Induced Pluripotent Reprogramming from Promiscuous Human Stemness-Related Factors

Marriott Heart Disease Research Program, Division of Cardiovascular Diseases, Department of Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA.
Clinical and Translational Science (Impact Factor: 1.43). 04/2009; 2(2):118-26. DOI: 10.1111/j.1752-8062.2009.00091.x
Source: PubMed


Ectopic expression of pluripotency gene sets provokes nuclear reprogramming in permissive somatic tissue environments generating induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells. The evolutionary conserved function of stemness orthologs was here tested through interspecies transduction. A spectrum of HIV-based lentiviral vectors was designed, and point mutations in the HIV-1 capsid region identified for efficient infectivity and expanded trans-species tropism. Human pluripotent gene sequences, OCT3/4, SOX2, KLF4 and c-MYC, packaged into engineered lentiviral expression vectors achieved consistent expression in non-human fibroblasts. Despite variation in primary amino-acid sequence between species, introduction of human pluripotent genes produced cell lines with embryonic stem cell-like morphology. Transduced fibroblasts differentiated in vitro into all three germ layers according to gastrulation gene expression profiles, and formed in vivo teratoma with multi-lineage potential. Reprogrammed progeny incorporated into non-human morula to produce blastomeres capable of developing into chimeric embryos with competent organogenesis. This model system establishes a prototypic approach to examine consequences of human stemness factors induced reprogramming in the context of normal embryonic development, exploiting non-human early stage embryos. Thus, ectopic xeno-transduction across species unmasks the promiscuous nature of stemness induction, suggesting evolutionary selection of core processes for somatic tissue reprogramming.

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Available from: Yasuhiro Ikeda
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    • "Dermal keratinocytes were reprogrammed to generate human iPS cell clones as described previously, with minor modifications [24,25]. Briefly, 20% confluent keratinocytes were transduced with OCT3/4-expressing, SOX2-expressing, KLF4-expressing and c-MYC-expressing lentiviral vectors each at a multiplicity of infection of 5 in EpiLife medium. "
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    ABSTRACT: End-stage renal disease (ESRD) is a major public health problem. Although kidney transplantation is a viable therapeutic option, this therapy is associated with significant limitations, including a shortage of donor organs. Induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cell technology, which allows derivation of patient-specific pluripotent stem cells, could provide a possible alternative modality for kidney replacement therapy for patients with ESRD. The feasibility of iPS cell generation from patients with a history of ESRD was investigated using lentiviral vectors expressing pluripotency-associated factors. In the present article we report, for the first time, generation of iPS cells from kidney transplant recipients with a history of autosomal-dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD), systemic lupus erythematosus, or Wilms tumor and ESRD. Lentiviral transduction of OCT4, SOX2, KLF4 and c-MYC, under feeder-free conditions, resulted in reprogramming of skin-derived keratinocytes. Keratinocyte-derived iPS cells exhibited properties of human embryonic stem cells, including morphology, growth properties, expression of pluripotency genes and surface markers, spontaneous differentiation and teratoma formation. All iPS cell clones from the ADPKD patient retained the conserved W3842X mutation in exon 41 of the PKD1 gene. Our results demonstrate successful iPS cell generation from patients with a history of ESRD, PKD1 gene mutation, or chronic immunosuppression. iPS cells from autosomal kidney diseases, such as ADPKD, would provide unique opportunities to study patient-specific disease pathogenesis in vitro.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2011 · Stem Cell Research & Therapy
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    • "Pluripotency-associated factor-expressing lentiviral vectors, pSIN-OCT4, pSIN-SOX2, pSIN-KLF4, and pSIN-cMYC were described previously [12]. These vectors were produced by transient transfection of 293T cells. "
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    ABSTRACT: The induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) technology allows generation of patient-specific pluripotent stem cells, thereby providing a novel cell-therapy platform for severe degenerative diseases. One of the key issues for clinical-grade iPSC derivation is the accessibility of donor cells used for reprogramming. We examined the feasibility of reprogramming mobilized GMP-grade hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPCs) and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and tested the pluripotency of derived iPS clones. Ectopic expression of OCT4, SOX2, KLF4, and c-MYC in HPCs and PBMCs resulted in rapid iPSC derivation. Long-term time-lapse imaging revealed efficient iPSC growth under serum- and feeder-free conditions with frequent mitotic events. HPC- and PBMC-derived iPS cells expressed pluripotency-associated markers, including SSEA-4, TRA-1-60, and NANOG. The global gene-expression profiles demonstrated the induction of endogenous pluripotent genes, such as LIN28, TERT, DPPA4, and PODXL, in derived iPSCs. iPSC clones from blood and other cell sources showed similar ultrastructural morphologies and genome-wide gene-expression profiles. On spontaneous and guided differentiation, HPC- and PBMC-derived iPSCs were differentiated into cells of three germ layers, including insulin-producing cells through endodermal lineage, verifying the pluripotency of the blood-derived iPSC clones. Because the use of blood cells allows minimally invasive tissue procurement under GMP conditions and rapid cellular reprogramming, mobilized HPCs and unmobilized PBMCs would be ideal somatic cell sources for clinical-grade iPSC derivation, especially from diabetes patients complicated by slow-healing wounds.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2011 · Stem Cell Research & Therapy
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    • "Although the act of one microRNA may not be adequate to change the fate of stem cell, but it has the potential to manipulate the accurate regulation of pluripotency network. Stemness is often considered by significant expression of pluripotent genes such as Oct4, Nanog, Sox2, … but to define the exact criteria as to stemness is controversial.[51] "
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    ABSTRACT: MicroRNAs are endogenous non-coding RNAs with important regulatory and cell fate functions. Many studies have shown that several microRNAs are obviously up-regulated during stem cell differentiation. The question rises here is weather inhibiting differentiation will affect the stemness and self renewal status of stem cells. miRCURY ™LNA microRNA inhibitor (anti-miR-145 and anti-let7g) are a sequence-specific and chemically modified oligonucleotide that specifically target and knockdown miR-145 and let7g miRNA molecules. Unrestricted somatic stem cells (USSCs) were isolated from umbilical cord blood and treated with LNAs. The effect of anti-miRNA transfection was assessed by quantitative real-time PCR. Real-time PCR showed that LNA was efficiently introduced into the cells and reduced miR145 and Let7g expression levels to 40% and 10% in relation to corresponding scramble control, respectively. Gene expression analysis as to self renewal and expansion showed more than 3.5 fold up regulation in Oct4 in cells treated with mir145 inhibition. Similarly a significant up to 2.5 fold up-regulation in Oct4 and cMyc expression was observed in samples treated with anti-let7g. Suppression in differentiation inducing microRNAs (miR-145 and let7g) can enhance the self renewal and stemness status of USSCs at transcriptional level.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2011
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