Prevalence of Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C Virus Infections in France in 2004: Social Factors Are Important Predictors After Adjusting for Known Risk Factors

National Institute for Public Health Surveillance, Saint-Maurice, France.
Journal of Medical Virology (Impact Factor: 2.35). 04/2010; 82(4):546-55. DOI: 10.1002/jmv.21734
Source: PubMed


To monitor the prevalence of hepatitis B and hepatitis C a cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2004 among French metropolitan residents. A complex sampling design was used to enroll 14,416 adult participants aged 18-80 years. Data collected included demographic and social characteristics and risk factors. Sera were tested for anti-HCV, HCV-RNA, anti-HBc and HBsAg. Data were analyzed with SUDAAN software to provide weighted estimates for the French metropolitan resident population. The overall anti-HCV prevalence was 0.84% (95% CI: 0.65-1.10). Among anti-HCV positive individuals, 57.4% (95% CI: 43.2-70.5) knew their status. Factors associated independently with positive anti-HCV were drug use (intravenous and nasal), blood transfusion before 1992, a history of tattoos, low socioeconomic status, being born in a country where anti-HCV prevalence >2.5%, and age >29 years. The overall anti-HBc prevalence was 7.3% (95%: 6.5-8.2). Independent risk factors for anti-HBc were intravenous drug use, being a man who has sex with men, low socioeconomic status, a stay in a psychiatric facility or facility for the mentally disabled, <12 years of education, being born in a country where HBsAg prevalence >2%, age >29 and male sex. The HCV RNA and HBsAg prevalence were 0.53% (95% CI: 0.40-0.70) and 0.65% (95% CI: 0.45-0.93), respectively. Among HBsAg positive individuals, 44.8% (95% CI: 22.8-69.1) knew their status. Anti-HCV prevalence was close to the 1990s estimates whereas HBsAg prevalence estimate was greater than expected. Screening of hepatitis B and C should be strengthened and should account for social vulnerability.

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    • "In fact, other studies have suggested that HCV prevalence may be declining with time in some countries [28] [29] [56] [57]. Similarly, the viraemic rate was applied to the 2013 estimates. "
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    ABSTRACT: The treatment of chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection has the potential to change significantly over the next few years as therapeutic regimens are rapidly evolving. However, the burden of chronic infection has not been quantified at the global level using the most recent data. Updated estimates of HCV prevalence, viremia and genotypes are critical for developing strategies to manage or eliminate HCV infection. To achieve this, a comprehensive literature search was conducted for anti-HCV prevalence, viraemic prevalence and genotypes for all countries. Studies were included based on how well they could be extrapolated to the general population, sample size and the age of the study. Available country estimates were used to develop regional and global estimates. Eighty-seven countries reported anti-HCV prevalence, while HCV viraemic rates were available for fifty-four countries. Total global viraemic HCV infections were estimated at 80 (64-103) million infections. Genotype distribution was available for ninety-eight countries. Globally, genotype 1 (G1) was the most common (46%), followed by G3 (22%), G2 (13%), and G4 (13%). In conclusion, the total number of HCV infections reported here are lower than previous estimates. The exclusion of data from earlier studies conducted at the peak of the HCV epidemic, along with adjustments for reduced prevalence among children, are likely contributors. The results highlight the need for more robust surveillance studies to quantify the HCV disease burden more accurately.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2014 · Journal of Hepatology
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    • "[35]. Considering the relatively high rate of hepatitis B infection and alcohol abuse in Korea, social inequalities in hepatitis B viral infection and hazardous alcohol use might well have contributed to the significant part of the socioeconomic inequalities in liver disease [36-38]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background Decomposition of socioeconomic inequalities in life expectancy by ages and causes allow us to better understand the nature of socioeconomic mortality inequalities and to suggest priority areas for policy and intervention. This study aimed to quantify age- and cause-specific contributions to socioeconomic differences in life expectancy at age 25 by educational level among South Korean adult men and women. Methods We used National Death Registration records in 2005 (129,940 men and 106,188 women) and national census data in 2005 (15, 215, 523 men and 16,077,137 women aged 25 and over). Educational attainment as the indicator of socioeconomic position was categorized into elementary school graduation or less, middle or high school graduation, and college graduation or higher. Differences in life expectancy at age 25 by educational level were estimated by age- and cause-specific mortality differences using Arriaga’s decomposition method. Results Differences in life expectancy at age 25 between college or higher education and elementary or less education were 16.23 years in men and 7.69 years in women. Young adult groups aged 35–49 in men and aged 25–39 in women contributed substantially to the differences between college or higher education and elementary or less education in life expectancy. Suicide and liver disease were the most important causes of death contributing to the differences in life expectancy in young adult groups. For older age groups, cerebrovascular disease and lung cancer were important to explain educational differential in life expectancy at 25–29 between college or higher education and middle or higher education. Conclusions The contribution of the causes of death to socioeconomic inequality in life expectancy at age 25 in South Korea varied by age groups and differed by educational comparisons. The age specific contributions for different causes of death to life expectancy inequalities by educational attainment should be taken into account in establishing effective policy strategies to reduce socioeconomic inequalities in life expectancy.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2014 · BMC Public Health
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    • "Such a pattern of HCV transmission is unique. Indeed, in the French study reported by Meffre C et al., nearly 50% of HCV transmission was found in intravenous drug users and only 15% was transmitted nosocomially [13]. "
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    ABSTRACT: The prevalence of chronic hepatitis B and C was evaluated some twenty years ago among specific populations in Guadeloupe. The present study was designed to update these data and determine epidemiological features of chronic hepatitis B and C infections in the French Caribbean island of Guadeloupe. The present study was carried out at the Sainte Genevieve Health and Prevention Center (Guadeloupe), between May 2006 and July 2007. This is a medical center where patients can attend a free medical check-up paid for by the Social Security system. Data on hepatitis B (HBV) and C (HCV) status and epidemiological factors were collected for this study.A total of 2,200 patients were included in the study. The prevalence of HBV surface antigen was 1.41% (95% CI: 1.0-2.0), and 0.55% (95% CI: 0.28-0.96) for HCV. The vaccination rate against HBV was 42.0%. HBV transmission was associated with piercing (12.9%, p = 0.014) and familial exposure (6.4%, p < 0.001) and HCV transmission with gynecological surgery (50.0%, p = 0.01). The HBV profile was generally hepatitis B e antigen-negative (94.5%). No hepatitis delta was found. For HCV, genotype 1 was predominant (80%). This is the first study on the prevalence of HBV and HCV among a general clinic based population in Guadeloupe and the Caribbean islands. This study reveals that Guadeloupe is an area of low endemicity for HBV and low HCV prevalence. The reasons for these low prevalence rates are mainly related to the vaccination campaigns carried out during the past twenty years for HBV and the decrease of nosocomial transmission for HCV.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2014 · BMC Research Notes
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