Glycoprofiling of the Human Salivary Proteome
Introduction Glycosylation is an important component for a number of biological processes and is perhaps the most abundant and complicated of the known post-translational modifications found on proteins. Methods This work combines two-dimensional (2-D) polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and lectin blotting to map the salivary glycome and mass spectrometry to identity the proteins that are associated with the glycome map. A panel of 15 lectins that recognize six sugar-specific categories was used to visualize the type and extent of glycosylation in saliva from two healthy male individuals. Lectin blots were compared to 2-D gels stained either with Sypro Ruby (protein stain) or Pro-Q Emerald 488 (glycoprotein stain). Results Each lectin shows a distinct pattern, even those belonging to the same sugar-specific category. In addition, the glycosylation profiles generated from the lectin blots show that most salivary proteins are glycosylated and that the profiles are more widespread than is demonstrated by the glycoprotein-stained gel. Finally, the coreactivity between lectins was measured to determine what types of glycan structures are associated with one another and also the population variation of the lectin reactivity for 66 individuals were reported. Conclusions This starting 2-D gel glycosylation reference map shows that the scientifically accepted, individual oligosaccharide variability is not limited to a few large glycoproteins such as MUC5B, but are found on most members of the salivary proteome. Finally, in order to see the full range of oligosaccharide distribution, multiple reagents or lectins are needed.