Effects of eccentric and concentric training on capillarization and myosin heavy chain contents in rat skeletal muscles after hindlimb suspension

Department of Biomechanics, Medicine and Rehabilitation of the Locomotor Apparatus, Ribeirão Preto School of Medicine, University of São Paulo, Av. Bandeirantes 3900, Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brazil.
Acta histochemica (Impact Factor: 1.71). 02/2010; 113(3):277-82. DOI: 10.1016/j.acthis.2009.10.009
Source: PubMed


We studied the effects of different protocols of post-disuse rehabilitation on angiogenesis and myosin heavy chain (MHC) content in rat hindlimb muscles after caudal suspension. Thirty female Wistar rats were divided into five groups: (1) Control I, (2) Control II, (3) Suspended, (4) Suspended trained on declined treadmill, and (5) Suspended trained on flat treadmill. Fragments of the soleus and tibialis anterior (TA) muscles were frozen and processed by electrophoresis and immunohistochemistry (CD31 antibody). Hindlimb suspension caused reduction of capillary/fiber (C/F) ratios and contents of MHC type I (MHCI) in the soleus in parallel to increased capillary density. Flat treadmill protocols increased the content of the MHCI isoform. The C/F ratio was increased by concentric training after hypokinesis, but was not modified by eccentric training, which caused a greater reduction of capillary density compared to the other protocols. In the TA muscle, hindlimb suspension caused a non-significant increase in capillary density and C/F ratio with limited changes in MHC. The present data demonstrate that the different training protocols adopted and the functional performance of the muscles analyzed caused specific changes in capillarization and in the content of the various MHC types.

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Available from: Anabelle Silva Cornachione
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    • "During this recovery period, rehabilitation programs can help promote the reversal of lesions caused by primary musculoskeletal damage and secondary disuse and other additional lesions caused by the initial reloading process. Eccentric exercise has been shown to induce muscular regeneration after periods of hypokinesia (Cornachione et al., 2008, 2011a). "
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    ABSTRACT: Eccentric exercise is an essential resource for skeletal muscle rehabilitation following muscle disuse however, abnormalities linked to the tissue recuperation require further research. Our aim was analyze the adaptation ability of rehabilitated muscular tissue in rats during different periods of eccentric training after 10 days of limb immobilization. Twenty-seven Wistar rats were divided into six groups: immobilized 10 days, immobilized and eccentric trained for 10 days, immobilized and eccentric trained for 21 days, and three age-matched control groups. After sacrifice, soleus and plantaris muscles were frozen, cut and stained for general histology using hematoxylin and eosin and Gomori trichrome methods and immunohistochemical methods for fiber typing (mATPase, NADH2-TR), for capillaries (CD31) and intermediate filaments (desmin, vimentin) and high resolution microscopy of resin embedded material. Immobilization resulted in more intense morphological alterations in soleus muscles such as formation of target fibers, nuclear centralization, a reduction in the number of type I fibers, diameter of type I, IIA, IIAD fibers, and capillaries. After 10 days of eccentric training, increases in the nuclear centralization and the number of lobulated fibers were observed. This period was insufficient to reestablish the capillary/fiber (C/F) ratio and distribution of fiber types as that observed in the control group. However, 21 days of rehabilitation allowed the reversal of all morphological and quantitative abnormalities. For the plantaris muscles, 10-days of training restored their basic characteristics. Despite the fact that immobilization affected soleus and plantaris muscles, 10 days of eccentric training was insufficient to restore the morphological characteristics of soleus muscles, which was not the case observed in plantaris muscle.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2014 · Acta Histochemica
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    • "but not in plantaris or tibialis anterior muscle (Cornachione et al., 2011a, 2013). Accordingly, the angiogenic response of the plantaris muscle differs in animals at different stages of development (infancy vs adult stage). "
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    ABSTRACT: This study investigated how different types of remobilization after hind limb immobilization, eccentric exercise and passive static stretching, influenced the adaptive responses of muscles with similar function and fascicle size, but differing in their contractile characteristics. Female Wistar weanling rats (21 days old) were divided into 8 groups: immobilized for 10 days, maintaining the ankle in maximum plantar flexion; immobilized and submitted to eccentric training for 10 or 21 days on a declining treadmill for 40min; immobilized and submitted to passive stretching for 10 or 21 days for 40min by maintaining the ankle in maximum dorsiflexion; control of immobilized; and control of 10 or 21 days. The soleus and plantaris muscles were analyzed using fiber distribution, lesser diameter, capillary/fiber ratio, and morphology. Results showed that the immobilization reduced the diameter of all fiber types, caused changes in fiber distribution and decreased the number of transverse capillaries in both muscles. The recovery period of the soleus muscle is longer than that of the plantaris after detraining. Moreover, eccentric training induced greater hypertrophic and angiogenic responses than passive stretching, especially after 21 days of rehabilitation. Both techniques demonstrated positive effects for muscle rehabilitation with the eccentric exercise being more effective.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2013 · Acta histochemica
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    ABSTRACT: Sustained muscle wasting due to immobilization leads to weakening and severe metabolic consequences. The mechanisms responsible for muscle recovery after immobilization are poorly defined. Muscle atrophy induced by immobilization worsened in the lengthened tibialis anterior (TA) muscle, but not in the shortened gastrocnemius muscle. Here we investigated some mechanisms responsible for this differential response. Adult rats were subjected to unilateral hindlimb casting for 8 days (I8). Casts were removed at I8 and animals were allowed to recover for 10 days (R1 to R10). The worsening of TA atrophy following immobilization occurred immediately after cast removal at R1 and was sustained until R10. This atrophy correlated with a decrease in type IIb myosin heavy chain isoform and an increase in type IIx, IIa and I isoforms, with muscle connective tissue thickening, and with increased collagen (Col) I mRNA levels. Increased Col-XII, -IV, and -XVIII mRNA levels during TA immobilization normalized at R6. Sustained enhanced peptidase activities of the proteasome and apoptosome activity contributed to the catabolic response during the studied recovery period. Finally, increased nuclear apoptosis only prevailed in the connective tissue compartment of the TA. Altogether, the worsening of the TA atrophy pending immediate reloading reflects a major remodeling of its fiber type properties and alterations in the structure/composition of the extracellular compartment that may influence its elasticity/stiffness. The data suggest that sustained enhanced ubiquitin-proteasome-dependent proteolysis and apoptosis are important for these adaptations and provide some rationale for explaining the atrophy of reloaded muscles pending immobilization in a lengthened position.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2012 · AJP Endocrinology and Metabolism
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