage recruitment and infiltration (F4/80 and monocyte chemoattractant protein), and M1 (CD11c) and M2 (CD206 and Arginase-1) macrophage polarization markers. Treadmill training resulted in a modest reduction of WAT macrophage and inflammatory gene expression. HF diet had little effect on hypoxia-inducible factor-1α and vascular endothelial growth factor, suggesting that WAT inflammatory gene expression may not be driven by hypoxia within the adipocytes. Treadmill training may provide protection by preventing WAT expansion and macrophage recruitment.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2014
    • "Clinical studies show the incidence risk of chronic diseases of MS patients such as cardiovascular disease (CVD), diabetes mellitus and hypertension, is farther higher than that of normal people [14–16]. Therefore, it is very significant to timely and accurately judge MS and timely conduct intervention in clinic [17]. However, diagnostic criteria of MS and adaptabilities of diagnostic criteria in different regions and different populations have great differences and arguments. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Our paper is a study about metabolism syndrome (MS) incidence situations of different nationalities, including Uighur, Kazak and Han nationality in Xinjiang by means of a cross-sectional survey and compare differences and adaptabilities of applications of the diagnostic criteria for MS recommended by Adult Treatment Protocol III of National Cholesterol Education Program of America (ATP III), International Diabetes Federation (IDF) and Chinese Diabetes Society (CDS) in three groups of populations. Conclusion tell us, for Uighur population and Kazak population, IDF criterion and ATPIII criterion had a better consistence, and CDS criterion was worst. For Han population, CDS criterion and IDF criterion had a better consistence, and ATPIII criterion was worst. For the screening of MS incidence rate of Uighur and Kazak adult populations in Xinjiang region, ATPIII criterion was optimal, while CDS criterion was optimal for Han population. However, as for screening of clustering of multiple risk factors of MS, IDF criterion was better than other criteria for the three nationalities.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2012
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