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Abstract

Cheating on academic work involves a diverse array of psychological phenomena, including learning, development, and motivation. These phenomena form the core of the field of educational psychology. From the perspective of learning, cheating is a strategy that serves as a cognitive shortcut. Whereas effective learning often involves the use of complex self-regulatory and cognitive strategies, cheating precludes the need to use such strategies. Thus, students may choose to cheat either because they do not know how to use effective learning strategies or because they do not want to invest the time in using such strategies. From a developmental perspective, cheating may occur in different quantities and qualities depending on students' levels of cognitive, social, and moral development. From a motivational perspective, learners report many different reasons for engaging in academic cheating. Some students cheat because they are highly focused on extrinsic outcomes such as grades; others cheat because they are concerned with maintaining a certain image to themselves or to their peers; still others cheat because they lack the requisite self-efficacy to engage in complex tasks or because of the types of attributions they have developed.

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... When discussing academic integrity issues, students regularly engage in critique of their instructional environment. While such discourse may be dismissed by academic integrity researchers and educators as "externalizations" or "neutralizations" to justify cheating and dishonesty (Anderman & Murdock, 2007), it can also be seen as a particularized ethical discourse on dilemmas of academic work which differs from what is institutionally sanctioned. Take for instance the fact that students regularly cite poor instruction and insufficient guidance as explanations for why they have chosen to violate institutional academic integrity norms. ...
... Some students report that they cheat more when "the professor seems indifferent or permissive, the subject matter seems unimportant or uninteresting, or tests are perceived to be unfair or confusing" (Hutton, 2006, p. 172; see also Leki 2017;McCabe, 2016). They also may violate academic integrity expectations when instruction is perceived to be poor or if insufficient guidance is provided (Anderman & Murdock, 2007). Writing assignments which are commonly plagiarized may in fact be more challenging for students than many professors and advisors realize (Blum, 2009). ...
... German gymnasium (sixth form/college preparatory) students, for example, engage in helping practices that would be perceived as unethical cheating and collusion in other countries' schooling systems. Because of the earlier timing of gatekeeping mechanisms in their schooling system, German gymnasium schools end up offering space for more collaboration and less grading pressure than in academic preparatory schools in similar countries (Anderman & Murdock, 2007). ...
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Many university educators have argued for a need for academic integrity education as an alternative to a focus on students’ and scholars’ compliance with academic rules and conventions (Brimble, 2016; Christensen Hughes & Bertram-Gallant, 2016; Hutton, 2006). I argue that the universal ethical-moral discourse of academic integrity disciplines subjects to comply with frequently alienating academic practices. This ethical discourse focuses on individual responsibility, in turn rendering invisible the authority of sometimes dysfunctional and oppressive instructional and summative assessment practices. Taking a Bakhtinian dialogic authorial perspective, the paper calls on students, scholars, instructors, and academic advisors to engage in critical ontological dialogue on diverse responses and motivations in regard to academic demands and deeds. Dialogue on situated instead of universal ethics in academic settings contextualizes and problematizes not just individual actions but also the ethics of the summative assessment regime, the instruction, the curriculum, authority dynamics, and the educational system as a whole. This discussion on academic integrity violations calls on educators to consider the ethical value of separating summative assessment from instruction.
... large (Anderman & Murdock, 2011;Cizek, 1999;Lupton et al., 2000;Murdock & Anderman, 2006;Nucci & Turiel, 2009;Sims, 1993). It is defined as intentionally carrying out forbidden behaviors to gain an unfair advantage in an academic context (Zhao et al., 2021), and it includes behaviors such as cheating on examinations, copying others' homework or assignments, and plagiarism (Anderman & Murdock, 2011;Cizek, 1999;Rettinger, 2017;Waltzer & Dahl, 2020;Waltzer et al., 2021). ...
... large (Anderman & Murdock, 2011;Cizek, 1999;Lupton et al., 2000;Murdock & Anderman, 2006;Nucci & Turiel, 2009;Sims, 1993). It is defined as intentionally carrying out forbidden behaviors to gain an unfair advantage in an academic context (Zhao et al., 2021), and it includes behaviors such as cheating on examinations, copying others' homework or assignments, and plagiarism (Anderman & Murdock, 2011;Cizek, 1999;Rettinger, 2017;Waltzer & Dahl, 2020;Waltzer et al., 2021). The present study focused on the link between students' academic dishonesty and their perception of cheating behavior in peers, which we call the perceived peer cheating effect. ...
... To date, many individual empirical studies have found that the perception that one's peers are cheating (which we will refer to as perceived peer cheating for short) is positively correlated with student's own academic cheating (Ghanem & Mozahem, 2019;Hard et al., 2006;McCabe & Trevino, 1993Meiseberg et al., 2016;Whitley, 1998). Several narrative reviews have also concluded that perceived peer cheating is one of the most important factors in academic dishonesty (see Murdock, 2011 andCizek, 1999, for examples). Although there have been several meta-analyses on academic dishonesty (Cuadrado et al., 2021;Giluk & Postlethwaite, 2015;Krou et al., 2020;Lee et al., 2020;Paulhus & Dubois, 2015;Whitley, 1998;Whitley et al., 1999), none have specifically examined its associations with perceived peer cheating. ...
Article
Academic cheating is a worldwide problem, which is exacerbated by perceived peer cheating. The present review of the literature quantitatively examined this perceived peer cheating effect. This meta-analysis included studies reporting correlations between students' own cheating and their perception of cheating in peers. The sample consisted of 43 effect sizes (38 studies) based on a total sample size of 24,181 demographically diverse participants from multiple countries (65% female) from papers published from 1941 to 2021. Results showed a perceived peer cheating effect of intermediate effect size (r = 0.37, 95% CI = 0.35 to 0.39), and that perceived peer cheating is among one of the strongest factors known to be associated with students' academic cheating. Moderator analyses using country level measures revealed this effect to be stronger in cultures that are high in power distance, collectivism, long-term orientation, restraint, and low in uncertainty avoidance and religiosity. The present findings indicate that the behavior of peers plays an important role in students’ academic cheating, suggesting that effective strategies to promote academic integrity will need to consider peer influences as well as the culture in which students are socialized.
... Buna göre kopya çekmeye yönelik tutum, kopya çekme kavramına ilişkin olarak yukarıda yapılan tanımla tutarlı olarak, öğrencilerin kopya çekmeye yönelme eğilimleri ve/veya kopya çekme davranışlarını kabul edilebilir davranışlar olarak algılama/hoş görme eğilimleri olarak tanımlanabilir (Özyurt ve Eren, 2014). Bu tanım, kopya çekmeye yönelmenin ve/veya bunu olumlu bir davranış biçimi olarak algılamanın, psikolojik içeriğe sahip bireysel bir farklılık değişkeni olduğu gerçeğiyle de uyumludur (Anderman ve Murdock, 2007). Bu noktada, tutumun yalnızca duyuşsal unsurları (tutum nesnesinden hoşlanma/hoşlanmama vb.) içermediği, bunun yanında bilişsel (tutum nesnesine ilişkin davranışların yanlış/doğru olduğunu düşünme vb.) ve davranışsal (tutum nesnesine yönelik davranışlar sergileme/sergilememe vb.) unsurları da içerdiğinin vurgulanması önemlidir. ...
... Nitekim Ay ve Çakmak (2015) üniversite öğrencilerini kapsayan bir örneklemden hareketle gerçekleştirildikleri çalışmalarında, kopya çekmeye yönelik tutumu 'ahlaki tutum', 'çevresel şartlar' ve 'fırsat/beceri' olarak adlandırdıkları üç faktörlü bir yapı aracılığıyla tanımlamışlardır. Bu faktörlerin, gerek kopya çekmeye yönelik tutumun ahlaki ve sosyal yönleri içerdiği gerçeğiyle (Anderman ve Murdock, 2007;Polat, 2017), gerekse kendine ve/veya başkalarına haksız biçimde avantaj sağlamanın kopya çekmenin temel amaçlarından biri olduğu gerçeğiyle (O'Rourke ve ark., 2010) tutarlı oldukları söylenebilir. Dolayısıyla, bu araştırmada üniversite öğrencilerinin kopya çekmeye yönelik tutumları, Ay ve Çakmak (2015) tarafından geliştirilen üç faktörlü yapı aracılığıyla incelenmiştir. ...
Article
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The first aim of the study was to examine the relationships among undergraduate students’ satisfaction with academic major choice, academic self-efficacy, academic locus of control, and attitudes towards cheating. Second, we investigated the mediating roles of academic locus of control in the relationships between undergraduate students’ satisfaction with academic major choice and attitudes towards cheating, as well as in the relationships between their academic self-efficacy and attitudes towards cheating. The sample consisted of 715 undergraduate students (Female=452; Male=263), majoring in diverse fields of study in different faculties at a large university located in the Western Black Sea Region of Turkey. An exploratory correlational design was used in the study and in line with this, a latent-factor correlational analysis and the structural equation modeling analyses were conducted. The results showed that satisfaction with academic major choice and academic selfefficacy were significantly and negatively related to both external academic locus of control and attitudes towards cheating. The results also demonstrated that external academic locus of control fully mediated both the relationship between satisfaction with academic major choice and attitudes towards cheating as well as the relationship between academic self-efficacy and attitudes towards cheating. It was concluded that undergraduate students’ satisfaction with their academic major choice, academic competence they believe that they have, and explaining academic outcomes that they achieved by referring to internal or external frames of references were selectively related to their attitudes towards cheating. Implications for education and directions for further studies were also discussed in the study.
... Children's academic cheating behavior has been theorized (Anderman & Murdock, 2011;Cizek, 1999) to be influenced by social contextual factors, one of which is verbal messaging. The current study used a naturalistic behavioral paradigm to examine whether middle school children's tendency to cheat on a test would be sensitive to messaging about its difficulty. ...
... Some factors besides motivational orientation that can influence children's cheating have been identified (for a meta-analytic review, see Krou et al., 2021). For example, children tend to cheat more if they think that a test is unfair (Cizek, 1999), if they want to avoid disappointing their parents (Jensen, Arnett, Feldman, & Cauffman, 2002), or if they think that their peers are cheating (for a meta-analytic review, see Anderman & Murdock, 2011). Cognitive skills (Evans & Lee, 2011), familial or school factors (Dahiya & Dahiya, 2019;McCabe, 2001), and dispositional factors such as personality (Burton,1963;Lobel & Levanon, 1988) can also make a difference. ...
Article
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Academic cheating is a serious worldwide problem that begins during childhood. However, to date there has been little research on academic cheating with children before high school age. The current study used a naturalistic experimental paradigm to evaluate the possibility that systematically manipulating messages about the difficulty of a test can affect whether middle school children (N = 201) would cheat by reporting a falsely inflated test score. We found that test difficulty messaging significantly affected children’s cheating behavior. Specifically, telling children that a test was either easy or hard produced higher rates of cheating than telling them that the difficulty level was on par with their current skills. In addition, among the children who chose to cheat, telling them that the test was easy led to a greater degree of cheating. These findings are consistent with theories of academic cheating that point to the importance of approach and avoidance motives in achievement motivation. The findings also suggest that simple messaging can have a significant impact on children’s moral behavior and that seemingly innocuous messages such as describing the difficulty of a test can influence children’s decisions about whether and how much to cheat.
... Scholastic cheating is typically defined as students' attempts to present others' scholastic work as their own: It includes everything from cheating on exams, copying other students' homework to plagiarism from books and articles (Anderman & Murdock, 2011). Substantial cheating has been empirically confirmed in many Western countries (see Jensen, Arnett, Feldman, & Cauffman, 2002). ...
... However, the socio-genomic model of personality by Roberts and Jackson (2008) suggests that personality traits might change in a bottom-up fashion, that is, starting with consistent changes in specific behaviors. Therefore, educators could design intervening programs to train more adaptive learning styles in order to compensate for students' cheating personality traits (for alternative recommendations, see Anderman & Murdock, 2011). ...
Article
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Previous research on Western college samples has identified a number of personality traits associated with scholastic cheating. Based on these findings, we suggest a model integrating personality predictors of cheating. However, it remains unclear whether the proposed model can be generalised to the Chinese culture, which has different norms and societal values. We filled this gap by estimating the associations between scholastic cheating and key personality constructs (i.e. the Big Five and the Dark Triad) in a sample of Chinese university students (N = 634). Our results indicated that older and male students were more likely to engage in scholastic cheating than other students. After controlling for the constructs’ overlap, only extraversion and psychopathy remained significant correlates. We discuss the implications of our findings for both research and practice.
... ISSN: 2235 -767X rather similar grading system to evaluate students' performance. When students focus on obtaining high grades of a certain course/subject their interest of that course/subject fades away, they end up choosing the easiest assignments or tasks, and thus the degree of learning is being decreased (Kohn, 2011;Anderman and Murdock, 2007;Marshall, 1968). Students can be seen as employees from multiple points of view like meeting deadlines, failing too often leads to firing, assessment, working with groups that do not have sometimes dependable teammates, time management, etc. ...
... Nevertheless, there are additionally a few distinctions between students and employees: no additional pay if astoundingly great work, no customers or consumers to care about, etc. Since there are some academics like (Kohn, 2011;Anderman and Murdock, 2007;Marshall, 1968) who argued about the traditional way of assessing student's performance, the writers of this article propose the utilization of the Koopmans model in an adjusted rendition. In order to use Koopmans model for the university context, the authors chose some indicators that show a good fit in that context to be adapted. ...
Article
he article examines the relation of NLP awareness and practices, and individual work performance (IWP) of Lithuanian postgraduate students. Hejase's approach (2015) was used to measure levels of NLP awareness and practices, and the individual work performance questionnaire (IWPQ) by Koopmans (2014) was used to measure individual work performance levels. Furthermore, an altered IWPQ was used to measure individual work performance levels at university. An internal consistency analysis showed that the employed models fit well into the Lithuanian environment. A bivariate correlation analysis revealed significant relationships between NLP determinants and individual work performance dimensions. A multiple regression analysis helped to determine how much NLP determinants contribute to IWP dimensions. Based on the findings, six NLP tools were recommended to Lithuanian companies and companies operating in Lithuania in order to provide their staff with the necessary NLP courses/trainings. These tools are NLP presuppositions, rapport building, modeling, framing, the Hierarchy of Neurological levels Model and representational systems.
... This opens up for the possibility of 'cheating' behaviour where applicants claim to have had ecological conditions that they did not, for which veracity of claims cannot be checked. Academic cheating is not exclusive of this framework (Anderman & Murdock, 2011;McCabe, Treviño, & Butterfield, 2001) and thus, it is not a fatal limitation of this approach in particular, but an issue for all aspects of human interactions. As it stands, the costs of the lack of diversity and opportunities far outweighs the costs of potential cheaters in the system, although this limitation should be addressed once an application of this framework is put into practice. ...
... Given its high prevalence and growing opportunities for cheating in academic context, it is considered as one of the most serious problems affecting educative institutions throughout the world (Hsiao, 2015;Miller, Agnich, Posick, & Gould, 2015). Academic misconduct is harmful during assessments, as those that cheat not only deceive themselves, but also impede teachers in effectively monitoring their learning progress and providing accurate feedback (Anderman & Murdock, 2007). In more formal exam settings, academic cheating allowed students to obtain certification that does not reflect their actual achievements (Harding, Carpenter, Finelli, & Passow, 2004). ...
Article
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A sample of 327 engineering bachelor students from a public university in Mexico took part in an information integration study to explore systematic thinking underlying propensity for cheating during a course exam. All study participants were provided with written descriptions of 12 scenarios pertaining to the academic evaluation criteria and were asked to rate the likelihood that they would cheat under such circumstances. The 12 scenarios reflected the experimental manipulation of three orthogonal factors: teacher's teaching style, type of exam, and modality of assessment. Analysis results revealed four distinct attitudes toward cheating among students, two of which were independent of context (low and high desire to cheat) while the remaining two were context-dependent (low and moderate desire to cheat). All groups showed systematic thinking underlying their possible desire to cheat that was typified by the use of a summative cognitive rule for integrating information related to academic cheating. However, evaluation of factor relevance varied across the groups.
... Students' cheating behavior can have important consequences in the process of human capital accumulation and for the functioning of the labor market. For example, cheating can interfere with the evaluators ability to assess students' performance and can decrease the external validity of grades (Anderman and Murdock, 2007). 'Cheating bias' may contaminate the information used in many educational decisions, such as: promoting students from one grade to the next, or awarding a diploma without the required knowledge. ...
Article
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This study was conducted at Madda Walabu University school of Agriculture entitled by Raising Students’ Awareness on Negative Impact of Cheating and Its’ Minimization at School of Agriculture, Madda Walabu University. The target population was all batch school of agriculture students and teachers. We selected randomly five students from each batch and department and two teachers from each department. Total sample size was 55 students, eight teachers, totally 63 samples were taken. There are different methods of cheating used in agriculture students. As the response indicated that all batch of the agriculture students used similar method of cheating. However the easiest method of cheating and the feasible one are using short note (aterera), copying from the nearest student and writing on the wall, chair and clothe. There are different cheating minimization methods; advice students, design appropriate studding style, monitor students before and during the exam, through appropriate sitting arrangement. After all, we suggest that it is very crucial to think over holistic approaches that will enable the university to overcome cheating case and produce self-confident and competent professionals on open academic markets under real working environment.
... Peer effects research explores the extent to which students' decision to cheat or not cheat is a function of their expectations, beliefs, or knowledge of their peers' cheating behaviors (Briggs et al. 2013). Some studies have shown that if students observe or perceive their classmates to be engaging in cheating behavior without facing negative consequences, those students are more likely to engage in cheating behavior themselves (Anderman and Murdock 2007;Carrell et al. 2008;Genereux and McLeod 1995;McCabe et al. 2001McCabe et al. , 2012McCabe and Treviño 1993;Rettinger and Kramer 2009). Jordan (2001) explained that "the more cheating a cheater sees and the more cheating a cheater believes peers are doing, the more cheating acts the cheater commits" (p. ...
Article
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Drawing on a survey of over 4000 students and 1300 faculty members at the University of Maryland Global Campus, we find evidence for a reconceptualization of the use of commercialized websites offering access to “tutors” or “study help” as a type of collaborative cheating. Past studies have examined this behavior as an extension of contract cheating, but we find that students perceive the use of these sites very differently than they perceive contract cheating behaviors. In this paper we will discuss how “tutor” or “study helper” websites combine the phenomena of collaborative cheating with internet-driven shifts in cultural and social perceptions to create a new type of cheating behavior that is viewed differently by students and faculty.
... There has been an ongoing trend to examine the psychological nature of academic dishonesty through a motivational lens (Anderman & Murdock, 2011;Newstead et al., 1996). Most notably, Murdock and Anderman (2006) proposed a conceptual framework for understanding motivational factors of academic dishonesty. ...
Article
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Academic dishonesty is a rampant and troubling phenomenon in the educational sector. Although demographic factors have been linked with students’ academic dishonesty in the literature, many of these aspects are difficult to change. However, students’ motivation, a known malleable factor, may allow for opportunities to shape students’ beliefs, goals, and values, which can, in turn, mitigate academic dishonesty. In light of the growing literature on this topic, a research synthesis is needed to clarify discrepant findings and identify salient motivation factors associated with academic dishonesty. Thus, we examined relations between academic dishonesty and motivation as informed by achievement motivation frameworks. From 79 studies, meta-analytic results indicated that academic dishonesty was negatively associated with classroom mastery goal structure, individual mastery approach goals, intrinsic motivation, selfefficacy, utility value, and internal locus of control. Academic dishonesty was positively linked with amotivation and extrinsic goal orientation. Students’ age was a significant moderator for the relation between intrinsic motivation and academic dishonesty. Implications from meta-analytic findings are drawn with regards to theory and practice.
... In making a case against grades, Kohn (2011:28-29) argued that "[g]rades tend to diminish students' interest in whatever they're learning"; "grades create a preference for the easiest possible task"; and "grades tend to reduce the quality of students' thinking". Other studies have also reported negatively on the use of grades (see for example, Butler, 1987;Anderman & Murdock, 2007;Pulfrey, Buch & Butera, 2011). Such studies have resulted in the call for grades to be excluded from the teaching and learning process. ...
... This opens up for the possibility of 'cheating' behaviour where applicants claim to have had ecological conditions that they did not, for which veracity of claims cannot be checked. Academic cheating is not exclusive of this framework (Anderman & Murdock, 2011;McCabe, Treviño, & Butterfield, 2001) and thus, it is not a fatal limitation of this approach in particular, but an issue for all aspects of human interactions. As it stands, the costs of the lack of diversity and opportunities far outweighs the costs of potential cheaters in the system, although this limitation should be addressed once an application of this framework is put into practice. ...
... člankov brez ustrezne navedbe avtorja itd. (Anderman in Murdock, 2011), ki se pojavlja v različnih oblikah in stopnjah intenzitete ter je nasprotno od vedenja, ki ustvarja prijetno druţbeno klimo v razredu (npr. motenje učitelja ali drugih učencev med razlago, motenje procesa učenja v razredu, odvračanje učitelja od razlage ali drugih učencev od sodelovanja pri pouku, itd.). ...
Thesis
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With the experiment we tried to conclude how personality traits are connected with cheating and does a photograph of watching eyes lower scholastic cheating. We chose The Big Five model (extraversion, neuroticism, agreeableness, consciouness and openness) and The Dark Triad concept (Machiavellianism, narcissism and psychopathy). The cheating was examined with an online test which had 10 mathematical tasks. Empirical studies report positive correlations of neuroticism with cheating and negative correlations of agreeableness and consciouness with cheating. Also, The Dark Triad has positive correlation with all kinds of antisocial behaviours, with psychopathy beeing the strongest predictor of cheating. With our results we have confirmed the third hypothesis which pressumes that neuroticism has positive correlation with cheating. The perception of watching eyes has been found to reduce dishonest behavior which was our principal research question and was examined with the fourth hypothesis. We used a photograph of the watching eyes as an intervention. The results indicated significant differences between the control and experimental group, which means that participants cheated less in the presence of the photograph with watching eyes. We have also confirmed our seventh hypothesis that the watching-eye effect is not applicable on individuals high in psychopathy.
... There has been considerable interest in the fields of occupational and educational psychology in the issue of the "fakability" of self-report personality and values test scores by applicants for prized jobs and courses of study; indeed, it is generally accepted that candidates distort their responses to match what they believe is the profile of scores most likely to obtain admission (e.g. Anderman and Murdock 2007;Morgeson et al. 2007), and much of the literature in the area is devoted to (mainly statistical) devices to mitigate these effects. This problem has been seen as an argument against using personality measures (Griffin and Wilson 2012) or to promote alternative test formats (e.g. ...
Article
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This study investigated if scores on tests of personal qualities are affected by whether they will determine selection decisions (“high stakes”) or not; and whether they are stable for individuals and groups across a four-year medical course. Two tests, one assessing values and one assessing components of personality, were administered either at the same time as a medical university entrance exam (first cohort; N = 216), or after entry was confirmed (second cohort; N = 142). Both cohorts took the tests again after four years of medical school. Analysis of variance was used to compare group mean scores and interactions, and correlation coefficients to measure temporal reliability. The high stakes cohort initially presented themselves in a significantly more positive light on the personality test. After four years of medical school scores on both tests changed significantly, towards more communitarian values and less empathic attitudes. Thus, personality scores were affected by both the conditions under which the initial tests were conducted and by the passage of time, but values only by the passage of time. Before and after scores were significantly correlated.
... This opens up for the possibility of 'cheating' behaviour where applicants claim to have had ecological conditions that they did not, for which veracity of claims cannot be checked. Academic cheating is not exclusive of this framework (Anderman & Murdock, 2011;McCabe, Treviño, & Butterfield, 2001) and thus, it is not a fatal limitation of this approach in particular, but an issue for all aspects of human interactions. As it stands, the costs of the lack of diversity and opportunities far outweighs the costs of potential cheaters in the system, although this limitation should be addressed once an application of this framework is put into practice. ...
Preprint
1. The lack of diversity and equality of opportunities in academia is often seen as evidence of unfair processes in academic institutions when it comes to the distribution of goods. In this paper, I propose a novel framework to address this issue. 2. The framework integrates the body of literature on human developmental ecology with the theory of justice by John Rawls. The underlying premise of the framework is that academic institutions should account for the arbitrary ecological factors (e.g., culture, socioeconomic background) that influence the opportunities for academic achievements by individuals throughout their lives prior to application for goods. 3. The framework is designed to help academic institutions mitigate (or potentially, eliminate) the benefits accrued over time by individuals that experienced arbitrary but favourable ecological conditions, and assess and judge candidates relative to the expected academic performance given candidates’ ecological contexts (i.e., objective fairness). In doing so, this framework is a process that, if adopted by academic institutions, can result in fair equality of opportunities in the distribution of goods. 4. I also discuss the concept of ‘years post-PhD’, which attempts to make competition fair by discretising career trajectories. I propose a different landmark, which takes into account years post-first authorship publication, and argue that years post-first authorship publication is less relativistic and accounts for differences in academic structure between countries. I discuss the limitations and alternative attempts to make processes in academic institutions fair throughout the text. 5. Overall, this paper proposes a framework designed to improve the academic environment by creating fairness in the distribution of goods by academic institutions, thereby generating true equality of opportunities to all. Keywords: social justice; policy; equality; minorities
... Whitley (1998) reported that cheating is more common among university students whereas Baird (1980) stated that cheating behavior is more common among high school students compare to undergraduate students. Anderman and Murdock (2007) stated that cheating affects student learning and it is also an important parameter in terms of providing feedback to teachers while planning teaching and the research results indicated that the cheating behavior is present among all age groups. ...
... A considerable body of research has examined student cheating and plagiarism (e.g., Anderman & Murdock, 2007;Crown & Spiller, 1998;McCabe, Butterfield & Treviño, 2006;Stone, Jawahar & Kisamore, 2010;Whitley, 1998). Research indicates cheating, plagiarism and related forms of academic misconduct occur among high school (Josephson Institute of Ethics, 2009), college (McCabe & Treviño, 1997;McCabe, Treviño & Butterfield, 2001;Whitley, 1998) and even graduate students (McCabe et al., 2006). ...
Article
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Although a large body of research has examined academic cheating, very little attention has been devoted to student reporting of academic misconduct. We argue academic integrity violations are similar to but different in some ways from whistle-blowing. Using data from 131 business students, we use hierarchical regression to show how demographic, personality, attitudinal and contextual factors combine to predict intention to report cheating. The adjusted R squared for the model is .45. Implications for future research and practice are discussed.
... Since grades are important measures in society, the concern to achieve success may be associated with different forms of academic fraud. Academic fraud includes any misconduct that allows someone to achieve a personal advantage in the academic context (e.g., cheating on exams and plagiarism) while compromising meaningful learning (Anderman & Murdock, 2007). The prevalence of students cheating at least once during enrollment has reached 87% (e.g., Muhney et al., 2008) and it is set forth that students are cheating in higher levels (Jones, 2011). ...
Article
This study provides initial insights on the relation between psychopathic traits (disinhibition, meanness, and boldness) and academic fraud (prevalence and severity), while considering important mediators of fraud (perceived capability, opportunity, motivation, and rationalization). Based on a large sample of university students ( N = 967), two structural equation models (test and replication) were built to test the study’s main hypothesis and probe the robustness of the results. A direct link from disinhibition to prevalence was found, suggesting that disinhibition is associated with social deviance in the academic context. Higher motivation for cheating exclusively mediated this path. In meanness, rationalization explained lower rates of perceived severity of academic fraud, indicating that cognitive self-justifications trigger dishonest behavior in meanness. Boldness explained the prevalence of academic fraud via perceived capability, suggesting that low-fear, although adaptive in evaluation contexts, may increase the perceived capability for cheating. The reported significant associations support that academic fraud is part of the nomological network of psychopathy and unveil the complexity of the phenomenon.
... It takes many shapes and forms, and as the years go by, students become more creative with their cheating methods. Cheating has been viewed as a "cognitive shortcut" that reduces the reliability of test results to assess academic gain (Anderman and Murdock, 2007). Cheating has serious implications. ...
Article
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Past work has not considered social robots as proctors or monitors to prevent cheating or maintain discipline in the context of exam invigilation with adults. Further, we do not see an investigation into the role of invigilation for the robot presented in two different embodiments (physical vs. virtual). We demonstrate a system that enables a robot (physical and virtual) to act as an invigilator and deploy an exam setup with two participants completing a programming task. We conducted two studies (an online video-based survey and an in-person evaluation) to understand participants’ perceptions of the invigilator robot presented in two different embodiments. Additionally, we investigated whether participants showed cheating behaviours in one condition more than the other. The findings showed that participants’ ratings did not differ significantly. Further, participants were more talkative in the virtual robot condition compared to the physical robot condition. These findings are promising and call for further research into the invigilation role of social robots in more subtle and complex exam-like settings.
... In an effort to understand and prevent cheating, decades of research have focused on personal and environmental factors that could explain this phenomenon (Anderman & Murdock, 2007). ...
Article
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Background: Cheating at the post-secondary level is a skewed phenomenon. While personality and environmental factors are associated with cheating, few studies account for the zero inflation when predicting cheating behaviour. Aim: In this study, we explore a person-situation interaction hypothesis where teacher autonomy support (AS) could modify the relation between students' honesty trait and premeditated cheating. Sample: Participants were 710 college students and 31 teachers. Methods: Teacher and student reports of teacher AS were collected and students also completed self-reports of honesty and premeditated cheating. Results: Given that cheating had a zero-inflated negative binomial distribution, we can investigate two separate outcomes: likelihood of cheating and magnitude of cheating. Predictably, student honesty trait predicted lower likelihood and magnitude of cheating. AS, whether student- or teacher-reported, moderated the relation between honesty and likelihood of cheating. In low perceived AS teaching environments, student honesty was associated with cheating likelihood. However, there was no such relation in high perceived AS teaching environments. Conclusions: Students' honesty generally predicts lower cheating. However, the educational environment provided by the teacher influences the strength of this association. The less autonomy-supportive students perceive the educational environment, the more their personality is important in predicting the likelihood of cheating.
... The student's decision to behave dishonestly compared to thinking about answering questions or assignments given by the lecturer is a short cut and avoids stress in thinking. It has been previously explained that from a learning perspective, cheating is a strategy that functions as a cognitive shortcut (Anderman & Murdock, 2007b). ...
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Since the implementation of online learning in various countries in the world, all educational institutions have made new learning adjustments. Universities are educational institutions that have also changed the online learning system. but online learning has an impact on academic ethical behavior. Purpose. the aims of this study is to determine the behavior of academic dishonesty when online learning is applied, besides that it also examines the strategies of nursing students majoring in academic dishonesty. Materials and methods. 150 college students participated in filling out an online academic dishonesty questionnaire and we randomly selected 5 nursing students to participate in a focus group discussion to discuss their dishonest behavior during online learning. Results. Our research shows that academic dishonesty behavior in the form of collaboration is common in online learning. In the process, student learning has strategies for committing academic fraud in various ways, including by downloading a friend’s answer file in the online system by logging in using a standard username and password that is not changed by students. In addition, the student chose to behave dishonestly by imitating his friend’s work by simply changing the name rather than trying to answer the question. and take advantage of the whatsapp group application to collaborate in cheating. Conclusions. Collaboration in academic dishonesty predominates: one way is by collaborating in online groups to cooperate with each other illegally. We describe several other forms in detail and discuss them.
... Banyak faktor yang mempengaruhi seseorang untuk melakukan perilaku menyontek, baik faktor internal atau yang berasal dari diri maupun eksternal atau faktor yang berasal dari lingkungan. Locus of control merupakan salah satu faktor internal yaitu faktor kepribadian yang mempengaruhi seseorang dalam melakukan perilaku menyontek.Berdasarkan buku The Psychology of Academic Cheating(Anderman & Murdock, 2007), faktor personal dapat mempengaruhi perilaku menyontek atau curang digolongkan dalam empat kategori. Pertama adalah demografi yaitu termasuk usia, jenis kelamin dan perbedaan. ...
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... Selain itu dalam McCabe dkk (2008) ditemukan juga faktor perceived perception peer behavior, kepastian akan dilaporkan, penerimaan integritas akademik di sekolah, dan persepsi terhadap beratnya hukuman terhadap pelanggaran aturan. Dalam penelitian lainnya, perkembangan moral dan religi (Anderman & Murdock, 2011), prokrastinasi dan tingkat stres yang tinggi (Ip dkk, 2016;Sanlie dkk, 2020), serta selfconcept (David, 2015) juga memiliki pengaruh terhadap perilaku kecurangan akademik. ...
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The purpose of this study is to explain and predict the effect of respondent integrity and religiosity in relation to the possibility of academic fraud, which is mostly done by students. The study was also supposed to look at the effect of gender on students’ academic fraud behavior. This study involved 102 accounting students from public universities in Malang, Indonesia. Researchers used survey methods to collect data, and data were analyzed by SPSS software using multiple linear regression and moderated regression analysis. The findings of this study indicate that a lack of integrity and religion has a negative impact on the likelihood of academic fraud. This shows that students with higher levels of honesty and religion are less likely to commit academic fraud. While gender did not appear to have a substantial impact on the effect between integrity, religiosity, and the likelihood of academic cheating, both male and female students had similar levels of integrity and religiosity. The findings of this study will be useful for universities in formulating academic policies related to academic fraud prevention measures.
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Changes in early adolescents' self-reported cheating behaviors in mathematics before and after the transition from middle school to high school are examined. Students were surveyed in school regarding their cheating behaviors in math, and the motivational goal structures perceived in their math classrooms. Surveys were completed twice during the eighth grade (during middle school) and once at the end of the ninth grade (at the end of the first year in high school). Results indicated that self-reported cheating did not change in the year prior to the high school transition, but that reported cheating increased after the transition. Additional analyses indicated that across the high school transition, self-reported cheating in math increased for students who moved from high mastery to low mastery-oriented classes after the transition, and for students who moved from low performance to high performance-oriented classes; in contrast, self-reported cheating decreased for students who moved from low to high mastery-oriented math classrooms.
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In a guessing game, in which the probability of correct guesses was near zero, frequency of undeserved self-rewards (SR) was examined as a function of (a) age (second through fifth grade); (b) designation of undeserved SRs as cheating; (c) addition of visual-motor cues to enhance commitment and provide clear criteria for SR; and (d) class standing as rated by teachers. Cheating scores decreased with age and with prior recording of guesses. Frequency of undeserved SRs also was related to class standing. Interactions among main variables were found, and several supplementary factors were examined. The results point to a joint interaction of situational variables and individual differences in determining frequency of inappropriate self-administered rewards.
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Although there have been a number of studies of cheating in universities, surprisingly little has appeared recently in the literature regarding academic dishonesty among medical students. To assess the prevalence of cheating in medical schools across the country, class officers at 31 of 40 schools contacted distributed a survey in the spring of 1991 to their second-year classmates. The survey consisted of questions about the students' attitudes toward cheating, their observations of cheating among their classmates, and whether they had themselves cheated. The results were analyzed using contingency tables, t-tests, Pearson correlations, and one-way analysis of variance. Of the 3,975 students attending the 31 schools, 2,459 (62%) responded. Thirty-nine percent of the respondents reported witnessing some type of cheating among classmates during the first two years of medical education, while 66.5% reported having heard about such cheating. When reporting about themselves, 31.4% admitted cheating in junior high school, 40.5% in high school, 16.5% in college, and only 4.7% in medical school. Reports of cheating varied across medical schools, but no relationship was found between rates of cheating and medical school characteristics. Men were more likely to report having cheated than were women. The best predictor of whether someone was likely to cheat in medical school was whether they had cheated before, although the data strongly support the role of environmental factors. Medical school honor codes exercised some effect on cheating behavior, but the effect was not large. About 5% of the medical students surveyed reported cheating during the first two years of medical school. The students appeared resigned to the fact that cheating is impossible to eliminate, but they lacked any clear consensus about how to proceed when they became aware of cheating by others. The guidance students appear to need concerns not so much their own ethical behaviors as how and when to intervene to address the ethical conduct of their peers.
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This study examined the relations between middle school students' self-reported cheating and several indicators of academic and social motivation. It was hypothesized that students' academic self-efficacy and personal and classroom goal orientations would predict cheating. Social motivations were presumed to predict cheating above and beyond achievement motivation. Four dimensions of relationships within schools were measured: participation structure, teacher commitment and competence, teacher respect, and sense of school belonging. Logistic regression analyses were used to predict classification as a cheater or noncheater. Although academic motivation variables predicted cheating, the addition of the relationship variables significantly improved the classification rates. The final model included grade in school, academic self-efficacy, extrinsic goal orientation, participation structure, teacher commitment, and teacher respect. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.
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In recent years, most states have constructed elaborate accountability systems using school-level test scores. However, because the median elementary school contains only 69 children per grade level, such measures are quite imprecise. We evaluate the implications for school accountability systems. For instance, rewards or sanctions for schools with scores at either extreme primarily affect small schools and provide weak incentives to large ones. Nevertheless, we conclude that accountability systems may be worthwhile. Even in states with aggressive financial incentives, the marginal reward to schools for raising student performance is a small fraction of the potential labor market value for students.