Polyfluoroalkyl Chemicals in Pooled Blood Serum from Infants, Children, and Adults in Australia

The University of Queensland, National Research Centre for Environmental Toxicology, 39 Kessels Road, Coopers Plains, Queensland 4108, Australia.
Environmental Science and Technology (Impact Factor: 5.33). 07/2009; 43(11). DOI: 10.1021/es900272u
Source: OAI


Polyfluoroalkyl chemicals (PFCs) have been used worldwide for more than 50 years in a wide variety of industrial and consumer products. Limited data exist on human exposure to PFCs in the Southern Hemisphere. Human blood serum collected in southeast Queensland, Australia, in 2006−2007 from 2420 donors was pooled according to age (cord blood, 0−0.5, 0.6−1, 1.1−1.5, 1.6−2, 2.1−2.5, 2.6−3, 3.1−3.5, 3.6−4, 4.1−6, 6.1−9, 9.1−12, 12.1−15, 16−30, 31−45, 46−60, and >60 years) and gender and was analyzed for eight PFCs. Across all pools, perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) was detected at the highest mean concentration (15.2 ng/mL) followed by perfluorooctanoate (PFOA, 6.4 ng/mL), perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS, 3.1 ng/mL), perfluorononanoate (PFNA, 0.8 ng/mL), 2-(N-methyl-perfluorooctance sulfonamide) acetate (Me-PFOSA-AcOH, 0.66 ng/mL), and perfluorodecanoate (PFDeA, 0.29 ng/mL). Perfluorooctane sulfonamide was detected in only 24% of the pools, and 2-(N-ethylperfluorooctane sulfonamide) acetate was detected in only one. PFOS concentrations were significantly higher in pools from adult males than from adult females (p = 0.002); no gender differences were apparent in the pools from children (<12 years old). The highest mean concentrations of PFOA, PFHxS, PFNA, PFDeA, and Me-PFOSA-AcOH were found in children <15 years, while PFOS was highest in adults >60 years. Investigation into the sources and exposure pathways in Australia, in particular for children, is necessary as well as continued biomonitoring to determine the potential effects on human concentrations as a result of changes in the PFC manufacturing practices, including the cessation of production of several PFCs.

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    • "The unique physicochemical properties of PFAAs, including high surface activity, thermal stability, amphiphilicity , resistance to acidic and alkaline conditions and weak intermolecular interactions, make them ready to release into the environment during their production, using and disposal (Paul et al., 2008). Actually, PFAAs have been already detected in various environmental medium such as air (Shoeib et al., 2010), indoor air (Beesoon et al., 2011), sediment (Ahrens et al., 2010; Zhu et al., 2014), soil (Wang et al., 2013), various organisms (Giesy and Kannan, 2001; Hoff et al., 2005; Fang et al., 2014), and human body (Toms et al., 2009; Zhang et al., 2010). PFCA and PFSA are 0045-6535/Ó 2015 Elsevier Ltd. "
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    ABSTRACT: The levels, distribution, possible sources, and inventory of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in the eutrophic freshwater Taihu Lake, East China were investigated in this study. Among the target 11 PFAAs, perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) (2.15-73.9ngL(-1)) and perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA) (<LOQ-22.2ngL(-1)) were the dominant components in surface water, followed by perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS) with the maximum concentration of 10.5ngL(-1). PFOS was also dominant (0.13-6.95ngg(-1)dw) in the sediments, accounting for 15-85% of ΣPFAAs concentrations in 70% of the sediment samples. Sediment-water partitioning coefficients showed that logKOC increased linearly with the increasing chain length, with the logKOC values increased by 0.1-0.4logunit with each CF2 moiety from C8 to C12 perfluorinated carboxylic acids. Three specific molecular ratios, PFOS/PFOA, PFOA/PFNA and PFHpA/PFOA were used to characterize the potential sources. It indicated that the majority of pollutants was from direct emissions from manufacturing processes. The PFOA/PFNA ratios between 1.7 and 56.8 in surface water suggested the influence of secondary sources such as the degradation of volatile precursor substances. Given the high ratios of PFHpA/PFOA (0.05-7.93), it also indicated the influence from atmospheric deposition to the epilimnion. The predicted environmental concentrations were calculated from European Union system for the evaluation of substances model (EUSES). As expected, the predicted environmental concentration (PEC) of PFOS in sediment fit well to the monitored level of PFOS in this region, and the inventory of ΣPFCA and PFOS were estimated to be 989kg and 646kg in Taihu Lake. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2015 · Chemosphere
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    • "Owing to their unique physicochemical properties, the treatment efficiencies for PFASs in wastewater treatment plants are very low (Schultz et al., 2006; Sun et al., 2011). Thus PFASs are found almost ubiquitously in various environmental media including air (Shoeib et al., 2006; Li et al., 2011b), water (Hansen et al., 2002; Boulanger et al., 2004), sediment (Higgins and Luthy, 2006; Benskin et al., 2011), and biota (Giesy and Kannan, 2001; Tao et al., 2006), as well as humans (Kannan et al., 2004; Toms et al., 2009). Contamination of surface water by PFASs could impact water quality of drinking water sources, thus threating human health. "
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    ABSTRACT: A survey on contamination profiles of eighteen perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) was performed via high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry for surface water and sediments from five typical rivers of the Pearl River Delta region, South China in summer and winter in 2012. The total concentrations of the PFASs in the water phase of the five rivers ranged from 0.14 to 346.72ngL(-1). The PFAS concentrations in the water phase were correlated positively to some selected water quality parameters such as chemical oxygen demand (COD) (0.7913) and conductivity (0.5642). The monitoring results for the water samples showed significant seasonal variations, while those for the sediment samples showed no obvious seasonal variations. Among the selected 18 PFASs, perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) was the dominant PFAS compound both in water and sediment for two seasons with its maximum concentration of 320.5ngL(-1) in water and 11.4ngg(-1) dry weight (dw) in sediment, followed by perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) with its maximum concentration of 26.48ngL(-1) in water and 0.99ngg(-1) dw in sediment. PFOS and PFOA were found at relatively higher concentrations in the Shima River and Danshui River than in the other three rivers (Xizhijiang River, Dongjiang River and Shahe River). The principal component analysis for the PFASs concentrations in water and sediment separated the sampling sites into two groups: rural and agricultural area, and urban and industrial area, suggesting the PFASs in the riverine environment were mainly originated from industrial and urban activities in the region.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2014 · Chemosphere
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    • "Remarkably, the median concentration of serum PFOS for Taiwanese children from the Taipei area increased from 8.9 to 29 ng/mL between 2006 and 2010; however, the median concentrations of serum PFOA and PFNA for Taiwanese children in 2010 were lower than those in 2006 (Lin et al. 2011), suggesting an increase in human exposure to PFOS contamination in the Taipei area during recent years. In addition, Taiwanese children also had elevated median serum PFOS concentration compared with those reported for children in the USA, Australia, and China (Schecter et al. 2012; Toms et al. 2009; Zhang et al. 2010), but median serum PFOA and PFNA concentrations for Taiwanese children were lower than those for children in the three countries above. Moreover, the median concentration of serum PFHxS in Taiwanese children (1.3 ng/mL) was observed to one third of that reported for Australian children (4.4 ng/mL), comparable to that reported for American children (1.6 ng/mL), but higher than those reported for Chinese children (0.54 ng/mL). "
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    ABSTRACT: Severe perfluoroalkyl acid (PFAA) contamination resulting from the fast-growing semiconductor, electrochemical, and optoelectronic industries has been determined in the river water in the vicinity of the Taipei area, Taiwan, during recent years. However, little is known about body burdens of the PFAA contaminations in local residents, especially children living in the Taipei area recently. In this study, ten target PFAA analytes consisted of three perfluorosulfonates (PFSAs) and seven perfluorocarboxylates (PFCAs) in the blood serum samples, collected from 225 healthy children with an average age of 13.6 years in the Taipei area from 2009 to 2010, were analyzed via high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). As the dominant PFAA contaminant in the blood serum samples from Taiwanese children, perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) contributed 86 % of all the target PFAA analytes, while the other nine analytes contributed less than 5 % individually. PFOS showed the highest median up to 29 ng/mL, ranging from 0.03 to 148 ng/mL, which was higher than that observed in the serum samples collected from Taiwanese children between 2006 and 2008. Statistically, serum concentrations of perfluorobutane sulfonate (PFBS), perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS), and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) had significantly positive correlations with ages of children (p < 0.05). Furthermore, serum PFBS, PFHxS, and PFOA concentrations in the male children were considerably higher than those in the female children (p = 0.049, p = 0.000, p = 0.000).
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2014 · Environmental Science and Pollution Research
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