Reassessment of antioxidant activity of arbutin: Multifaceted evaluation using five antioxidant assay systems
Food Function and Labeling Program, Incorporated Administrative Agency National Institute of Health and Nutrition, 1-23-1 Toyama, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 162-8636, Japan. Free Radical Research
(Impact Factor: 2.98).
02/2010; 44(4):473-8. DOI: 10.3109/10715761003610760
Arbutin, a practically used skin-lightening agent, has been reported to possess a weak antioxidant activity compared to that of its precursor, hydroquinone. However, its antioxidant activity has not been systematically evaluated. Hence, this study reassessed its activity using five assay systems. Assays were first performed using model radicals, DPPH radical and ABTS(*+). Arbutin showed weak DPPH radical-scavenging activity compared to that of hydroquinone, but showed strong ABTS(*+)-scavenging activity. Its activity by ORAC assay was then evaluated using a physiologically relevant peroxyl radical. Arbutin exerted weak but long-lasting radical-scavenging activity and showed totally the same antioxidant activity as that of hydroquinone. Finally, it was shown that, in two cell-based antioxidant assays using erythrocytes and skin fibroblasts, arbutin exerted strong antioxidant activity comparable or even superior to that of hydroquinone. These findings indicate that the antioxidant activity of arbutin may have been under-estimated and suggest that it acts as a potent antioxidant in the skin.
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ABSTRACT: The genus Stachys is comprised of about 300 species spread throughout the world, hence representing one of the largest genera of the Lamiaceae. Several Stachys species have been exploited in traditional medicine as astringent, wound-healing, anti-diarrhoeal, anti-nephritic and anti-inflammatory agents. Moreover, antimicrobial, antioxidant and cytotoxic activities of some Stachys species are documented. Iridoids, flavonoids, phenolic acids and diterpenoids are reported as secondary metabolites of different species of this genus. The aim of the present review is to summarize and to highlight the recent advances in current knowledge on Stachys species and to compile reports of chemical constituents isolated from the genus Stachys over the past decades, together with their structural features, biological activities, and structure-activity relationships. Diversity of chemical constituents is discussed in relationship with current Stachys infrageneric taxonomy, classification and relationships with systematically close genera.
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ABSTRACT: Vanillin, a compound widely used in foods, beverages, cosmetics and drugs, has been reported to exhibit multifunctional effects such as antimutagenic, antiangiogenetic, anti-colitis, anti-sickling, and antianalgesic effects. However, results of studies on the antioxidant activity of vanillin are not consistent.
We systematically evaluated the antioxidant activity of vanillin using multiple assay systems. DPPH radical-, galvinoxyl radical-, and ABTS(+)-scavenging assays, ORAC assay and an oxidative hemolysis inhibition assay (OxHLIA) were used for determining the antioxidant activity.
Vanillin showed stronger activity than did ascorbic acid and Trolox in the ABTS(+)-scavenging assay but showed no activity in the DPPH radical- and galvinoxyl radical-scavenging assays. Vanillin showed much stronger antioxidant activity than did ascorbic acid and Trolox in the ORAC assay and OxHLIA. In the ABTS(+)-scavenging assay, ORAC assay and OxHLIA, vanillin reacted with radicals via a self-dimerization mechanism. The dimerization contributed to the high reaction stoichiometry against ABTS(+) and AAPH-derived radicals to result in the strong effect of vanillin. Oral administration of vanillin to mice increased the vanillin concentration and the antioxidant activity in plasma. These data suggested that antioxidant activity of vanillin might be more beneficial than has been thought for daily health care.
Based on the results of the present study, we propose the addition of antioxidant capacity to the multifunctionality of vanillin.
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