Preferential Expression of MUC6 in Oncocytic and Pancreatobiliary Types of Intraductal Papillary Neoplasms Highlights a Pyloropancreatic Pathway, Distinct From the Intestinal Pathway, in Pancreatic Carcinogenesis
The expression of different MUC glycoproteins has helped define cellular lineage in variety of pancreatic neoplasms, and has helped identify distinct carcinogenic pathways such as the intestinal pathway characterized by diffuse/strong MUC2/CDX2 expression in intestinal-type intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMNs) and their associated colloid carcinomas (CCs). In this study, the expression profile of MUC6, a pyloric-type mucin, was investigated in both preinvasive and invasive pancreatic neoplasia. Florid papillary ("in-situ") components of 9 intraductal oncocytic papillary neoplasms (IOPNs), 24 IPMNs, and 7 mucinous cystic neoplasms (MCNs), were analyzed immunohistochemically for MUC6 expression, as were 15 PanINs, 112 usual invasive ductal adenocarcinomas (DAs), and 14 CCs. In PanINs, MUC6 expression was limited to the very early areas of PanIN-1A that typically have pyloric features. Expression was lost in later stages. Similarly, in IOPNs or IPMNs or MCNs, MUC6 expression was detectable in the cystic or flat areas that have pyloric-like histology. However, in the more advanced (papillary) components of these neoplasms, MUC6 expression was mostly limited to the "cuboidal-cell" but was not seen in the "columnar-cell" phenotype: there was diffuse or strong expression in 8/9 IOPN and, relatively weaker but consistent expression in all 6/6 pancreatobiliary-type IPMNs; whereas virtually no expression in villous or intestinal-type IPMNs. The 7/8 gastric or foveolar-type IPMNs were also negative; in the single case with positivity, the labeling was limited to high-grade dysplastic areas. Interestingly, the papillae in MCNs were also mostly negative. Among invasive carcinomas, 39/112 DAs and only 1/14 CC expressed MUC6. In DA, the expression did not correlate with survival (P=0.94), or any of the markers of aggressiveness: more than 2-cm tumor size (P=0.76), positive surgical margins (P=0.27), lymph node metastasis (P=0.82), or high grade (P=0.08). In conclusion: (1) The expression of MUC6 in oncocytic and pancreatobiliary-type neoplasms but not in villous or intestinal-type neoplasms supports the presence of a pyloropancreatic pathway distinct from the MUC2/CDX2 expressing intestinal pathway in intraductal papillary neoplasia. (2) MUC6 expression is present in the earliest (nonpapillary) form of any type of preinvasive neoplasia regardless of whether it is PanIN or IOPN or IPMN or MCN suggesting that these entities may share some characteristics early on, but evolve along divergent pathways as they progress.
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"Among the transfected cells studied, PK-8 cells exhibited the most consistent upregulation of mucin genes, including MUC2, MUC5B, MUC6, MUC15, and MUC20. Among these genes, MUC2, MUC5B, and MUC6 encode secreted mucins and are known to be expressed abundantly in IPMNs , . MUC1, which is commonly expressed in PDACs but relatively rarely in IPMNs , , was upregulated in PCI-35 and MIA PaCa-2 cells but was downregulated in the PK-8 cells. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: GNAS, a gene encoding G protein stimulating α subunit, is frequently mutated in intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMNs), which are indolent and slow-growing pancreatic tumors that secrete abundant mucin. The GNAS mutation is not observed in conventional ductal adenocarcinomas of the pancreas. To determine the functional significance of the GNAS mutation in pancreatic ductal lineage cells, we examined in vitro phenotypes of cells of pancreatic ductal lineage, HPDE, PK-8, PCI-35, and MIA PaCa-2, with exogenous expression of either wild-type or mutated (R201H) GNAS. We found that exogenous GNAS upregulated intracellular cyclic adenine monophosphate (cAMP), particularly in mutated GNAS transfectants, and upregulated expression of MUC2 and MUC5AC in HPDE and PK-8 cells. By contrast, exogenous GNAS inhibited expression of mucin genes in PCI-35 and MIA PaCa-2 cells, despite upregulation of cAMP. We examined global gene expression profiles of some of the cells transfected with exogenous mutated GNAS (PK-8, PCI-35, and MIA PaCa-2), and found that PK-8 cells exhibited drastic alterations of the gene expression profile, which contrasted with modest alterations in PCI-35 and MIA PaCa-2 cells. To identify a cause of these different effects of exogenous mutated GNAS on phenotypes of the cells, we examined effects of interactions of the signaling pathways of G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR), mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) on expression of mucin genes. The MAPK and PI3K pathways significantly influenced the expression of mucin genes. Exogenous GNAS did not promote cell growth but suppressed it in some of the cells. In conclusion, mutated GNAS found in IPMNs may extensively alter gene expression profiles, including expression of mucin genes, through the interaction with MAPK and PI3K pathways in pancreatic ductal cells; these changes may determine the characteristic phenotype of IPMN. PK-8 cells expressing exogenous mutated GNAS may be an ideal in vitro model of IPMN.
"However, we cannot rule out that carbonic anhydrase IX, which can also been seen in normal stomach, liver and gallbladder may simply represent a differentiation towards the pyloropancreatic pathway of intraductal papillary neoplasms. Basturk and colleagues claimed that the tubular/tubulopapillary pathway of ITPN forms a subgroup within the pyloropancreatic pathway . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Intraductal tubulopapillary neoplasms of the pancreas are very rare tumors characterized by intraductal tubulopapillary growth, ductal differentiation, scant intracellular mucin production and cellular dysplasia. Here, we report the first case of an intraductal tubulopapillary neoplasm of the pancreas with clear cell morphology. The tumor was detected during the diagnostic work-up of acute pancreatitis in a 43- year old female. Histological examination revealed a tumor with the typical architecture of an intraductal tubulopapillary neoplasm of the pancreas with tumor cells showing abundant clear cytoplasm and Di-PAS negativity. Immunohistochemistry revealed positivity for Pan-CK, CK7, CK8/18, MUC1, MUC6, carbonic anhydrase IX, CD10, EMA, β-catenin and e-cadherin. Sanger sequencing did not detect mutations for β-catenin, BRAF, KRAS, PIK3CA and GNAS. Altogether, histology, immunohistochemical expression profile (MUC1+, MUC6+, MUC2-, MUC5AC-, thrypsin-, chymotrypsin-, CDX2-) and sequencing results led to the diagnosis of intraductal tubulopapillary neoplasm. However, the neoplasm consisted of cells showing abundant clear cytoplasm, a morphological pattern not being described so far in the current classification of pancreatic intraductal neoplasms. Potential differential diagnosis and the molecular basis of clear cell morphology are discussed. In conclusion, we consider this tumor as intraductal tubulopapillary neoplasm of the pancreas with unique clear cell phenotype. After surgery and without adjuvant therapy, the patient’s clinical course has been uneventful for over two years now.
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Full-text · Article · Jan 2014 · Diagnostic Pathology
"In addition, we confirmed the expression of CLDN18.2, but not CLDN18.1, in all of the pancreatic cancer cell lines examined using RT-PCR. These results agree with those described in several recent articles, which demonstrated an association between the gastric phenotype and early pancreatic ductal lesions (Prasad et al. 2005; Kim et al. 2002; Basturk et al. 2010). The staining results in the IPMNs were intriguing, especially in terms of the relationship between the gastric and intestinal IPMN subtypes. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pancreatic ductal neoplasms exhibit gastric epithelium-like characteristics. In this study, we evaluated the expression of claudin-18 (CLDN18), a gastric epithelium-associated claudin, in pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasias (PanINs), intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMNs), mucinous cystic neoplasms (MCNs), and pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas (PDACs) using immunohistochemistry. We observed a high level of expression of CLDN18 in PanINs (31/32, 97%), IPMNs (61/65, 95%), and MCNs (4/5, 80%) using ordinary tissue section analysis. Furthermore, we observed a high level of CLDN18 expression in PDACs (109/156, 70%) using tissue microarray analysis. However, the normal pancreatic duct or the ductal metaplasia of the acinar cells was not immunoreactive. Comparative analysis of CLDN18 and phenotypic markers in IPMNs revealed that simultaneous expression of CLDN18 and intestinal markers frequently occurred, even in intestinal-type IPMNs. CLDN18 variant 2 mRNA was expressed and was similarly upregulated by phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) treatment in pancreatic cancer cell lines and in a gastric cancer cell line. An inhibitor of pan-PKC (GF109203X) completely suppressed this upregulation in pancreatic cancer cells. These results indicate that CLDN18, a marker for the early carcinogenetic process, is commonly expressed in precursor lesions of PDAC. Activation of the PKC pathway might be involved in CLDN18 expression associated with pancreatic carcinogenesis.
Full-text · Article · Aug 2011 · Journal of Histochemistry and Cytochemistry