Article

Pregaming: An Exploratory Study of Strategic Drinking by College Students in Pennsylvania

Department of Social and Behavioral Sciences, Boston University School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts 02118, USA.
Journal of American College Health (Impact Factor: 1.45). 01/2010; 58(4):307-16. DOI: 10.1080/07448480903380300
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

This exploratory study examined pre-event drinking, or pregaming, by US college students.
112 undergraduates from 10 Pennsylvania colleges participated.
A focus group, including a written questionnaire, was conducted at each institution.
Only 35.7% of the participants had not pregamed during the last 2 weeks. Pregamers consumed an average of 4.9 (SD = 3.1) drinks during their most recent session. Gender, class year, and other demographic variables did not predict pregaming. Heavier drinkers, and those stating that the average student pregamed 3+ times in the last 2 weeks, were more likely to report pregaming in the last 2 weeks. How much students drink when pregaming is influenced by how much they expect to drink later on.
Pregaming presents a growing challenge for campus officials. Additional research is needed on the nature of the problem and which combination of prevention strategies might best address this behavior.

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    • "This study investigated the association between pre-drinking and blood alcohol concentration; the results pointed to the fact that predrinkers had higher alcohol consumption during the night in the bars and, therefore, higher blood alcohol concentration values when compared with non-pre-drinkers. According to research from European countries and the USA, pre-drinking is associated with higher alcohol consumption in bars and nightclubs (Pedersen and Labrie, 2007; Read et al., 2010), higher blood alcohol concentration levels (Borsari et al., 2007; Read et al., 2010), and more alcoholrelated problems, such as blackouts, hangovers, vomiting (DeJong et al., 2010), slurred speech, and decreased motor coordination and risk perception (Borsari et al., 2007; Kenney et al., 2010), which can influence the individual to use other types of drugs (Pedersen and Labrie, 2007; Zamboanga et al., 2010). "
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    ABSTRACT: Aims: The aim of the study was to describe the phenomenon of pre-drinking (alcohol consumption before entering nightclubs or bars) and to identify factors associated with pre-drinking practices among patrons in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. Methods: Individual-level data were collected by a portal survey of 2422 patrons at the entrance and at the exit of 31 nightclubs. The nightclubs were selected by two-stage sampling using a probability proportional to the establishments' capacity in the first stage and a systematic sample of patrons in the second stage. Breath alcohol concentration (BrAC) was measured. Face-to-face interview identified pre-drinking characteristics and past-year risk behaviors. Analysis used sample weights to compensate for nightclubs or patrons that were possibly over- or under-represented. Results: Of the study participants, 41.3% (95% confidence interval (CI) = 33.7-49.3) engaged in pre-drinking on the night of the interview. Being male (odds ratio (OR) = 1.98, 95% CI = 1.45-2.71), past-year binge drinking (OR = 2.28, 95% CI = 1.70-3.07), previous episodes of severe effects from drunkenness (OR = 1.77, 95% CI = 1.40-2.22) and sexual risk behavior (OR = 1.67, 95% CI = 1.20-2.33) were associated with recent pre-drinking. Pre-drinking predicted higher BrACs at the nightclub exit. Conclusion: Pre-drinking is prevalent among nightclub patrons and associated with risk behaviors, and is associated with alcohol intoxication at nightclub exits. Environmental prevention strategies must consider pre-drinking as a potential risk factor for alcohol intoxication in nightclubs.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2014 · Alcohol and alcoholism (Oxford, Oxfordshire). Supplement
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    • "test whether the identification of lower-earning males and females with specific motives is associated with the consumption of larger quantities of alcohol. We set ''saving money'' as the reference category for the motive variable because, according to previous qualitative studies (DeJong & DeRicco 2010), it is one of the main pre-drinking motives. Odds ratios (OR) and incidence rate ratios (IRR) are calculated with Stata's Poisson regression estimation programe. "
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    ABSTRACT: Aim: To examine young people’s main motive for pre-drinking in the United Kingdom, how much they drink on an event-specific night out, and whether motives or socioeconomic status (particularly their income level) explain the alcohol quantities they drink. Methods: Multilevel logit and Poisson models were used on a survey of 628 people (aged 18–35) conducted on-site in 26 bars, clubs and pubs in four cities and towns. Results: Young males drink on average 9.8 and females 7.4 standard units of alcohol before a night out. Saving money is the most prevalent motive for pre-drinking. Although lower income levels cannot explain whether a young person will pre-drink on an event-specific night out, young people’s income level and their motives explain the quantities they consume. Lower-earning males who pre-drank to save money consumed larger quantities of alcohol at home and lower-earning females also pre-drank larger quantities either because they wanted to get out of control or because they wanted to be social. Conclusions: Prevention strategies likely to be effective in reducing the alcohol quantities that young people pre-drink should take into account both socioeconomic status and motives for pre-drinking.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2014 · Journal of Substance Use
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    • "; therefore, the negative binomial regression estimates are adjusted by including a variable measuring time exposure (how many hours a person was predrinking ). We set 'saving money' as the reference category for the motive variable because, according to previous qualitative studies [23], it is one of the main pre-drinking motives. As previous research has documented differences in males' and females' motives for drinking [28] and alcohol quantity intake [29], we divided the results of the analysis by gender. "
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    ABSTRACT: Aims: To reveal young Danes' main motive for pre-drinking and whether their motives and socio economic status can explain how much they pre-drink on an event-specific night out. Methods: A binary logistic and negative binomial regression models were used on a survey of 670 Danes (aged 18-35 years) conducted on-site in 24 bars, clubs and pubs in four cities and towns in Denmark. Results: Young males drink on average 12.3 and females 9.3 standard units (defined as 8g of pure ethanol) of alcohol before a night out. Pre-drinking to be social is the most prevalent motive. Although lower income levels cannot explain whether a young person will pre-drink on an event-specific night out, young people's income level and their motives explain the quantities they consume. Lower-earning males who pre-drank to save money consumed larger quantities of alcohol at home, but lower-earning females pre-drank larger quantities because they wanted to be out of control. Conclusions: Not only young people's motives for pre-drinking but also the price of off- and on-premises alcohol should be considered for outlining prevention strategies seeking to reduce the alcohol quantities that young people pre-drink before a night out.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2014 · Scandinavian Journal of Public Health
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