Variation in Surgical Management of Vesicoureteral Reflux: Influence of Hospital and Patient Factors

Children's Hospital Boston, Department of Urology, 300 Longwood Ave, HU-355, Boston, MA 02115.
PEDIATRICS (Impact Factor: 5.47). 02/2010; 125(3):e446-51. DOI: 10.1542/peds.2009-1237
Source: PubMed


Controversy exists over surgical procedure choice for vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) in children. Either ureteral reimplantation (UR) or a newer procedure, endoscopic injection (EI), may be chosen; however, the factors that determine procedure choice for any individual patient are unclear. The objective of this study was to identify patient and hospital factors associated with the choice of EI for children undergoing antireflux surgery.
We searched the Pediatric Health Information System, a national database collected by freestanding children's hospitals. We identified children aged <18 years with primary VUR who underwent surgery (UR or EI) between 2003 and 2008. We used multivariate logistic regression models to evaluate whether the type of procedure performed was associated with hospital-level factors including individual hospital, hospital region, size, and teaching status, as well as patient features including age, race, gender, and insurance type.
We identified 15026 children with primary VUR who underwent antireflux surgery between 2003 and 2008. Of these, 3611 children (24%) were treated at hospitals that performed reimplant only. Among children treated at institutions offering both procedures, 5562 (49%) underwent injection and 5853 (51%) underwent reimplant. Patients who received EI were significantly older and more likely to be girls, white, and publicly insured than those who had UR. They were more likely to have been treated at hospitals that were larger, were teaching hospitals, or were located in larger metropolitan areas or the South rather than the Northeast. After adjusting for other covariates, the treating hospital was the most important factor predicting procedure choice.
The hospital at which a patient receives treatment is the single most important feature that drove procedure choice for children with primary VUR. The patient's age, gender, insurance status, and disease severity played a smaller, although significant, role.

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    • "Both procedures are reported to have relatively short postoperative stay of less than 24 hours (even in the inpatient settings) [30, 31]. When choosing the procedure of choice for patients with primary VUR, the hospital at which a patient receives treatment is the one of the most important features that ensure the selection [32]. While not every hospital has the ability to perform endoscopic procedure, most if not all can perform OUR with a high success rate. "
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose. In recent years, endoscopic injection became the procedure of choice for the correction of vesicoureteral reflux in the majority of the centers. Unfortunately, endoscopic treatment is not always successful and sometimes requires more than one trial to achieve similar results to that of an open reimplantation surgery. Our aim of this study is to evaluate the feasibility and success rate of open ureteral reimplantation following failed endoscopic procedure. Patients and Methods. During 2004–2010, we evaluated 16 patients with persistent vesicoureteral reflux (grades II–IV) following failed endoscopic treatment. All patients underwent open ureteral reimplantation. All patients were followed with an ultrasound 6 weeks following surgery and every 6 months thereafter for an average of 22 months. Voiding cystography was performed at 3 months after surgery. Results. During unilateral open ureteral reimplantation, the implanted deposit from previous procedures was either excised, drained, or incorporated into the neotunnel with the ureter. Vesicoureteral reflux was resolved in all patients with 100% success rate. No new hydronephrosis or signs of obstruction developed in any of the patients. qDMSA renal scan was available in 8 patients showing improvement of function in 5 and stable function in 3, and no new scars were identified. Conclusions. Open ureteral reimplantation is an excellent choice for the correction of failed endoscopic treatment in children with vesicoureteral reflux.
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    ABSTRACT: Pediatric urology literature is often biased toward single, high volume institutions. We determined the impact of patient, surgeon and hospital characteristics on immediate outcomes for children undergoing ureteral reimplantation. We queried the University Health-System Consortium Clinical Data Base to identify a pediatric population who underwent ureteroneocystostomy between 2004 and 2009. We measured the association of the outcome variables length of stay, number of days in the intensive care unit and complication rates on the independent variables of age, gender, race, insurance status, year of surgery, and surgeon and hospital characteristics. The data were analyzed using multiple logistic, Poisson and Poisson hurdle model regression analyses incorporating random effects for surgeon and hospital. We identified 5,668 subjects who underwent ureteroneocystostomy. Compared with patients treated by high volume providers, those treated by low volume surgeons (less than 13 cases per year) had a longer length of stay (47%), higher odds of intensive care unit admission (OR 8.1), longer intensive care unit stays (103%) and higher rate of surgical related complications (162%). Other independent variables of male gender, nonwhite race and prior comorbidities were independently associated with longer length of stay, higher intensive care unit admissions and higher risk of complications. Surgeon volume, not hospital volume, is an important and consistent predictor of length of stay, intensive care unit admissions, intensive care unit days and complication rate after ureteroneocystostomy. These findings posit that the short length of stay, low intensive care unit admission rate and low complication rate reported in the literature may not be generalizable, but rather limited to higher volume surgeons.
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