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The Curiosity and Exploration Inventory-II: Development, Factor Structure, and Psychometrics

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Abstract

Given curiosity's fundamental role in motivation, learning, and well-being, we sought to refine the measurement of trait curiosity with an improved version of the Curiosity and Exploration Inventory (CEI; Kashdan, Rose, & Fincham, 2004). A preliminary pool of 36 items was administered to 311 undergraduate students, who also completed measures of emotion, emotion regulation, personality, and well-being. Factor analyses indicated a two factor model-motivation to seek out knowledge and new experiences (Stretching; 5 items) and a willingness to embrace the novel, uncertain, and unpredictable nature of everyday life (Embracing; 5 items). In two additional samples (ns = 150 and 119), we cross-validated this factor structure and provided initial evidence for construct validity. This includes positive correlations with personal growth, openness to experience, autonomy, purpose in life, self-acceptance, psychological flexibility, positive affect, and positive social relations, among others. Applying item response theory (IRT) to these samples (n = 578), we showed that the items have good discrimination and a desirable breadth of difficulty. The item information functions and test information function were centered near zero, indicating that the scale assesses the mid-range of the latent curiosity trait most reliably. The findings thus far provide good evidence for the psychometric properties of the 10-item CEI-II.

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... Strong desires to confront and indulge in demanding and speculative situations with recognition and perusal explains the curiosity in human being. Kashdan et al. (2009) proposed a two-factor construct of curiosity comprised of stretching and embracing. Stretching reflects the motivation to seek out knowledge and new experiences, whereas embracing is related to willingness to accept the uncertain nature of life. ...
... Studies reported that curiosity is related to satisfaction with life, pleasure in life, and meaning in life , work satisfaction (Peterson et al., 2010) and growth-oriented behavior with greater presence and search for meaning (Kashdan & Steger, 2007). More researches reported positive associations between well-being and intrinsic motivation (Ryan & Deci, 2000), flow (Nakamura and Csikszentmihalyi, 2002), or openness to experience (McCrae & Costa, 1999) which are all related to curiosity (Kashdan et al., 2009). As the curiosity in nature is intrinsically motivated, it is expected that it will show positive association with SWB. ...
... Using the using a 5-point scale ranging from 1 (very slightly or not at all) to 5 (extremely). Kashdan et al. (2009) found that the CEI-II is both valid and reliable measure of curiosity. For the present study, reliability of this scale was found 0.71, which is above the acceptance level. ...
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The present study aimed to explore the mediating role of self-efficacy beliefs in the relationship of curiosity with subjective well-being (Life satisfaction, positive experience, and negative experience) in Hindi-speaking Indian youth. Eleven hundred forty-nine (N = 1149) participants with the mean age of 18.50 (SD = 1.6) completed the Curiosity and Exploration Inventory – II, Satisfaction with Life Scale, Scale of Positive and Negative Experience, and General Self-efficacy Scale. Correlational analysis indicates significant association of self-efficacy beliefs with both components of curiosity as well as all three components of subjective well-being. On the other hand, stretching component of curiosity measure found significantly correlated other variables used in the study, and the embracing components found correlated only with positive experience component of subjective well-being. Path analysis suggests that self-efficacy beliefs significantly mediate the association of new experiences with life satisfaction, negative experience and uncertain experiences with life satisfaction, negative experience of a person. Also, self-efficacy beliefs have partial mediation on the association of stretching and embracing with positive experience. Findings suggest that being able to control thoughts, behavior and actions contributes positively to emotional as well as cognitive development at all stages of life.
... Curiosity was assessed by the Curiosity and Exploration Inventory (CEI-II) [71]. This instrument comprises 10 items with 5 Likert-type response options, where 1 indicates "Very little or not at all" and 5 "Very much". ...
... This instrument comprises 10 items with 5 Likert-type response options, where 1 indicates "Very little or not at all" and 5 "Very much". The internal consistency of this scale has ranged in previous studies between 0.77 and 0.90 [71][72][73][74]. Stretching, the drive to seek out new information and experiences, and Embracing, the readiness to welcome the unique, uncertain, and unpredictable aspect of everyday life, are the two domains that constitute this inventory. ...
... Stretching, the drive to seek out new information and experiences, and Embracing, the readiness to welcome the unique, uncertain, and unpredictable aspect of everyday life, are the two domains that constitute this inventory. However, both the authors themselves [71] and subsequent studies [74] have pointed out the appropriateness of using the full-scale score as a single factor. The version of the instrument used was extracted from the HBSC study in Spain [64]. ...
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This study aims to identify the relationships between eating habits and psychological adjustment and health perception, and to analyze potential mediating role of healthy and unhealthy foods in the relationship between adherence to the Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) and the psychological constructs and health perception. The sample was selected through stratified random cluster sampling and was composed of 788 university students. The participants responded to a MedDiet adherence screener and food consumption inventory to assess the eating habits, instruments measuring self-esteem, life satisfaction, curiosity and sense of coherence to assess the psychological adjustment, and single item measuring perceived health. The results revealed 41.9% of the participants had a high consumption of vegetables and 85.1% a low consumption of energy drinks, while 29.9% showed a high adherence to the MedDiet which was positively associated to each psychological variable and healthy foods and negatively with unhealthy foods. In conclusion, a higher adherence to the MedDiet, and the consumption of fruits and vegetables is related to higher psychological adjustment and health perception. However, the relationships between MedDiet and the psychological variables and health perception were fully or partially explained because of the consumption of healthy and unhealthy foods.
... Furthermore, mindful self-awareness and the uninhibited pursuit of personal goals are crucial for authentic self-development (Kernis & Goldman, 2006;Ryan & Deci, 2004). In a related vein, curiosity is defined as an inclination to seek novelty, uncertainty, and challenges that expand one's worldview and sense of self (Kashdan et al., 2009). These qualities are likely to foster interest in, and reflection on, one's mortality (which is by nature uncertain and threatening); and additionally imply an interest in personal growth that is likely to enhance authentic responses to death. ...
... Curiosity and Exploration Inventory-II (Kashdan et al., 2009). Trait curiosity was measured with 10 items reflecting the degree to which one actively seeks to stretch or expand their capacities and experiences, and embraces novelty and uncertainty (possible range of averaged scores = 1-5). ...
Article
Despite research demonstrating positive outcomes of conscious death reflection, very little research directly examines a core proposition of existential psychologists—that death reflection provides an opportunity for more authentic living. The current study compared individuals chronically exposed to genuine mortality cues (funeral/cemetery workers, n = 107) to a matched control sample ( n = 121) on autonomous motivation. It also assessed the moderating role of six constructs implicated in growth-oriented processing of death reflection: psychological flexibility, curiosity, neutral death acceptance, death anxiety, approach-oriented coping, and avoidant coping. Funeral/cemetery workers were significantly higher on autonomous motivation, and death-related work was found to have a more positive association with autonomous motivation for those higher on flexibility and lower on death anxiety. This has implications for both understanding which individuals are most likely to experience growth motivations when confronting death, and potential avenues for facilitating these motivations to enhance well-being.
... Building on the research that conceptualizes play as a manifestation of specific tendencies and capacities, we hypothesize that PWD correlates positively with general tendencies associated with play such as trait curiosity and trait openness. Curiosity describes the pursuit, recognition, and desire to explore novel, uncertain, complex, and ambiguous events (Kashdan et al., 2009). Likewise, individuals high in trait openness have the "recurrent need to enlarge and examine experiences" (McCrae and Costa, 1997: 826). ...
... We measured trait curiosity and trait openness. Curiosity was measured with the 10-item Curiosity and Exploration Inventory-II (Kashdan et al., 2009). Respondents rated statements such as: "I am the kind of person who embraces unfamiliar people, events, and places" (1 = not at all, 5 = extremely). ...
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Drawing on the play and work design literatures, we conceptualize and validate an instrument to measure playful work design (PWD) – the proactive cognitive-behavioral orientation that employees engage in to incorporate play into their work activities to promote fun and challenge. Across three studies (N=1006), we developed a reliable scale with a two-dimensional factor structure. In Study 1, we utilized expert-ratings and iterative exploratory factor analyses to develop an instrument that measures (1) designing fun and (2) designing competition. Additionally, Study 1 evidences the divergent and convergent validity of the subscales as well as their distinctiveness. Specifically, PWD was indicative of proactivity as well as play, and designing fun especially correlated with ludic traits (i.e., traits focused on deriving fun; e.g., humor), whereas designing competition particularly correlated with agonistic traits (i.e., traits focused on deriving challenge; e.g., competitiveness). Study 2 cross-validated the two-factor structure, further investigated the nomological net of PWD, and revealed that PWD is distinct from job crafting. Finally, Study 3 examined the predictive and incremental validity of the PWD instrument with self- and colleague-ratings two weeks apart. Taken together, the results suggest that the instrument may advance our understanding of play initiated by employees during work.
... This is how, for example, curiosity has been consistently studied, as a trait or state (Naylor, 1981), directing all our attention towards the individual and his or her mental properties. Whether associated with emotion and personality (through its proximity to interest; see Kashdan & Silvia, 2009) or with cognition (especially under the guise of epistemic curiosity, Berlyne, 1962), this phenomenon shared, in psychology at least, the same individualising fate as surprise, with which it stands related (Fisher, 1998). ...
... Reflecting on the fleeting instance of noticing the trigger reveals the prominent role that curiosity, aesthetic appeal, an exploratory attitude, and close attention to the manifestations of the material played in this process (see also Glȃveanu, this volume). Surprises elicit curiosity (Arnone, 2003), and curiosity is intrinsically linked to exploratory behaviour (Kashdan et al., 2009). Experiencing the emergence of the looped morphology was undoubtedly unexpected. ...
... The COVID-19 pandemic has profoundly affected our daily social lives, physical and mental well-being 1,2 . Trait curiosity and access to adequate information are hypothesized to promote better coping with challenging situations, enhancing well-being, mood, and life satisfaction [6][7][8][9] . In the current study, we investigated three main questions. ...
... Consistent with this, previous studies have linked high-sugar/fat intake to enhanced anxiety (for review 44 ) and changes in dopamine precursor availability 45 . Possibly, curiosity compensates for the effects of sugar on anxiety through its effect on positive mood, motivation, and enhanced mesolimbic dopamine activity 8 www.nature.com/scientificreports/ Compared to prior food diary studies e.g., 20 that assessed self-reported food intake on predefined categories (i.e., sweets, fruit, vegetables, and chips), our study takes a more holistic approach by extracting nutrients as dietary components from the quantity of each food and beverage participants consumed over the day for a week, using a food-diary app. ...
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The COVID-19 pandemic confronted humans with high uncertainty and lockdowns, which severely disrupted people’s daily social and health lifestyles, enhanced loneliness, and reduced well-being. Curiosity and information-seeking are central to behavior, fostering well-being and adaptation in changing environments. They may be particularly important to maintain well-being during the pandemic. Here, we investigated which motives drive information-seeking, and whether and how curiosity and information-seeking related to well-being and mood (excitement, anxiety). Additionally, we tested whether daily diet contributed to this relationship during lockdown. Participants (N = 183) completed questionnaires measuring curiosity, information-seeking, social and mental health. Using a smartphone app, participants submitted their daily food intake and lifestyle ratings for a week. We found participants had highest motivation to seek positive (vs. negative) information, concerning themselves more than others. Both trait curiosity and information-seeking predicted higher well-being, mediated by loneliness. Trait curiosity also predicted well-being and excitement days later. Considering diet, participants with lower trait curiosity ate food containing more tyrosine (i.e., dopamine precursor). Furthermore, participants consuming food high in sugar reported higher anxiety, which was specifically found in participants with relatively low, but not high, trait curiosity. Taken together, curiosity and information-seeking may benefit well-being and mood in high uncertain and challenging times, by interacting with lifestyle measures (loneliness and nutrition).
... Curiosity and acceptance are important elements for one person to gain creativity, fulfillment and views [1][2][3][4]. A child's tendency to ask a question shall be an initial step of building human relations and learning various things. ...
... The associated coefficients of α 0 , α 1 , α 2 , α 3 are the parameters to be estimated, and � i is a disturbance term. In Eq 1, parameter α 1 is of particular interest to statistically examine question (1). For the happiness of subject i, the model is ...
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Inquisitiveness (curiosity & acceptance to something and someone different) is the main engine for one person to initiate some relation, and the literature has established that maintaining nice relationships with friends, family and general others contributes to generativity and happiness. However, little is known about how generativity and happiness are characterized by inquisitiveness. We hypothesize that inquisitiveness is a fundamental determinant for generativity and happiness, empirically examining the relationships along with cognitive, noncognitive and sociodemographic factors. We conduct questionnaire surveys with 400 Japanese subjects, applying quantile regression and structural equation modeling to the data. First, the analysis identifies the importance of inquisitiveness in characterizing generativity in that people with high inquisitiveness tend to be generative. Second, people are identified to be happy as they have high generativity and inquisitiveness, demonstrating two influential roles of inquisitiveness as direct and indirect determinants through a mediator of generativity. Overall, the results suggest that inquisitiveness shall be a key element of people’s happiness through intergenerational and intragenerational communications or relations.
... Questionnaire (Engeser & Rheinberg, 2008) in order to determine how engaged and absorbed participants were during the experiment; (2) Intrinsic Motivation Inventory (Deci, Eghrari, Patrick, & Leone, 1994;Ryan, 1982) to examine the subject's level of interest, curiosity, and how important they perceived the activity to be; (3) Sense of Competence Questionnaire (Williams & Deci, 1996) in order to determine how competent and confident participants felt about themselves during the experiment, whether they perceived that they achieved their goals and met the challenges; (4) Exploration Questionnaire (Kashdan et al., 2009) was used to identify to what extent the subject was willing to explore in a novel environment or experience; ...
... Additionally, our study with both experiments was granted approval from the Adelson School of Entrepreneurship Ethics Committee in the Reichman University according to the standard ethical guidelines in conducting experiments with human participants.Q5. Exploration (1-5 scale; Very slightly or not at all -Extremely)Kashdan, T. B., Gallagher, M. W., Silvia, P. J., Winterstein, B. P., Breen, W. E.,Terhar, D., & Steger, M. F. (2009). The curiosity and exploration inventory-II: Development, factor structure, and psychometrics. ...
... Once again, prior to participating in our investigation, no youth in the sample had ever track cycled before, however, all you participants had been involved with other sports. Researchers have suggested that some people tend to seek out new knowledge and experiences more than others, as well as have a stronger willingness to tolerate novel and uncertain situations (Kashdan et al., 2009). The voucher provided through our intervention would have been the first-time youth and their parents would have been offered the option of trying track cycling. ...
... The aim of Lake's (2013) study involving 539 firstand second-year Japanese female students representing different majors was to investigate the relationships among global positive psychology concepts, motivational concepts, positive L2 self-variables and TL proficiency. The analysis of the data gathered by means of the Grit-O Scale (Duckworth et al., 2007), the Curiosity and Exploration Inventory-II (Kashdan et al., 2009), positive L2 self-measures and L2 motivational measures demonstrated that grittier students were more willing to invest their time and energy in learning the English language and to display higher levels of curiosity, hope, subjective happiness and flourishing. ...
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The foreign and second language (L2) learning process is shaped by a constellation of individual difference (ID) factors, some of which (e.g., age, anxiety, motivation, aptitude, learning styles, language learning strategies) have long been investigated by specialists, whereas others have only recently attracted their attention. One of such underexplored variables is grit, usually referred to as a personality trait predictive of success and supportive of various important skills including, among others, cooperation and creative thinking. Given the vital role that this ID factor might play in the L2 classroom, the present paper reports a mixed-methods study which addressed the following issues: (1) the level of grit experienced by 99 Polish university BA students majoring in English, (2) the differences in this respect between 1st-, 2nd- and 3rd-year students, and (3) possible manifestations and dynamics of grit in learning English as a foreign language (EFL). Grit was measured using the Polish version of Teimouri et al.’s (2020) language-specific grit scale and a semi-structured interview. One-way ANOVA was employed to quantitatively compare the means of the respondents enrolled in different levels of a BA program, whereas a four-stage procedure (Dörnyei, 2007) was adopted to analyze the qualitative data. The results demonstrated a relatively high level of grit among all the respondents and statistically significant differences for one of its components, that is, consistency of interest in learning the target language between 1st- and 2nd- as well as 1st- and 3rd-year students. This particular subconstruct of grit was found to be mediated by such factors as learning styles and strategies, emotions, weariness or personality. In addition, grit was shown to be linked to participants’ identification of their L2 learning weaknesses and the ability to eliminate them.
... The questionnaire used a Likert scale with a range of 1−7, 1 as strongly disagree, and 7 as strongly agree. The scale was adopted from several sources: the economic value scale from Lee, Pi, Kwok, and Huynh (2003), the perceived ease of use, social influence, and intention to use scales from (Thakur & Srivastava, 2014), the firm reputation scale from Jin, Park, and Kim (2008), and the curiosity scale from Kashdan et al. (2009). We used self-developed scales from the interview results for the other variables (promotion, features, and rewards). ...
Article
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Currently, most traditional banks provide digital services and the government encourages people to use cashless payments in their everyday life, particularly during the pandemic when the demand for avoiding physical encounters is getting higher. There is a growing trend in the development of digital-only banks, a fully virtual bank without individual physical branches where all banking activities operate through mobile applications. Fully virtual operations change how individuals experience the service, and subsequently, their consumption and financial habits. This research explores the experiential factors affecting digital-only banking services among the generation Y and Z. A mixed-method approach was applied using semi-structured interviews and empirical surveys. We interviewed 20 respondents to explore customers' experiences, followed by a survey to test the hypotheses developed from the proposed factors to 402 respondents aged 17 −35 who used digital banking in the past six months. We analyzed the relationship of eight variables when using digital-only banking: economic value, ease of use, social influence, firm reputation, promotion, features , curiosity, and reward. Results show that all variables except curiosity and sales promotion significantly impact intention to use digital-only banking. Creating an attractive and simple digital banking interface is important to support an ease-of-use experience for customers. However, to ensure positive customer experiences , other factors must be applied, such as rewards, unique features, and positive word-of-mouth.
... Resilience was measured using the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (Campbell-Sills and Stein, 2007), a 10-item scale with items such as "I am able to adapt when changes occur," measured on a scale from 1 ("not at all") to 5 ("nearly true all the time"); The Purpose in Life Test, Short Form (Schulenberg et al., 2011), a 4-item scale, was used to index sense of meaning and purposefulness in life, assessed on a scale from 1 ("no goals/purpose/progress/meaning") to 7 ("very clear goals/purpose/progress/meaning"). Dispositional gratitude, optimism, and curiosity were each assessed using single 7-point Likert scale items adapted from the Gratitude Questionnaire (GQ-6;McCullough et al., 2001), the Life Orientation Test-Revised (LOTS-R; Glaesmer et al., 2012), and the Curiosity and Exploration Inventory-II (CEI-II; Kashdan et al., 2009), respectively. Sense of community integration and acceptance was assessed with a single item, "I feel well integrated in my community." ...
Article
Suicide is a major public health problem in U.S. military veterans, but little is known about factors associated with remission from suicide attempts in this population. We aimed to identify risk and protective correlates of remission from suicidal thoughts and behavior (STB) in U.S. veterans with a prior suicide attempt. Data were analyzed from the 2019-2020 National Health and Resilience in Veterans Study survey. A broad range of sociodemographic, military, physical and mental health, and psychosocial variable were assessed. Purpose in life, dispositional gratitude, and conscientiousness emerged as independent correlates of STB remission (24.3%-40.3% of explained variance), even after accounting for other relevant risk and protective factors. While the cross-sectional nature of the study precludes the ability to determine whether the identified protective factors are causally related to STB remission, results suggest three potentially modifiable targets for suicide prevention efforts in veterans. Longitudinal studies are needed to better understand the role of purpose in life, dispositional gratitude, and conscientiousness in promoting remission from STBs in veterans and other populations at risk for suicide.
... Curiosity/. exploration † Curiosity was assessed using the following item from the Curiosity and Exploration Inventory-II (Kashdan et al., 2009), "I frequently find myself looking for new opportunities to grow as a person (e.g., information, people, resources)." Participants rated that single item on a scale from 1 (Strongly disagree) to 7 (Strongly agree). ...
Article
Background Dispositional gratitude has been implicated as a psychological characteristic that may modulate risk for mental health outcomes. Using a population-based sample of U.S. military veterans, this study evaluated the association between dispositional gratitude and the development of psychopathology and suicidal behaviors over a 7-year period. Methods A nationally representative sample of U.S. veterans was surveyed at four timepoints across seven years. Analyses were restricted to veterans without incident outcomes at baseline. Multivariable analyses were conducted to examine the relation between baseline levels of dispositional gratitude and risk of developing (a) major depressive disorder (MDD), generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), or posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD); (b) suicidal ideation; and (c) suicide attempts. Results A total 9.6% of veterans developed MDD, GAD, and/or PTSD, 9.5% developed suicidal ideation, and 2.8% reported having attempted suicide over the 7-year follow-up period. Among veterans with high levels of dispositional gratitude, incidence was lower for MDD/GAD/PTSD (8.0%), suicidal ideation (6.8%), and suicide attempts (1.5%). Conversely, veterans with low dispositional gratitude were at substantially higher risk of developing MDD/GAD/PTSD (27.7%), suicidal ideation (33.6%), and suicide attempts (20.3%). Conclusions High dispositional gratitude may help protect against the development of psychopathology and suicidal behaviors in U.S. military veterans, whereas low gratitude may increase risk of developing these outcomes. Collectively, these results support the potential utility of enhancing gratitude as part of primary prevention efforts for veterans, service members, and other populations at heightened risk for adverse mental health outcomes.
... Two positive psychological assessment tools (Jarden, 2011) were also used to gather data: the Curiosity and Exploration Inventory-II (CEI-II) and the Strengths Use and Current Knowledge Scale (SUCK). The CEI-II developed by Kashdan et al. (2009) consisted of 10 items that assess individual differences in the recognition, pursuit, and integration of novel and challenging experiences and information. It is a scale with two factors, Stretching (5 items; 1,3,5,7,9) described as motivation to seek out knowledge and new experiences, and Embracing (5 items; 2,4,6,8,10) or willingness to embrace the novel, uncertain, and unpredictable nature of everyday life. ...
... Although it shares conceptual similarity with a number of other future-oriented constructs (Krafft, Martin-Krumm, & Fenouillet, 2017), hope is defined as a cognitive and dispositional process that involves agency and pathways for reaching one's goals (Snyder, 1995(Snyder, , 2002(Snyder, , 2004Snyder, Cheavens, & Sympson, 1997;Snyder et al., 1991). Other goal-directed constructs include optimism (Alarcon, Bowling, & Khazon, 2013;Scheier & Carver, 1985), self-efficacy (Bandura, 1977(Bandura, , 1997, meaning in life (Schnell, 2009;Steger, 2012), curiosity (Kashdan et al., 2009) and motivation (ed. Ryan, 2012). ...
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Snyder’s model of hope conceptualises and operationalises hope as a cognitive, trait-like bi-dimensional future-oriented construct consisting of pathways thinking and agency thinking for goal achievement. The present study implemented exploratory structural equation modelling (ESEM) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) on the Dispositional Hope Scale, using data from two South African student samples (n = 383, 48% female, 21.70 years average age and n = 251, 68% female, 20.55 years average age), with the aim to examine its factor structure in an African context. The results showed that a six item unidimensional solution of hope fit the data best. This model characterises hope as the ability to make plans, informed by past experiences and to spontaneously manoeuvre around obstacles as any situation may call for it. This finding has implications for the measurement of hope and development of emic operational models in an African context.
... Besides the daily diary, participants also completed a survey to report their trait-level characteristics, including demographics, mental well-being, and general curiosity. Daily curiosity was assessed as part of the daily diary with two items taken from the Curiosity and Exploration Inventory-II (CEI-II; Kashdan et al., 2009): (a) "Today, I viewed challenging situations as an opportunity to grow and learn," and (b) "Everywhere I went today, I was out looking for new things or experiences." Participants responded to both the items on a slider from 0 (not at all) to 10 (very) in increments of .1, with a daily curiosity score derived as the average score of the two items. ...
Article
Drawing upon recent developments in structural equation modeling, the current study presents an analytical framework for addressing research questions in which, rather than focusing on means, it is intraindividual (or intragroup) variability that is of direct research interest. Beyond merely serving as an alternative to existing multilevel modeling approaches, this framework allows for extensions to accommodate a variety of complex research scenarios by parameterizing variability as a latent variable that can in turn be embedded within a broader covariance and mean structure involving other observed and/or latent variables. The estimation procedures and parameter interpretation for the latent random variability models are discussed. The versatility of the proposed methods is demonstrated through four empirical examples. The Mplus, BUGS, and Stan model syntax for the illustrative examples are supplied to facilitate the application of the methods. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved).
... Supporting individuals' novel and growth opportunities through curiosity must consider individuals' positive psychology aspect: personal growth, openness to experience, autonomy, meaning in life, self-acceptance, psychological flexibility, idealized influence, and social relations as Item Response Theory (IRT) characteristics suggest (Martarelli et al. 2021;Kashdan et al. 2009;Kashdan 2009). ...
Conference Paper
The study reports technology and business fields undergraduate adolescent (n = 76) personality traits using the Autotelic Personality Questionnaire (APQ). The aim is to evaluate APQ’s reliability and validity and discuss its results. Piloted outcomes provide a comforting fit for psychological coherence, invariance measurement, and test reliability. Autotelic Personality (AP) is like a zodiac of star chart for positioning personality qualities. High AP is promoting engagement and satisfaction in periodic liveliness. The recently validated AP instrument’s potential is the quintessential set for traversed features that facilitate perceptual flow in daily life. Study variables tested reliability from the construct and composite validity. The data-driven in Factor Analysis (FA) with Principal Component Analysis (PCA) showed, in general, miserable Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin (KMO) without altering the endogenous variables structures by eliminating weaknesses with modifications. Weaknesses indicated the most exciting discoveries, and the model was left for further analysis because it is factorizing barely successfully. Weaknesses are visible in the cross-tabulated correlation/covariate structure, in which each square rooted average variance extract surpasses comparable values for almost every correlating loading. The research questions (RQs) are formed from the top levels and cover the treatment of psychometrics sub-concepts. The RQs are at what level, association, and context of the APQ, 7-core characters relate with existing AP framework model fit indices. As empirical results for RQ 1 barometric examined mainly positively skewed sum variable relations for AP Meta-Skills: Curiosity (CU), Persistence (PE), Low Self-centeredness (LC), Intrinsic Motivation (IM), and Receptive-Active Model postulates sum of Enjoyment and transformation of Challenge (EC), neutrally perceived Enjoyment and transformation of Boredom (EB), and Attentional Control (AC). That leaves us RQ 2 on the one hand. The confidence interval comparison of CU, PE, LC, IM, EC, EB, and AC shows meaningful, proprietary correlations (β >= .2) for AP sum, leaving the research hypotheses valid due to connections. On the other hand, RQ 3 addresses the discriminant validity by squaring correlation loadings, similarly as initialized for AVE thematics. Each factor R-square considers discriminant validity issues because four out of seven (4/7) elements of AP sum correlate more highly with variables outside the parent factor than with the parent factor. The study discriminates the weak latent variables for RQ 3 by which AVE is obtained over (> .5). The sieved latent variables are finally considered and elaborated on the problem areas of cause-and-effect relationships and solutions. The study is seeking resolution for CU, LC, EC, and AC biases. Positive evidence for idealized PE, IM, and EB results in recommendation changing pedagogical practice.
... Salient between-person, cross-sectional findings also emerged, such that lower NFC was correlated with elevated ADS across each and every time-point, even after controlling for within-person and other effects in the RI-CLPM. This finding can be explained by the fact that, akin to dispositional curiosity, lower NFC tended to be associated with greater intolerance and suboptimal ways of coping with uncertainty, ambiguity, and novelty across diverse challenging yet possibly gratifying and enriching situations (Kashdan et al., 2009;Koerner, Mejia, & Kusec, 2017). It is also consistent with data that stronger dispositional curiosity dovetailed with various indices of psychological well-being, such as sense of purpose and meaning, life satisfaction, and growth-facilitating actions (Kashdan & Steger, 2007). ...
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Introduction: Decreased motivational tendency to seek out, engage in, and enjoy investing in complex cognitive processes in a sustained manner (need for cognition; NFC) may be a predictor and consequence of heightened anxiety and depression symptoms (ADS). However, the majority of investigations on this topic have been cross-sectional, which hinders causal inferences. Methods: The current study thus determined the within-person relations between NFC and ADS by using random intercept cross-lagged panel model (RI-CLPM) and bivariate dual latent change score (BLCS) approaches to separate between- and within-person effects. RI-CLPM and BLCS also present with advantages of adjusting for regression to the mean, baseline scores, autoregressive and lagged effects, and minimizing measurement error. Community-dwelling adults (n = 6750) completed the Mental Health Inventory-5 and trait-level NFC scales approximately every one year across 10 years. Results: RI-CLPM showed that within persons, lower level of NFC predicted higher future level of ADS, and vice versa (d = -0.852 to -0.498). Likewise, BLCS demonstrated that within persons, smaller change in NFC forecasted larger subsequent increase in ADS, and conversely (d = -0.631 to -0.519). Findings remained after adjusting for socio-demographic covariates. Conclusion: Consistent with theories, findings suggested that the within-person level-to-future level and change-to-future change relations among NFC and ADS were bi-directional and negative, with moderate-to-large effect sizes. Targeting NFC may treat or prevent the emergence of depression and anxiety disorders. Such efforts may include augmenting or personalizing evidence-based cognitive behavioral therapeutic strategies for individuals with or at-risk for heightened ADS.
... Therefore, although Greek philosophers saw in it a virtue from which philosophy itself was born, the theme of curiosity did not know distinct approaches of renown, most often being tacitly assumed alongside knowledge, losing sight of the fact that in reality knowledge is a result, a product of the natural disposition (drive) of research, and the need for the new (neophilia) is a fundamental mental process. From the first representative study on curiosity (Berlyne, 1954) and until now the concept of curiosity has known several rigorous approaches in which several directions of measurement and operationalization have been presented (Day 1971;Loewenstein 1994;Litman & Spilberger, 2003;Litman 2008;Kashdan et al 2009;Kashdan 2019). Today we know that the well-being, mental health, wellbeing and inner balance of children and adults depend heavily on levels of intrinsic motivation, self-determination and autonomy that are all closely related to curiosity (Ryan and Deci, 2017). ...
... Two positive psychological assessment tools (Jarden, 2011) were also used to gather data: the Curiosity and Exploration Inventory-II (CEI-II) and the Strengths Use and Current Knowledge Scale (SUCK). The CEI-II developed by Kashdan et al. (2009) consisted of 10 items that assess individual differences in the recognition, pursuit, and integration of novel and challenging experiences and information. It is a scale with two factors, Stretching (5 items; 1,3,5,7,9) described as motivation to seek out knowledge and new experiences, and Embracing (5 items; 2,4,6,8,10) or willingness to embrace the novel, uncertain, and unpredictable nature of everyday life. ...
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... Inventory (CEI-II, Kashdan et al., 2009) includes 10 items to measure individuals' tendency to seek new information and experiences (e.g., stretching; "I view challenging situations as an opportunity to grow and learn") and their acceptance of novelty and uncertainty in everyday life (e.g., embracing; "I am the type of person who really enjoys the uncertainty of everyday life"). A previous study of a Chinese version supported a one-factor rather than a two-factor structure (Ye et al., 2015). ...
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... 9 Lastly, participants completed three individual difference measures: a 2-item measure of familiarity with AI adapted from Gonzalez et al. (2019;e.g., "How much do you know about artificial intelligence?"; α = 0.71), a 10-item measure of trait curiosity from Kashdan et al. (2009;e.g., "I prefer jobs that are excitingly unpredictable"; α = 0.88), and a 7-item measure of trait anxiety from Bieling et al. (1998, based on Spielberger et al., 1985; e.g., "I feel nervous and restless"; α = 0.91). The former measure allowed us to test our third hypothesis, regarding the moderating effects of applicants' familiarity levels with AI/ML. ...
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... Other validated questionnaires used in the study were: MLQ subscales of Presence of Meaning and Search for Meaning (Steger et al., 2006), Self-Rated Successful Aging (Montross et al., 2006), Life Orientation Test-Revised (Optimism) (Scheier et al., 1994), Perceived Stress Scale (Cohen et al., 1983), Personal Mastery Scale (Pearlin and Schooler, 1978), Brief Symptom Inventory Anxiety Scale (Derogatis, 1992), Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) (Kroenke et al., 2001), Connor-Davidson 10-item Resilience scale (CD-RISC) (Campbell-Sills and Stein, 2007), Santa Clara Brief Compassion Scale (Hwang et al., 2008) (SCBCS), The Brief Multidimensional Measure of Religiousness/Spirituality (Fetzer Institute/National Institute on Aging Working Group, 1999) (BMMRS), CES-D Happiness Scale (Radloff, 1977), Satisfaction with Life Scale (Diener et al., 1985) (SWLS), Curiosity and Exploration Inventory (Kashdan et al., 2009), Adult Hope Scale (Snyder et al., 1991), and Social Support Index (Koenig et al., 1993). Brief descriptions of these measures have been provided in supplementary materials. ...
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... Since the emotion of curiosity appears to be the driving force behind the exploration of the environment (Voss & Keller, 2013), which is probably an indispensable precondition for any autonomous action, the positive contribution of curiosity to autonomy is not surprising. Psychometric measures of curiosity and autonomy also showed a positive relationship in a questionnaire study (Kashdan et al., 2009). Furthermore, hope appears in both samples to be a key predictor of motivated learning behavior. ...
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The Short Boredom Proneness Scale (SBPS) has recently been developed. Using a standard confirmatory factor analysis, we report on the structural validation of the French SBPS, which provided support for the original construct. A network analysis (n = 490) revealed the structure of the relationships of the SBPS and of the two facets of the Curiosity and Exploration Inventory-II (CEI-II). The analysis revealed positive connections between the boredom and curiosity items, whereas the connections between the boredom and exploration items were negative. To evaluate measurement invariance, we compared the French-speaking sample (n = 490) with an English-speaking sample (n = 364). Full configural, metric, and scalar invariance was established; thus, we provide a valid French translation of a widely used measure of boredom that may advantage future research.
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Introduction: Image schemas are perceptual-motor simulations of the world that are likely to have broad importance in understanding models of the self and its regulatory operations. Methods: Seven samples of participants (total N = 1,011) rated their preferences for unspecified entities being “open” or “closed” and scores along this dimension were linked to variations in personality, emotion, and psychopathology. Results: Individuals endorsing closed preferences to a greater extent were prone to neuroticism (Study 1), experiential avoidance (Study 2), negative affect in daily life (Study 3), and symptoms of anxiety and depression (Study 4). Discussion: Although closed preferences are likely to be endorsed for protective reasons (inasmuch as the contents of closed objects are better protected), such preferences are linked to higher, rather than lower, levels of neuroticism and distress. The findings offer new evidence for theories of neuroticism and psychopathology that emphasize operations related to defensive motivation and experiential avoidance.
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ABSTRACT: In this study, the Science Curiosity in Learning Environments (SCILE) scale, which was developed by Weible and Zimmerman (2016) to measure the scientific curiosity of young students in learning environments such as school, home, museum and society, was adapted into Turkish and its validity and reliability study was conducted. For a language validity study, the scale was translated into Turkish by the language and field experts. The Turkish form was translated into English again by a language specialist, compared to the original structure, and the scale was finalized. The data were collected from 284 students studying at two different high schools in a city in the Eastern Anatolia region of Turkey. The data were analyzed by Exploratory Factor Analysis. The exploratory factor analysis results demonstrated that the Turkish questionnaire has a two-dimensional structure and ten items. Cronbach Alpha internal consistency coefficient of the scale was found in ,799. As a result, it was concluded that the scale adapted to Turkish is a valid and reliable measurement tool that can be used to measure high school students' scientific curiosity in learning environments such as schoola, homes, museums, and society in Turkey.
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This chapter explores the characteristics of effective designers. It describes both behavioral and psychological differences between expert and novice designers. It closes with a review of how our cultural background can play a role in our design effectiveness.
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The present study examine the psychometric qualities of the Romanian version of the Positive Psychological Functioning FPP scale (Merino and Privado, 2015) and was conducted on a sample of 220 participants from the general population. The Positive Psychological Functioning can be conceptualized as a second-order factor that encompassing eleven dimensions (autonomy, resilience, self-esteem, purpose in life, enjoyment, optimism, curiosity, creativity, humor, environmental mastery and vitality). The results obtained in the present approach showed that the hierarchical factor model presented a relatively good fit χ²(484) = 1150.28, p < .001, χ²/df = 2.37, RMSEA = .079, RMR = .047, CFI = .89 with a value of the reliability coefficient for the eleven subscales as well as the whole instrument of .83-.96.; and reconfirm the conclusions of the validation studies conducted in the Spanish, Mexican and Portuguese cultural contexts, as long on the factorial structure and on the psychometric properties of the instrument. The Positive Psychological Functioning FPP scale is a new tool that provides an image of the configuration of psychological resources that is available to the adult persons and allows a short general and specific assessment of healthy psychological functioning. Cuvinte-cheie: funcționare psihologică pozitivă, chestionar FPP, validitate, analiză factorială, fidelitate.
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This book unifies and extends latent variable models, including multilevel or generalized linear mixed models, longitudinal or panel models, item response or factor models, latent class or finite mixture models, and structural equation models. Following a gentle introduction to latent variable modeling, the authors clearly explain and contrast a wide range of estimation and prediction methods from biostatistics, psychometrics, econometrics, and statistics. They present exciting and realistic applications that demonstrate how researchers can use latent variable modeling to solve concrete problems in areas as diverse as medicine, economics, and psychology. The examples considered include many nonstandard response types, such as ordinal, nominal, count, and survival data. Joint modeling of mixed responses, such as survival and longitudinal data, is also illustrated. Numerous displays, figures, and graphs make the text vivid and easy to read.
Article
Given recent attention to emotion regulation as a potentially unifying function of diverse symptom presentations, there is a need for comprehensive measures that adequately assess difficulties in emotion regulation among adults. This paper (a) proposes an integrative conceptualization of emotion regulation as involving not just the modulation of emotional arousal, but also the awareness, understanding, and acceptance of emotions, and the ability to act in desired ways regardless of emotional state; and (b) begins to explore the factor structure and psychometric properties of a new measure, the Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale (DERS). Two samples of undergraduate students completed questionnaire packets. Preliminary findings suggest that the DERS has high internal consistency, good test–retest reliability, and adequate construct and predictive validity.
Book
This graduate-level textbook is a tutorial for item response theory that covers both the basics of item response theory and the use of R for preparing graphical presentation in writings about the theory. Item response theory has become one of the most powerful tools used in test construction, yet one of the barriers to learning and applying it is the considerable amount of sophisticated computational effort required to illustrate even the simplest concepts. This text provides the reader access to the basic concepts of item response theory freed of the tedious underlying calculations. It is intended for those who possess limited knowledge of educational measurement and psychometrics. Rather than presenting the full scope of item response theory, this textbook is concise and practical and presents basic concepts without becoming enmeshed in underlying mathematical and computational complexities. Clearly written text and succinct R code allow anyone familiar with statistical concepts to explore and apply item response theory in a practical way. In addition to students of educational measurement, this text will be valuable to measurement specialists working in testing programs at any level and who need an understanding of item response theory in order to evaluate its potential in their settings. • Combines clearly written text and succinct R code • Utilizes a building-block approach from simple to complex, enabling readers to develop a clinical feel for item response theory and how its concepts are interrelated • Includes downloadable R functions that implement various facets of item response theory Frank B. Baker, Ph.D., is Professor Emeritus of the Department of Educational Psychology at the University of Wisconsin-Madison. He is author of numerous publications dealing with item response theory and statistical methodology. He received his B.S., M.S., and Ph.D. degrees from the University of Minnesota, Minneapolis. Seock-Ho Kim, Ph.D., is Professor in the Department of Educational Psychology at the University of Georgia. He is author of numerous publications in psychometrics and applied statistics and is a member of the American Educational Research Association, the American Statistical Association, the National Council on Measurement in Education, and the Psychometric Society, among other organizations. He received his B.A. from Korea University and his M.S. and Ph.D. degrees from the University of Wisconsin-Madison.
Chapter
The graded response model represents a family of mathematical models that deals with ordered polytomous categories. These ordered categories include rating such as letter grading, A, B, C, D, and F, used in the evaluation of students’ performance; strongly disagree, disagree, agree, and strongly agree, used in attitude surveys; or partial credit given in accordance with an examinee’s degree of attainment in solving a problem.
Article
The proposal of five dimensions of social well-being, social integration, social contribution, social coherence, social actualization, and social acceptance, is theoretically substantiated. The theoretical structure, constructure, construct validity, and the social structural sources of the dimensions of social well-being are investigated in two studies. Item and confirmatory factor analyses in both studies corroborate the theoretical model of social well-being. The new scales correlate convergently with measures of anomie, generativity, perceived social constraints, community involvement and neighborhood quality. The new scales correlate discriminantly with measures of dysphoria, global well-being, physical health and optimism. Multivariate analyses in both studies substantiate the claim that social well-being is an achievement, facilitated by educational attainment and age. The state and direction of the study of adult functioning are discussed.
Book
Psychologists have always been intrigued in interest, and modern research on interest can be found in nearly every area of the field: researchers studying emotions, cognition, development, education, aesthetics, personality, motivation, and vocations have developed intriguing ideas about what interest is and how it works. This book presents an integrated picture of how interest has been studied in all of the wide-ranging areas of psychology. Using modern theories of cognition and emotion as an integrative framework, it examines the nature of interest, what makes things interesting, the role of interest in personality, and the development of people's idiosyncratic interests, hobbies, and avocations. The examination reveals deep similarities between seemingly different fields of psychology and illustrates the profound importance of interest, curiosity, and intrinsic motivation for understanding why people do what they do. A comprehensive work devoted to interest, this book reviews the history of psychological thought on interest, presents classic and modern research, and suggests fruitful directions for future work.
Article
We examined the roles of curiosity, social anxiety, and positive affect (PA) and neg- ative affect (NA) in the development of interpersonal closeness. A reciprocal self-disclosure task was used wherein participants and trained confederates asked and answered questions escalating in personal and emotional depth (mimicking closeness-development). Relationships between curiosity and relationship out- comes were examined using regression analyses. Controlling for trait measures of social anxiety, PA, and NA, trait curiosity predicted greater partner ratings of attrac- tion and closeness. Social anxiety moderated the relationship between trait curios- ity and self-ratings of attraction such that curiosity was associated with greater attraction among those low in social anxiety compared to those high in social anxi- ety. In contrast, trait PA was related to greater self-ratings of attraction but had no relationship with partners' ratings. Trait curiosity predicted positive relationship outcomes as a function of state curiosity generated during the interaction, even after controlling for state PA.
Article
The extent to which two measures of epistemic curiosity (EC), the Epistemic Curiosity Scale (ECS; Litman & Spielberger, 2003) and the curiosity as a Feeling-of-Deprivation Scale (CFDS; Litman & Jimerson, 2004), differentiated between interest (I) and deprivation (D) type curiosity was examined in four studies. In studies 1 (N=725) and 2 (N=658), exploratory factor analyses of the ECS and CFDS subscales yielded two factors; the first (I-type) involved pleasure associated with discovering new ideas, while the second (D-type) emphasized spending time and effort to acquire a specific answer or solution. In study 3 (N=762), confirmatory factor analysis demonstrated that a 2-factor model comprised of the I- and D-type curiosity items identified in study 2 had the best fit. In study 4 (N=515), correlations between revised I- and D-type measures and different learning goals were evaluated. As hypothesized, the I-EC scale correlated with mastery-oriented learning, whereas the D-EC scale was related to failure-avoidance and success-orientation. The results suggest that I-EC is concerned with stimulating positive affect, diversive exploration, learning something completely new and mastery-oriented learning; D-EC involves the reduction of uncertainty, specific exploration, acquiring information that is missing from an existing knowledge-set and performance-oriented learning.
Article
A wide range of assessment forms has been used for research on curiosity. The structure and content of these assessment forms together with the theoretical viewpoint assumed in scale construction were examined to indicate the nature of the construct of curiosity underpinning such research. It was proposed that a two-factor construct of curiosity subsuming two styles—breadth of interest and depth of interest—best describes the behaviour being measured. Five curiosity scales containing 12 subscales were administered to 227 college students. The scores were factored using principal factoring with iteration and then rotated to a varimax solution. Rotation of two factors separated the scales into two groupings matching the predicted structure. Rotation of a third factor did not change the basic pattern of relationships among the scales. The results did not indicate a general factor of curiosity but rather supported the validity of the proposed two-factor construct of curiosity.
Article
In recent studies of the structure of affect, positive and negative affect have consistently emerged as two dominant and relatively independent dimensions. A number of mood scales have been created to measure these factors; however, many existing measures are inadequate, showing low reliability or poor convergent or discriminant validity. To fill the need for reliable and valid Positive Affect and Negative Affect scales that are also brief and easy to administer, we developed two 10-item mood scales that comprise the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS). The scales are shown to be highly internally consistent, largely uncorrelated, and stable at appropriate levels over a 2-month time period. Normative data and factorial and external evidence of convergent and discriminant validity for the scales are also presented. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
The Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, a widely used self-report instrument for evaluating individual self-esteem, was investigated using item response theory. Factor analysis identified a single common factor, contrary to some previous studies that extracted separate Self-Confidence and Self-Depreciation factors. A unidimensional model for graded item responses was fit to the data. A model that constrained the 10 items to equal discrimination was contrasted with a model allowing the discriminations to be estimated freely. The test of significance indicated that the unconstrained model better fit the data-that is, the 10 items of the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale are not equally discriminating and are differentially related to self-esteem. The pattern of functioning of the items was examined with respect to their content, and observations are offered with implications for validating and developing future personality instruments.
Article
Based on hypotheses on relationships between curiosity, anxiety, and performance, this study correctly predicted that high state curiosity students had lower levels of state anxiety and performed better in the computer-assisted instruction learning program than low state curiosity students. One hundred and fifty-two female undergraduates were equally assigned to Curiosity-Stimulating Instruction (CSI) or No Instruction (NI) groups. The hypothesis that the CSI students would perform better than the NI students was only partially supported. Contrary to predictions neither state anxiety nor state curiosity differed for students in CSI and NI conditions. The author concluded that the State Epistemic Curiosity Scale was found to have a high internal consistency and substantial concurrent and construct validity. (MC)
Article
The aims of this symposium were "to consider problems relevant to education, to allow researchers already in this area to communicate directly about common problems and to suggest new ideas and directions for research in the field of psychology in education." The proceedings were published because, in addition to the fact that there is no text or overview of the different theoretical positions on intrinsic motivation, there has been no attempt to relate the various theoretical positions to educationally relevant problems. Among the 15 contributions are: 1) Toward a History of Intrinsic Motivation; 2) The Psychological Significance of Success in Competitive Achievement Situations: A Threat as Well as a Promise; 3) Motivation Inherent in the Pursuit of Meaning: Or the Desire to Inquire; 4) Differences in the Personalities of Children Differing in Curiosity; and, 5) Intrinsic Motivation: Unlearned, Learned, and Modifiable. A few of the contributors to the book have extended their research on intrinsic motivation into an examination of maturity, mental health, creativity, vocational choice, and other factors in growth and development. Bibliographic references accompany each essay. (Author/JLB)