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Ethnopharmacological application of medicinal plants to cure skin diseases and in folk cosmetics among the tribal communities of North-West Frontier Province, Pakistan

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The present investigation is an attempt to find out ethnopharmacological application of medicinal plants to cure skin diseases and in folk cosmetics. We interviewed respondents in 30 remote sites of North-West Frontier Province by a structured interview form in the local language and respondents were queried for the type of herbal cure known to him. A total of 66 plant species belonging to 45 families have been recorded. Seventy-five medications for 15 skin diseases and cosmetics were documented. The mode of application was topical as well as oral administration. Water, milk, ghee, oil, eggs, sulphur and butter are used during administration of herbal remedies. About 15 plant species are known for their use to cure multiple skin diseases. Among these Berberis lyceum, Bergenia ciliata, Melia azedarach, Otostegia limbata, Phyla nodiflora, Prunus persica and Zingiber officinale constitutes major plants. The herbal cosmetics products range from face freshness, removal of ugly spots, hair care, and colouring of palm, feet, gums, and teeth. Most of the reported species are wild and rare; this demands an urgent attention to conserve such vital resources so as to optimize their use in the primary health care system. Since most of the skin diseases are caused by bacteria, viruses and fungi in this context, phytochemical screening for active constituents, biological activities and clinical studies is of global importance.
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Journal of Ethnopharmacology 128 (2010) 322–335
Contents lists available at ScienceDirect
Journal of Ethnopharmacology
journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/jethpharm
Ethnopharmacological application of medicinal plants to cure skin diseases
and in folk cosmetics among the tribal communities of
North-West Frontier Province, Pakistan
Arshad Mehmood Abbasia,, M.A. Khana, Mushtaq Ahmada, Muhammad Zafara,
Sarwat Jahanb, Shahzia Sultanaa
aDepartment of Plant Sciences, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad 45320, Pakistan
bDepartment of Animal Sciences, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad 45320, Pakistan
article info
Article history:
Received 10 November 2009
Received in revised form 23 January 2010
Accepted 27 January 2010
Available online 4 February 2010
Keywords:
Ethnopharmacological application
Medicinal plants
Skin diseases
Cosmetics
abstract
Aim of the study: The present investigation is an attempt to find out ethnopharmacological application of
medicinal plants to cure skin diseases and in folk cosmetics.
Method: We interviewed respondents in 30 remote sites of North-West Frontier Province by a structured
interview form in the local language and respondents were queried for the type of herbal cure known to
him.
Results: A total of 66 plant species belonging to 45 families have been recorded. Seventy-five medications
for 15 skin diseases and cosmetics were documented. The mode of application was topical as well as
oral administration. Water, milk, ghee, oil, eggs, sulphur and butter are used during administration of
herbal remedies. About 15 plant species are known for their use to cure multiple skin diseases. Among
these Berberis lyceum,Bergenia ciliata,Melia azedarach,Otostegia limbata,Phyla nodiflora,Prunus persica
and Zingiber officinale constitutes major plants. The herbal cosmetics products range from face freshness,
removal of ugly spots, hair care, and colouring of palm, feet, gums, and teeth.
Conclusion: Most of the reported species are wild and rare; this demands an urgent attention to conserve
such vital resources so as to optimize their use in the primary health care system. Since most of the skin
diseases are caused by bacteria, viruses and fungi in this context, phytochemical screening for active
constituents, biological activities and clinical studies is of global importance.
© 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
1. Introduction
Despite the fact that a large number of clinical agents have been
developed by the pharmaceutical industry, indigenous phytother-
apy is still practiced in many rural areas, using treatments handed
down from generation to generation. The World Health Organi-
zation (WHO) has emphasized the importance of the traditional
indigenous medicines, since a large majority of rural people in the
developing countries still use these medicines as the first defence
in health care (Goleniowski et al., 2006). Globally, about 85% of
all medications for primary health care are derived from plants
(Farnsworth, 1988).
Skin is the largest organ of the body. It serves many important
functions, including protection, percutaneous absorption, temper-
ature regulation, fluid maintenance, sensory and disease control
Corresponding author. Tel.: +92 51 90643039.
E-mail addresses: arshad799@yahoo.com,abbasiam@bs.qau.edu.pk,
amabbasi75@gmail.com (A.M. Abbasi).
(Gebelein, 1997). Skin complaints affects all ages from the neonate
to the elderly and cause harm in number of ways. It has been
estimated that skin diseases amount to as high as 34% of all occu-
pational diseases (Spiewak, 2000). Traditional medicinal resources,
especially plants, have been found to play an important role in the
management of dermatological conditions (Saikia et al., 2006).
Natural beauty is blessing and sign of healthy life. Plants help
in preserving and enhancing the beauty and personality of human
beings. Natural cosmetics is a general term applied to articles
intended to be rubbed, poured, sprinkled, introduced into or other-
wise applied to the human body or any part thereof, for cleansing,
beautifying, promoting attractiveness, colouring, softening or alter-
ing the appearance. The birth of cosmetics dates back to the dawn of
civilization. Archaeologists estimate that cosmetics existed as long
ago as 6000 bc (Gebelein, 1997).
About 6000 flowering plants have been reported to occur in
Pakistan of which about 400–600 are considered to be medic-
inally important (Hamayaun et al., 2005). Although different
workers have documented medicinal plants from various regions
of Pakistan, to our knowledge no systematic investigation on
0378-8741/$ – see front matter © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
doi:10.1016/j.jep.2010.01.052
A.M. Abbasi et al. / Journal of Ethnopharmacology 128 (2010) 322–335 323
ethnopharmacological application of medicinal plants used to heal
skin diseases and in folk cosmetics among the tribal communities of
North-West Frontier Province (NWFP) of Pakistan has been made.
In this context, the present study is the first reference in this coun-
try with particular emphasis on ethnopharmacological application
of medicinal plants for skin diseases and folk cosmetics.
2. Methods
2.1. Study site
The North-West Frontier Province (NWFP) is one of the four
main provinces of Pakistan. It is located at 3350to 3423north
latitudes and 7235to 7331east latitude. The province bor-
ders Afghanistan to the west and north, the Northern areas to
the northeast, Azad Kashmir to the east, Federally Administered
Tribal Areas (FATA) to the south, and Pakistani Punjab and Islam-
abad capital territory to the east. The area is largely located on the
Iranian plateau and Eurasian land plate, while peripheral eastern
regions are located near the Indian subcontinent. Mean maximum
temperature in June has been recorded as 32.41 C and mean min-
imum as 1.7 C in January. The annual rainfall average has been
recorded as about 47 in., but as much as 25 in. falls during the south-
west monsoon. The main tribes of the area are Yusufzai, Khattak,
Marwat, Afridi, Shinwari, Orakzai, Bangash, Mahsud, Mohmand,
Wazir, Abbassies, Tareen, Jadoon, Syeds, Mashwani, Tanolis, Awans,
Qureshis, Sardars and Sheikhs (Anonymous, 1998).
2.2. Ethnopharmacological investigation
Present study focused on local inhabitants who use tradi-
tional resources for self-medication with particular reference to
ethnopharmacological application of plant species for skin diseases
and as natural cosmetics. The study was carried out by interview-
ing respondents in 30 remote sites (lack of health facilities, poverty
and extensive use of medicinal plants). In total 328 informants were
interviewed on their management of skin diseases and folk cosmet-
ics. The respondents were old age women (44.2%), men (41.15%)
and traditional healers (14.6%) themselves and had knowledge on
the medicinal uses of the plants for the said purpose. To collect
data systematically on skin management questionnaires and dis-
cussions were applied. A structured interview form was used to
collect information in the local language and respondents were
queried for the type of herbal cure known to him for skin ailments
and cosmetics. The interviews included questions that target the
local people’s perception of names of various skin diseases, the
names of plants, parts of plants used, methods used in prepara-
tion and mode of application of the drugs. The acquired data were
cross-checked in different areas from local informants either by
showing the plant specimen or telling local names of plants to ver-
ify the authenticity of claims. The data were tabulated to include
the botanical name, family, local name, parts used, preparation and
application, popular use and number of informants.
2.3. Preservation and identification of plant species
Plants were collected in flowering and fruiting conditions dur-
ing March 2007 to February 2008 and confirmed by the local
inhabitants to ensure that the proper plants have been collected.
Specimens were dried, pressed and mounted on herbarium sheets.
All collected specimens were identified with the help of available
literature (Nasir and Ali, 1970–2002) and herbarium, Quaid-i-Azam
University, Islamabad. After correct identification, the specimens
were given voucher numbers and deposited in Quaid-i-Azam Uni-
versity Herbarium, Islamabad for future references.
3. Results and discussion
3.1. Commonly utilized plant species
Results of present investigation are presented in Table 1 where
plants species are arranged in alphabetical order along with
their botanical name, local name, part used, preparation, applica-
tion, popular use and number of informants. A total of 66 plant
species belonging to 45 families have been documented for their
ethnopharmacological application against skin diseases and in
folk cosmetics. The most dominating families were Euphorbiaceae
with four species followed by Lamiaceae, Rosaceae, Rutaceae and
Solanaceae with three species each, and Asteracera, Papilionaceae
and Rhmnaceae with two species each. Some of the plant species
which show quick response to cure skin ailments and in folk
cosmetics included: Allium cepa,Berberis lyceum,Bergenia ciliata,
Cedrela toona,Citrus limon,Cucumis sativus,Juglans regia,Lycopersi-
con esculentum,Melia azedarach,Otostegia limbata,Phyla nodiflora,
Prunus persica,Sapindus mukorossi,Zanthoxylum armatum and Zin-
giber officinale (Table 1).
3.2. Plant parts used, preparation and application
Among the plant parts used leaves were highly utilized followed
by aerial parts, fruits, bark, flowers, rhizome, roots, tubers, rind,
seed, and bulb in decreasing order (Table 1). Data presented in
Table 1, indicates that 75 medications were used by local inhab-
itants and traditional healers for skin infections and cosmetics.
These medications can be divided into two categories: those that
prepared from (i) single plant and (ii) from more than one plant
species. Mostly water is used as a medium for preparation while
milk, ghee, oil, egg, sulphur and butter are used for application.
Methods of preparation fall into eight categories like crushed form
(19%), powder (17%), paste (16%), fresh part (13%), decoction (11%),
juice (8%), extract (4%), latex (4%), infusion (3%) and resin (1%)
(Fig. 1). Mostly the mode of application was topical; however, juice,
decoction, extract and powder were also taken orally. In regard to
the skin conditions, the preparations were applied more than two
times daily until healing was evident.
3.3. Skin infections (medicinal aspects)
The respondents identified 15 different skin diseases includ-
ing, gums, boils, scabies, carbuncle, pimples, wounds, eczema,
swellings, measles, leprosy, ringworms, abscess and small pox
which were managed through different plant-based medications:
like 23 medications were used to cure boils followed by 18 to heal
Fig. 1. Methods of preparation of herbal remedies.
324 A.M. Abbasi et al. / Journal of Ethnopharmacology 128 (2010) 322–335
Table 1
Ethnopharmacological application of medicinal plants for skin diseases and in folk cosmetics.
Botanical
name/voucher
number/family
Local name
(Hindko)
Parts used Preparation and
application
Present uses Frequency of
citation
(n= 328)
Previous investigation Phytochemicals
Achyranthes aspera L. Puth kanda Root Root infusion is taken
orally.
Pimples and boils 1Eye infection, toothache, abdominal
pain, dysentery, rheumatism and skin
infections (Shah and Khan, 2006;
Ahmad et al., 2007; Ahmad and Husain,
2008; Jan et al., 2008)
Alkaline ash containing potash,
saponin (Nadkarni, 1982)
ISL 105
AMARANTHACEAE
Adiantum capillus
veneris L.
Sraj Aerial parts Decoction of aerial
parts is taken orally.
Measles 2Astringent, diuretic, tonic, antibiotic,
emetic, expectorant, febrifuge,
jaundice and hepatitis (Inam et al.,
2000; Dastagir, 2001; Abbasi et al.,
2005; Ahmad et al., 2007; Abbasi et al.,
2009)
Flavonoids, terpenoids, tannins,
mucilage, volatile oil, capillerine,
mucin, gallic acid, sugar, kaempferol,
quercetol and luteol (Prajapati et al.,
2006)
ISL 109
ADIANTACEAE
Ajuga bracteosa Wall.
ex. Bth.
Ratti booti Aerial parts Juice of fresh aerial
parts is taken orally
before breakfast.
Gingivitis and boils 6Headache, pimples, measles, stomach
acidity, internal colic, jaundice,
hypertension, sore throat and
constipation (Zabihullah et al., 2006;
Qureshi et al., 2009)
Ceryl alcohol, -sitosterol, -sitosterol,
cerotic, palmatic, oleic and linoleic
acids, glucose, arabinose, rhamnose,
phenolic acid, resins, iridoid,
glycosides, alkaloids, phytol,
phytosterols, diterpenoids,
triterpenoids, unidentified compound
of formula C49H82 O(Rehman et al.,
1986)
ISL 115
LAMIACEAE
Allium cepa L. Piaz Bulb Slightly warm paste
of bulb in mustard oil
is tightening over
boils and warts for a
night.
Boils and warts 8Gastric trouble, anti
diabetic (Khan et al.,
2000; Ahmad et al.,
2003)
Volatile oil, sulphur, essential oil,
organic sulphur, quercetin, moisture,
ether, albuminoids, carbohydrates,
fiber, ash and sugar (Kirtikar and Basu,
1993)
ISL 102
ALLIACEAE
Aloe vera auct. non Mill. Kunvar gandal Leaf pulp Fresh pulp is layered
for a day.
Boils 3Anthelmintic, colic, emmenagogue,
piles, purgative, rectal fissure, anti
diabetic, blisters, stomach ulcer, pussy
wounds and eruption (Arshad and
Akram, 1999; Ahmad et al., 2003; Shah
and Khan, 2006; Ahmad et al., 2007;
Qureshi et al., 2009)
Chromanol, pteroyglutamic acid,
aloe-emodin, quinone, d-glucitol,
glucosamine, mono and penta
saccharids, hexuronic acid,
casanthranol I and II, aloetic acid,
sapogenin, glucoside, hecogenin,
2-amino-2-deoxy glucose,
chrysophanic acid, m-protocatechuic
aldehyde, cellulose, proteinase, resins,
imidazole (Ahmad et al., 1993)
ISL 120
LILIACEAE
Amaranthus viridis L. Ghinar Leaves Leaves are smeared
with ghee and
warmed slightly.
These warmed leaves
are applied topically.
Abscess and boils 1Snake bite, scorpion sting, abscesses,
boils, urinary diseases, hair tonic, flu,
fever and laxative, vision problem (Haq
and Hussain, 1993; Arshad and Akram,
1999; Abbasi et al., 2005; Shah and
Khan, 2006; Qureshi et al., 2009)
Ether, albuminoside, carbohydrates
(Nadkarni, 1982)
ISL 117
AMARANTHACEAE
Argyrolobium roseum
(Comb.) Jaub. &
Spach.
Makhni booti Leaves Extract of fresh
leaves is taken orally
before breakfast.
Boils and scabies. 4
ISL 221
A.M. Abbasi et al. / Journal of Ethnopharmacology 128 (2010) 322–335 325
PAPILIONACEAE
Arisaema speciosum
(Wall.) Mart.
Adbes Tuber Single slice of fresh
tuber is tightening
over boils, warts
ringworms and
carbuncle for a night.
Boils, warts,
carbuncle
2
ISL 122
ARACEAE
Berberis lycium Royle. Sumbal Bark Infusion of fresh or
dried bark is taken
orally before
breakfast.
Pimples, boils 8Eye diseases, febrifuge, jaundice,
diarrhoea, menorrhagia, piles,
backache, dysentery, earache, fracture,
eye ache (Haq and Hussain, 1993; Inam
et al., 2000; Abbasi et al., 2005; Shah
and Khan, 2006; Zabihullah et al., 2006;
Hussain et al., 2008; Abbasi et al., 2009)
Alkaloids umbellatine, barberin,
barbamine, starch grains and tannins
(Tyler et al., 1981)
ISL 125
BERBERIDACEAE Powder of dried bark
is sprinkled on
wounds.
Wound healing 12
Bergenia ciliata (Haw.)
Sternb.
Batpia Rhizom Powder of dried
rhizome is sprinkled
on wounds.
Wound healing 13 Antiseptic, aphrodisiac, astringent,
boils, demulcent, diuretic, fever,
ophthalmia, wound healing, colon
cancer, muscular pain, tonic (Haq and
Rehman, 1990; Shah and Khan, 2006)
Tannic acid, gallic acid, starch, mineral
salts, metarbin, albumen, glucose,
mucilage, wax, ash, A catechine,
(+)-afzelechin yield 2% (Haq and
Rehman, 1990)
ISL 150
SAXIFRAGACEAE
Bombax ceiba L. Dug sumbal Bark Fresh bark is crushed
and is applied
topically on pimples,
carbuncles and boils.
Pimples, carbuncles,
boils
3Alterative, astringent, restorative, tonic
(Shinwari and Khan, 1998)
Drying oil, tannic and gallic acids
(Nadkarni, 1976)
ISL 155
BOMBACACEAE
Brassica campestris L. Sarian Seeds Seeds are grounded
with sulphur
powder. This paste is
applied topically.
Warts and boils. 2Antiscorbutic, stomachic, body
weakness, gleets, leucorrhoea (Inam et
al., 2000; Abbasi et al., 2005)
Ocolaza, potash, fixed oil, glycosides,
myrosin enzyme, erucic acid, volatile
oil (Hussein, 1983; Kirtikar and Basu,
1993)
ISL 162
BRASSICACEAE
Calendula arvensis L. Stbarga Leaves Crushed leaves are
topically applied on
wounds.
Wound healing 3Antispasmodic and conjunctivitis
(Zabihullah et al., 2006; Ahmad et al.,
2007)
Sesquiterpene glycoside (Prajapati et
al., 2006)
ISL 169
ASTERACEAE
Calotropis procera
(Willd.) R.Br.
Ak Latex Latex of Calotropis
procera, seeds of
Prunus armeniaca and
horse nails are
grounded together
and mixed with
mustard oil. This
paste is applied
topically.
Eczema, ringworms,
snake bite, carbuncle
2Purgative, skin infection, expectorant,
anthelmintic, diaphoretic (Arshad and
Akram, 1999; Hussain et al., 2008)
Voruscharin, calotoxin, calotropin,
uscharidin, trypsin calcatin, uzarigenin,
syriagenin, proceroside,
benzoyllineolone, benzoylisolineolone,
cyanidin-3-rhamnoglucoside (Rastogi
and Mehrotra, 1993)
ISL 173
ASCLEPIADACEAE
Cannabis sativa L. Bhang Leaves Fresh leaves of
Cannabis sativa and
fresh scales of Allium
cepa are crushed
together and apply
directly.
Skin burns 2Narcotics, antispasmodic, boils,
anticonvulsant, antidiarrhoeal,
sedative, tonic, refrigerant, astringent
(Arshad and Akram, 1999; Dastagir,
2001; Abbasi et al., 2005; Shah and
Khan, 2006; Zabihullah et al., 2006;
Ahmad and Husain, 2008; Qureshi et
al., 2009)
Volatile oil, cannabene, cannabine,
alkaloids, cannabinone, cannabine,
cannabinol, pseudo cannabinol,
cannabinin and terpenes (Hamid et al.,
1998)
ISL 177
326 A.M. Abbasi et al. / Journal of Ethnopharmacology 128 (2010) 322–335
Table 1 (Continued )
Botanical
name/voucher
number/family
Local name
(Hindko)
Parts used Preparation and
application
Present uses Frequency of
citation
(n= 328)
Previous investigation Phytochemicals
CANNABINACEAE
Carissa opaca Stapf. ex
Haines.
Granda Root Powder of dried roots
is sprinkled on
wounds.
Wound healing 3Antiseptic, asthma, cardiac stimulant,
fly repellent, jaundice, hepatitis
(Shinwari and Khan, 1998; Abbasi et
al., 2009)
Carissone, palmatic acid, benzyl
salicylate, benzyl benzoate, farnesene
(Rai et al., 2005)
ISL 180
APOCYNACEAE
Cedrela toona Roxb. ex
Rottle. & Willd.
Nem Leaves Powder of dried
leaves is taken orally.
Scabies, pimples,
wounds
7Emmenagogue, irregular menstruation
(Ahmad, 1956)
Resin, gum, nyctanthin, flavones, resin,
glycosides, tannic acid, citric acid,
starch, ash, essential oil consists of
tricyclic, sesquiterpene, copaene,
cadinene, cadinol, lactone, cedrelone
(Chopra et al., 1982)
ISL 188 Powder is also
sprinkled on wounds.
2
MELIACEAE
Cissampelos pareira L. Ghoray summi Leaves Leaves are crushed
and applied directly.
Abscesses, wounds. 2Abscesses, snake bite, wounds,
stomachic, malaria (Shinwari and
Khan, 1998)
Sterols, steroids, alkaloids and
flavonoids (Ganguly et al., 2007)
ISL 199
MENISPERMACEAE
Citrus limon (L.) Burm. f. Nemu Fruit Juice of fruit is
applied on face at
night.
Face spots and for
face freshness
11 Appetizer, antiseptic, stomachic, anti
scorbutic, vomiting (Zaman and Khan,
1970)
Essential oil, citral, limonene, and
dipentene (Bhattacharjee, 2000)
ISL 190
RUTACEAE
Clematis grata Wall. Daund Leaves Leaves are crushed
and applied directly.
Eczema, warts,
carbuncles
6Skin infections (Shinwari and Khan,
1998)
Glycoside, ranunculin (Cooper and
Johnson, 1998)
ISL 195
RANUNCULACEAE
Colchicum luteum
Baker.
Phan phor Tuber Powder of dried
corms is mixed with
ghee and this paste is
applied topically.
Inflammation,
muscular pain
1Inflammation and
muscular pain (Shah
and Khan, 2006)
Colchicine, colchicinene, tannic, gallic
acids, starch, sugar and gum, alkaloids
(Haq and Rehman, 1990)
ISL 205
COLCHICACEAE Powder of dried
corms is sprinkled on
wounds.
Wound healing 2
Cucumis sativus L. Khira Fruit Thin slices of fruit are
placed on face at
night.
Face freshness 9Jaundice, stomachic, skin preparation
(Ahmad et al., 2003; Abbasi et al., 2009)
Methyl-phytosterol, amyrin,
multiflorenol, methylenecycloartenol,
cycloartenol, tirucallol, protein,
isopentenyl adenosine trialcohol
(Prajapati et al., 2006)
ISL 210
A.M. Abbasi et al. / Journal of Ethnopharmacology 128 (2010) 322–335 327
CUCURBITACEAE
Cynodon dactylon (L.)
Pers.
Khabal Aerial parts Aerial parts are
crushed and applied
directly.
Wound healing 3Astringent, diuretic, demulcent,
dysentery, hemostatic, laxative,
Chronic gleets, leprosy, piles, wounds,
cuts, catarrhal ophthalmia, eye pain
(Arshad and Akram, 1999; Shinwari
and Khan, 1998; Dastagir, 2001;
Ahmad et al., 2007; Hussain et al.,
2008)
Cynodin, hydrocynic acid, triticin
(Bhattacharjee, 2000)
ISL 200
POACEAE
Cyperus rotundus L. Muther Tubers Fresh tubers are
crushed and this
paste is topically
applied.
Wound healing,
scabies
1Anthelmintic, astringent, diuretic,
stimulant, dysentery, skin allergies,
wound healing (Ansari et al., 1993;
Arshad and Akram, 1999; Shah and
Khan, 2006)
Volatile oil, pinene, cineole, phenols,
cyperene, cyperol, cyperone, essential
oil, resinous matter, starch granules,
alkaloids, glycerol, linolenic, linolic,
oleic, myristic and stearic acids and
volatile oil (Hussein, 1983;
Bhattacharjee, 2000)
ISL 215
CYPERACEAE
Dalbergia sissoo Roxb. Tali Leaves Fresh leaves are
crushed and mixed
with egg. This paste
is used to remove
dandruff.
Anti dandruff 6Antiemetic, astringent, bitter,
gonorrhoea, leprosy, stimulant (Arshad
and Akram, 1999; Dastagir, 2001;
Ahmad et al., 2003; Hussain et al.,
2008)
Fixed oil, fatty acid, myristic, palmatic,
stearic, arachidic, oleic acids crystalline
lactone, dalbergin, isodalbergin, ethers,
dalbergenone, isoflavone, ether,
isoflavone, glycoside, caviunin,
7-ogentiobioside isocaviunin,
isoflavoneglycoside, sissotrin,
phynylchromene, dalbergichromene,
isotectrigenin (Ansari, 2000)
ISL 220
PAPILIONACEAE
Datura stramonium L. Tatura Leaves Fresh leaves are
crushed and applied
directly.
Boils and warts 2Antiseptic, intoxicating, narcotic,
sedative, sore, asthma, cough, boils,
falling, antidandruff, earache (Haq and
Shah, 1986; Badshah et al., 1996;
Arshad and Akram, 1999; Shah and
Khan, 2006; Zabihullah et al., 2006)
Hyoscymine, atropine, apoatropine,
belladonnine, scopolamine, resin,
daturine, seeds contain, fixed oil,
ditigloyl esters of 3,6-dihydrotropane,
3,6,7-trihydrotropane (Tyler et al.,
1981)
ISL 222
SOLANACEAE
Dodonaea viscosa (L.)
Jacq.
Snatha Leaves Fresh leaves are
crushed to make a
paste. This paste is
applied topically.
Swelling 4Astringent, toothache, burns, febrifuge,
gout, rheumatism, swelling, wounds
(Haq and Hussain, 1995; Badshah et al.,
1996; Dastagir, 2001; Hussain et al.,
2008)
Acid, resin, gum, albumin, tannin, ash,
alkaloid and saponin (Hamid et al.,
1996)
ISL 225
SAPINDACEAE
Emblica officinalis
Gaertn.
Amla Leaves Leaves are crushed
and directly applied.
Wound healing 1Aperient, astringent, cooling, diuretic,
fresh wounds, laxative, jaundice,
hepatitis refrigerant, hair tonic,
appetizer, gas trouble (Shinwari and
Khan, 1998; Zabihullah et al., 2006;
Abbasi et al., 2009)
Alanine, aspartic acid, glutamic acid,
lysine, proline, protein, fat,
carbohydrates fibers, minerals, iron,
niacin, chromium and copper
(Prajapati et al., 2006)
ISL 230
328 A.M. Abbasi et al. / Journal of Ethnopharmacology 128 (2010) 322–335
Table 1 (Continued )
Botanical
name/voucher
number/family
Local name
(Hindko)
Parts used Preparation and
application
Present uses Frequency of
citation
(n= 328)
Previous investigation Phytochemicals
EUPHORBIACEAE
Euphorbia helioscopia L. Dodh Latex Latex is applied
topically.
Boils 2Anthelmintic, cathartic, purgative,
cholera, sore eyelids, constipation (Haq
and Hussain, 1993; Badshah et al.,
1996; Arshad and Akram, 1999; Inam
et al., 2000)
Non-heamolytic saponin, phasin,
neutral and acidic saponin (Haq and
Hussain, 1993)
ISL 228
EUPHORBIACEAE
Ficus virgata Roxb. Phgwar Latex Latex is mixed with
milk. This paste is
applied directly.
Pimples, skin burns 3Constipation, demulcent, laxative, lung
and bladder diseases, piles,
anthelmintic (Shinwari and Khan,
1998; Zabihullah et al., 2006)
Resin, albumin cerin, sugar, malic acid,
renin, -amyrin, ascorbic acid,
adrenaline (Ahmad and Malik, 1994)
ISL 234
MORACEAE
Fumaria indica
(Hausskn.) H.N.
Pugsley.
Papra Aerial parts Decoction of dried
aerial parts is taken
orally.
Pimples, skin burns,
scabies
3Blood purifier, goiter, fever, tonic,
constipation, diaphoretic, diuretic, skin
infections, diabetes, bladder infection
(Inam et al., 2000; Abbasi et al., 2005;
Zabihullah et al., 2006; Ahmad and
Husain, 2008; Qureshi et al., 2009)
Fumaric acid, fumarine alkaloid,
crystalline organic base (Bhattacharjee,
2000)
ISL 233
FUMARIACEAE
Ipomoea nil (L.) Roth. Arila Leaves Crushed leaves are
boiled. This
decoction is directly
use.
Hair shining,
antidandruff
5Jaundice, intestinal pain, worm,
swelling (Qureshi et al., 2009)
Protein, calcium, phosphorus, and
resin (Kirtikar and Basu, 1993)
ISL 238
CONVOLVULACEAE
Juglans regia L. Khor Bark Fresh leaves and bark
(Dandasa) are used
directly.
Tooth washing,
colouring gums
15 Alterative, anthelmintic, antiseptic,
antispasmodic, antisyphilitic,
astringent, sore throat, toothache,
brain tonic (Haq and Hussain, 1993;
Haq and Hussain, 1995; Zabihullah et
al., 2006)
Fixed oil, nucin or juglandic acid, resin,
oxalic acid, alkaloid barium (Haq and
Hussain, 1993)
ISL 248
JUGLANDACEAE
Justicia adhatoda L. Bakher Aerial parts Ash of aerial parts is
used directly.
Bleeding gums, to
wash teeth
3Antispasmodic, boils, cough, dysentery,
expectorant, wounds, anthelmintic,
emmenagogue, irritant, rheumatism,
vermifuge, jaundice, hepatitis (Haq and
Shah, 1986; Haq and Hussain, 1993;
Somroo et al., 1997; Ahmad et al.,
2007; Hussain et al., 2008; Abbasi et
al., 2009)
Essential oils, alkaloids vasicine,
vasicinone, deoxyvasicine, maiontone,
vasicinolone, vasicol, peganine,
sitosterol, glucoside and kaempferol
(Prajapati et al., 2006)
ISL 243 Leaves Leaves decoction is
taken orally.
Pimples, boils 2
ACANTHACEAE
Lycopersicon
esculentum Mill.
Tumater Fruit Paste of fruit is
applied topically.
Face freshness, to
remove spots
8Leaves are used to cure eye problems
in a chickens (Mwale et al., 2005)
Carotenoids, lycopene, ascorbic acid,
phenolics and vitamin C (Singh et al.,
2004)
ISL 247
SOLANACEAE
A.M. Abbasi et al. / Journal of Ethnopharmacology 128 (2010) 322–335 329
Mallotus philippensis
(Lam.) Muel.
Kamila Leaves Leaves are crushed
and directly applied.
Boils, ringworms 3Constipation, cooling, skin diseases,
purgative, vermifuge (Shinwari and
Khan, 1998; Inam et al., 2000;
Zabihullah et al., 2006)
Carotenoids, corotonigenin,
l-rhamanoside, coroglaucigenin
L-rhamnoside, bergenine,
4-hydroxyrottlerine, 3, 4-dihydroxy
rottlerine, 4-phloroglucinol
derivatives, phorbic acid, 4-hydroxy
rottlerin, 3,4-dihydroxyrottlerin
(Ikram and Hussain, 1978)
ISL 259
EUPHORBIACEAE
Melia azedarach L. Drek Fruit Dry fruit of Melia
azadarach,
Phyllanthus emblica
and Terminalia
chebula are grounded
together. This paste
is taken orally.
Boils, pimples,
scabies
5Headache, rheumatism, round worms,
carminative, glandular swelling,
emmengogue, hysteria, resolvant,
blood purifier, scabies, piles, diabetes
(Haq and Shah, 1986; Haq and Hussain,
1993; Shinwari and Khan, 1998;
Ahmad et al., 2003; Zabihullah et al.,
2006)
Bakayanin, margosine, alkaloid
azedarin, resin, tannin, meliotannic
acid, benzoic acid (Haq and Shah, 1986)
ISL 250 Leaves Fruits are boiled in
water and this paste
is used for shining
hairs and to remove
dandruff.
Hair tonic,
antidandruff
6
MELIACEAE Paste of fresh leaves
is applied topically.
Swellings 2
Myrsine africana L. Khukan Leaves Decoction of fresh
leaves is taken orally.
Scabies, pimples 2Alterative, anthelmintic, carminative,
stomachic, tonic, to purify blood,
laxative, jaundice (Haq and Rehman,
1990; Shinwari and Khan, 1998;
Dastagir, 2001; Abbasi et al., 2009)
Embelin, vilangin methylene
bis-2,5-dihydroxy-4-undecyl-3,6-
benzoquinone, quercitol, embolic acid
(Haq and Rehman, 1990)
ISL 275
MYRSINACEAE
Nerium oleander L. Kner Leaves Fresh leaves are
crushed and use
directly.
Leprosy, warts, boils 2Leprosy, skin diseases (Haq and
Rehman, 1990)
Neriodorin, neoridorein, nerience,
neriantine, folinerin, rosaginine,
oleandrine, pseudocurarine, essential
oil, wax, tannic acid (Haq and Rehman,
1990)
ISL 269
APOCYNACEAE
Olea ferruginea Royle. Kahu Leaves Decoction of fresh
leaves is taken orally.
Bleeding gums,
pimples
3Antiperiodic, antiseptic, astringent,
bitter, diuretic, gonorrhoea, tonic,
rubefacient, toothache, rheumatism,
mouth ulcer and soar throat (Haq and
Rehman, 1990; Haq and Hussain, 1995;
Shinwari and Khan, 1998; Dastagir,
2001; Zabihullah et al., 2006)
Oil starnin, arachin, cholestrin, olein,
linolein, palmatin, fixed oil, oleic acid,
linoleic, palmatic, stearic, and myristic
acids (Youngkin, 1950; Haq and
Rehman, 1990)
ISL 285
OLEACEAE
Otostegia limbata (Bth.)
Boiss.
Koi booi Leaves Juice of fresh leaves
is taken orally.
Gums, scabies 5 Gums, ophthalmia, wounds (Haq and
Hussain, 1993; Shinwari and Khan,
1998; Shah and Khan, 2006)
Saponin, pectin, resin (Haq and
Hussain, 1993)
ISL 277 Powder of dried
leaves is mixed with
butter and layered on
wounds and boils.
Wound healing, boils 3
LAMIACEAE
330 A.M. Abbasi et al. / Journal of Ethnopharmacology 128 (2010) 322–335
Table 1 (Continued )
Botanical
name/voucher
number/family
Local name
(Hindko)
Parts used Preparation and
application
Present uses Frequency of
citation
(n= 328)
Previous investigation Phytochemicals
Oxalis corniculata L. Jandora Leaves Fresh leaves are
crushed and applied
topically.
Wound healing, to
stop bleeding
6Refrigerant, stomach trouble,
antiscorbutic, scurvy, jaundice (Haq
and Hussain, 1993; Shinwari and Khan,
1998; Inam et al., 2000; Shah and
Khan, 2006; Abbasi et al., 2009;
Qureshi et al., 2009)
Glyxylic acid, oxalic acid, vitexin,
isovitexin, neutral lipids, glycolipids,
vitamin C, phospholipids, fatty acids
and tocopherols (Prajapati et al., 2006)
ISL 299
OXALIDACEAE
Phyla nodiflora (L.)
Greene.
Hifza booti Leaves Fresh leaves are
crushed along with
black pepper and
mixed in water. This
extract is taken orally
before breakfast.
Pimples, carbuncle,
skin burns, bleeding
gums
7Antipyretic, astringent, boils, bleeding
piles, cooling, demulcent, diuretic,
knee joints pain, ulcer (Hussein, 1983)
Glycosides, nodiflorin A, nodiflorin B,
volatile oil, resin, sugar and potassium
nitrate (Hussein, 1983)
ISL 309
VERBENACEAE
Pinus roxburghii
Sargent.
Chir Leaves Juice of fresh leaves
is taken orally.
Measles 3 Antiseptic, aromatic, carminative,
deodorant, diaphoretic, refrigerant
(Haq and Hussain, 1993; Shinwari and
Khan, 1998; Dastagir, 2001)
Turpentine, pinene, limonene,
calophony, and oleum rebinthinae
(Haq and Hussain, 1993)
ISL 350 Resin Resin is slightly
warmed and applied
directly.
Boils, warts 2
PINACEAE
Pistacia integerrima J.L.
Stewart ex Brandis.
Kangar Bark Bark is crushed and
topically applied.
Chronic wounds 2whooping cough, asthma, jaundice,
dysentery, antidote to snake venom
and scorpion sting, intestinal colic
(Abbasi et al., 2005; Shah and Khan,
2006)
Tannins, essential oil, resin, triterpenic
acid, pistacienoic acid, triterpene
alcohol and triterpenoic acid (Prajapati
et al., 2006)
ISL 310
ANACARDIACEAE
Prunus persica (L.)
Batsch.
Aru Leaves Fresh leaves are
crushed and are
applied directly.
Wound healing,
burning sensation
9To remove maggots from wounds,
demulcent, lubricant (Singh et al.,
1997; Bhattacharjee, 2000)
Fixed oil, called persic oil contain
-sitosterol, and squalene
(Bhattacharjee, 2000)
ISL 315 Crushed leaves are
also used to stain
palms and feet.
Colouring palms, feet 4
ROSACEAE
Pteridium aquilinum (L.)
Kuhn.
Ganduli Rhizome Extract of fresh
rhizome is taken
orally.
Gingivitis, scabies 2Paste for cut wounds (Chettri et al.,
1992)
Cynogenic glycoside, prunasin, vitamin
B1, carcinogen, ptaquiloside,
thiaminase enzyme, thiamine (Cooper
and Johnson, 1998)
ISL 319
PTERIDACEAE
A.M. Abbasi et al. / Journal of Ethnopharmacology 128 (2010) 322–335 331
Punica granatum L. Durni Rind Rind powder is taken
orally.
Gums, pimples 3 Bronchitis, diarrhoea, dysentery,
intestinal worms, jaundice, stomachic,
astringent, diuretic, tonic,
anthelmintic, cardiac, cooling,
refrigerant (Ikram and Hussain, 1978;
Haq and Hussain, 1993; Haq and
Hussain, 1995; Shinwari and Khan,
1998; Inam et al., 2000; Dastagir, 2001;
Ahmad et al., 2003; Abbasi et al., 2005;
Shah and Khan, 2006; Zabihullah et al.,
2006; Ahmad et al., 2007; Abbasi et al.,
2009)
Citric acid, sorbitol, mannitol,
pelletierine, isoquercetrin, -sitosterol,
friedelin, D-mannitol, estrone, glucose,
fructose, sucrose, maltose, oxalic acid,
organic acid
ISL 380 Flowers Paste of flowers is
applied topically.
Face spots 2
PUNICACEAE
Pyrus pashia Ham. ex.
D. Don.
Batngi Leaves Fresh leaves are
crushed and used
directly.
Palms, feet, nails
staining
7Astringent, febrifuge, laxative, sedative
(Shinwari and Khan, 1998)
Arbutin, tannins, phlorhizin, protein,
pectin, amygdalin (Hussein, 1983)
ISL 355
ROSACEAE
Ranunculus laetus Wall.
ex H. & T.
Chumbl booti Leaves Fresh leaves are
crushed and applied
topically.
Eczema 6Asthma, gout, periodic fever, purgative
(Rajan, 1992)
Poisonous substance glycoside,
ranunculin (Cooper and Johnson, 1998)
ISL 333
RANUNCULACEAE
Rhus chinensis Miller. Tiater Fruit Dried fruit of Rhus
chinensis, dried seeds
and rind of Punica
granatum and dried
Foeniculum vulgare
are grounded along
with sugar. This
powder is taken
orally.
Pimples, boils 3Jaundice, hepatitis (Abbasi et al., 2009) Gallotannins, gallotannic acid, gallic
acid and m-digallic acid (Prajapati et
al., 2006)
ISL 326
ANACARDIACEAE
Ricinus communis L. Arand Leaves Leaves paste is
directly applied.
Boils, wounds 2Antiseptic, boils, flatulence, lactagogue,
menstrual flow, skin diseases, sore,
swelling, wounds, toothache,
rheumatic swelling and arthritis,
narcotic, poisonous, purgative (Haq
and Hussain, 1993; Inam et al., 2000;
Shah and Khan, 2006; Hussain et al.,
2008; Qureshi et al., 2009)
Alkaloid ricinine, toxalbumin, ricin,
beans yield fixed oil (Nadkarni, 1976)
ISL 319
EUPHORBIACEAE
Rosa brunonii Lindl. Tarni Flowers Decoction of flowers
is taken orally.
Pimples, boils 2Biliousness, eye and skin diseases,
heart tonic (Shinwari and Khan, 1998)
Essential oil, nerol, 1-linalool, eugenol,
phenylethylalcohol, citral carvone,
sesquiterpenes (Kirtikar and Basu,
1993)
ISL 363
ROSACEAE
332 A.M. Abbasi et al. / Journal of Ethnopharmacology 128 (2010) 322–335
Table 1 (Continued )
Botanical
name/voucher
number/family
Local name
(Hindko)
Parts used Preparation and
application
Present uses Frequency of
citation
(n= 328)
Previous investigation Phytochemicals
Rumex chalepensis Mill. Hula Leaves Fresh leaves are
rubbed on skin.
Scabies 3Astringent, cutaneous disorder
(Shinwari and Khan, 1998; Arshad and
Akram, 1999)
Oxalic acid, potassium binoxalate,
oxymethyl anthraquinone, tartaric
acid, tannin, vitamins (Hussein, 1983)
ISL 372
POLYGONACEAE
Salvia moorcroftiana
Wall. ex Bth.
Kal -gari Leaves Crushed leaves are
applied directly.
Wound healing 2Dysentery, poultice on wounds, cold,
cough (Badshah et al., 1996; Shinwari
and Khan, 1998)
Volatile oil containing salven, pinene,
camphor, cineole, bromeol, thujone,
salvene ester, sequiterpenes (Karick,
1994)
ISL 323
LAMIACEAE
Sapindus mukorossi
Gaertn.
Ritha Rind Rinds are boiled in
water and this paste
is used to remove
dandruff and
increase length of
hairs.
Antidandruff, hair
tonic
8Astringent, detergent, emetic, tonic,
anthelmintic, cholera, diarrhoea,
expectorant, gout, paralysis,
rheumatism (Hamid et al., 1996)
Essential oil, saponin, glucose, pectin
(Hamid et al., 1996)
ISL 387
SAPINDACEAE
Skimmia laureola (DC.)
Sieb. & Zucc. ex Walp.
Ner Leaves Leaves are burnt and
smoke is considered
to be useful.
Small pox, toothache 6
ISL 386
RUTACEAE
Solanum miniatum
Bernth. ex Willd.
Kach mach Leaves Decoction of fresh
leaves is taken orally.
Scabies, mouth gums,
swelling, pimples
5Carminative, cleaning and washing of
wounds, skin diseases, tonic, alterative,
diuretic, dropsy, emollient,
gonorrhoea, liver enlargment,
swellings (Haq and Hussain, 1995; Ali
et al., 1998; Abbasi et al., 2005; Qureshi
et al., 2009)
Cyanogenic glycosides, solasonine,
solamargine, -solamargine, tigogenin,
solasodine, -solasonine,
saccharopine, 2-aminoadipic acid,
hemagglutinins (Ali et al., 1998)
ISL 390
SOLANACEAE
Tagetes minuta L. Sad barga Leaves Paste of fresh leaves
is topically applied.
Wound healing 3Antiinflammatory, broncho dilatery,
germicidal, microbicidal
(Bhattacharjee, 2000)
Volatile oil consists of D-limonene,
ocimene, ocimenone, tagetone,
dihydrotagetone and
2,6-dimethyl-7-octen-4-one
(Bhattacharjee, 2000)
392
ASTERACEAE
Verbascum thapsus L. Gidar tumbaco Leaves Powder of dried
leaves is sprinkled on
wounds.
Wound healing 2Analgesic, antiseptic, diarrhoea,
dysentery, wound healing, asthma, fish
poison (Haq and Shah, 1986; Haq and
Hussain, 1993; Shinwari and Khan,
1998; Shah and Khan, 2006; Zabihullah
et al., 2006)
Mucilage, traces of volatile oil, tannin,
wax (Haq and Shah, 1986)
ISL 396
SCROPHULARIACEAE
A.M. Abbasi et al. / Journal of Ethnopharmacology 128 (2010) 322–335 333
Vitex negundo L. Marwan Leaves Leaves are crushed
and directly applied.
Skin infection 3 Backache, chest pain, gums, headache,
skin diseases, allergy, febrifuge, tonic
(Haq and Hussain, 1993; Abbasi et al.,
2005)
Glucononitol, p-hydroxy benzoic acid,
isophthalic acid, benzoic acid,
glucoside, flavone, flavonones, flavone,
flavole, glucose, phthalic acid,
-sitosterol, vanillic, luteolin, amino
acid, glycine, alamine, valine, leucine
(Riaz and Ashraf, 1990)
ISL 407 Branch Young branches are
used as toothbrush.
Tooth cleaning 2
VERBENACEAE
Woodfordia fruticosa
(L.) S. Kurz.
Thawi Flowers Powder prepared
from dried flowers is
sprinkled on wounds.
Wound healing 2Astringent, dysentery, haemorrhoids,
liver complaints, menorrhagia, mucus
membrane disorder, stimulant,
jaundice, sun stroke, nose bleeding
(Shinwari and Khan, 1998; Inam et al.,
2000; Zabihullah et al., 2006; Abbasi et
al., 2009)
Ellagic acid, sitosterol, polystachoside,
octacosanol, myricetin-3-glactoside,
cyanidine-3,
pelargonidin-3,5-diglucoside and
chrysophanol-8-0--d-
glucopyranoside (Prajapati et al.,
2006)
ISL 414
LYTHRACEAE
Zanthoxylum armatum
D.C.
Timer Branch Pieces of young
branches are used for
mouth gums and to
clean teeth.
Bleeding gums, tooth
cleaning
7Aromatic, carminative, preservative,
stomachic, tonic, toothache (Shinwari
and Khan, 1998; Haq and Rehman,
1990; Haq and Hussain, 1993; Dastagir,
2001; Shah and Khan, 2006)
Alkaloids, lignans flavonoids,
aminoacids, monoterpene, organic
acid, volatile oil (Ramachandram and
Ali, 1999)
ISL 428
RUTACEAE
Zingiber officinale
Roscoe.
Haldi Rhizom Powder is sprinkled
on wounds.
Wound healing 15 Indigestion, labour pain, urticaria
(Saikia et al., 2006; Ignacimuthu et al.,
2008)
Volatile oils, phenols, shogals,
paradols, dihydroparadols, gingerols,
gingerdiols, 1-dehydrogingerdiones,
diarylheptanoids, methyl ether, methyl
[8]-paradol, methyl [6]-isogingerol
(12) and [6]-isoshogaol (Ali et al., 2008)
ISL 419 Powder is warmed
with oil and layered
on injured and
swelling parts.
Pain, swelling
ZINGIBERACEAE
Zizyphus nummularia
(Burm. F.) Wight &
Arn.
Ber Leaves Juice of fresh leaves
is taken orally.
Boils, pimples 2 Cold,cough, induce sedation and throat
inflammation (Haq and Hussain, 1995)
Alkaloid frangufdine, triterpenoids,
triterpene esters, aporphine alkaloid,
zizyphus, saponins ziziphin, glucoside,
diglucoside, rutinoside, rhamnetin,
eriodictyol, sugar, amino acids,
minerals, volatile constituents,
phospholipid, triterpene
oligoglycosides, acetyljujuboside
-spinosin, vicenin, apigeni,
-glucopyransoyl, -glucopyranoside
(Porchezhian et al., 2000)
ISL 430 Fresh leaves are
crushed and mixed
with egg. This paste
is used for dandruff
and to increase
length and shining of
hairs.
Antidandruff, hair
tonic
4
RHAMNACEAE
Zizyphus oxyphylla
Edgew.
Pithni Roots Decoction prepared
from roots is taken
orally.
Bleeding gums and
pimples
2
ISL 433
RHAMNACEAE
334 A.M. Abbasi et al. / Journal of Ethnopharmacology 128 (2010) 322–335
Fig. 2. Number of preparations used to treat skin diseases.
wounds, 16 to cure pimples, 10 for gums, 9 for scabies, 6 to cure
warts, 5 to treat carbuncle, 3 for each, eczema and ringworms, 2 for
each, abscess and measles, and 1 for leprosy (Fig. 2).
3.4. Skin care (cosmetics aspects)
Local inhabitants also use herbal products for skin care like
seven products were used to cure skin burns, followed by five
to clean teeth; four for each, to remove face spots, dandruff and
swellings; three for each to stain palm, nails, gums, feet and as hair
tonic (Table 1).
3.5. Antimicrobial investigations
Skin diseases such as anthrax, boils, carbuncles, eczema and
folliculitis are caused by bacteria. Boils was the most common bac-
terial disease cited in the study area and local inhabitants use 23
remedies to cure this infection. Ringworms and candidiasis are
fungal infections. Present investigation indicated that inhabitants
of the area use three remedies to treat ringworms. Viruses also
damaged the skin and cause infections like measles, small pox
and warts. Present study explores six remedies for warts and two
remedies to cure measles. Besides these, there are 18 remedies to
manage wounds (Fig. 2). Plant species used for skin diseases and
in cosmetic have been reported for their antimicrobial activities,
like alcoholic, aqueous, hexane and dichloromethane, extracts from
the leaves, flowers, fruit and bulbs of Tagetes minuta,Allium cepa,
Zingiber officinale,Dodonaea viscosa,Vitex negundo,Mallotus philip-
pensis,Cissampelos pareira,Calotropis procera,Emblica officinalis,
Punica granatum, and Solanum miniatum were found to be active
against different strains of bacteria (Tereschuk et al., 1997; Ahmad
et al., 1998; Srinivasan et al., 2001; Kumar et al., 2006). Alcoholic
and aqueous extracts from rhizome and leaves of Bergenia ciliata,
Justicia adhatoda, and Dalbergia sissoo also show antibacterial and
antifungal activities (Parsad et al., 1999; Gorsi, 2005; Brijesh et al.,
2006). Ethanol extracts from the leaves of Oxalis corniculata and
Allium cepa, were found to be highly significant against nematodes
infection (Qarar et al., 1998). Further work on the species reported
in the present study should include antimicrobial analysis.
3.6. Correlation between present and previous investigations
Table 1 shows a comparison between present ethnopharmaco-
logical application of plants recorded with available pharmacolog-
ical reported literature and their chemical constituents. It appears
that present uses of Adiantum capillus veneris,Ajuga bracteosa,Argy-
rolobium roseum,Bombax ceiba,Calendula arvensis,Cedrela toona,
Citrus limon,Dalbergia sissoo,Euphorbia helioscopia,Ficus virgata,
Ipomoea nil,Lycopersicon esculentum,Melia azedarach,Oxalis cor-
niculata,Phyla nodiflora,Pinus roxburghii,Prunus persica,Pteridium
aquilinum,Pyrus pashia,Ranunculus laetus,Rhus chinensis,Tagetes
minuta,Woodfordia fruticosa,Zingiber officinale, and Zizyphus oxy-
phylla for the management of skin diseases and cosmetics were
rarely reported before, specially in Pakistan. To our knowledge,
no record is available for Lycopersicon esculentum,Phyla nodiflora,
Prunus persica,Pteridium aquilinum,Ranunculus laetus,Tagetes min-
uta, and Zingiber officinale with reference to Pakistan. A review of
chemical constituents of the plants species (Table 1) also indicated
that there are no phytochemical studies of these species with in
Pakistan.
4. Conclusion
A total of 65 medicinal plant species used to treat skin ailments
and as folk cosmetics were recorded and documented. The use of
these plants to treat various illnesses is still needed by the commu-
nities, because of the high cost and a difficult access to allopathic
medicines. Most reported species are wild and rare, demanding an
urgent attention to conserve such vital resources so as to optimize
their use in the primary health care system. Currently, conserva-
tion of traditional knowledge is greatly menaced by many factors
related to modernization of the region and lack of interest by tradi-
tional healers in transferring it to next generation. It is, therefore,
urgent to save the cultural heritage of the natives, by confirming the
therapeutical uses of the plants with scientific criteria. Phytochem-
ical screening for active chemical constituents, biological activities
and clinical studies is of global importance.
Acknowledgements
We are thankful to the Higher Education Commission of Pakistan
for financial support for this project; and also very thankful to all
local informants of the study area for their valuable information on
medicinal flora.
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... These health problems occur in both developed and developing countries, affecting all ages from the neonate to the elderly, with an estimation averaging 34% of all occupational diseases encountered (Abbasi et al., 2010;De Wet et al., 2013). Furthermore, dermatological diseases are multiples and widespread, they are considered as a set of pathologies whose most visible symptoms occur at the target organ level, including the skin and mucous membranes. ...
... Compared with the conventional allopathic substances, natural drugs, from the plants, are gaining popularity for their accessibility, safety and low cost for the poor people. In fact, traditional medicinal resources, especially plants, have been found to play an essential role in managing skin disorders (Abbasi et al., 2010;Saikia et al., 2006). These herbs were employed in the treatment of skin disorders in many countries around the world, where they contribute significantly to the population's primary health care (De Wet et al., 2013). ...
... Those that are used the most are the leaves (27.73%), followed by the whole plants (15.07%), the fruits (9.07%), the seeds (8.27%), the flowers (6.93%), the roots and stems (6.80% for each), the aerial part (5.60%) and finally the remaining parts with 13.72%. These results are in accordance with most ethnobotanical studies, which reported that the leaves are also the preferable plant part used when plants are used to treat various skin disorders (Abbasi et al., 2010;Chaachouay et al., 2022;De Wet et al., 2013;Salhi et al., 2019;Sharma et al., 2014). ...
Article
Ethnopharmacological relevance Skin diseases are among the most common human health affections. A healthy skin promotes a healthy body that can be achieved through modern, allopathic and natural medicines. Therefore, medicinal plants can be a reliable therapy in treating skin diseases in humans through a diverse range of bioactive molecules they contain. Aim of the study This review aims to provide for the first-time scientific evidence related to the dermatological properties of Morocco's medicinal plants and it aims to provide a baseline for the discovery of new drugs having activities against skin issues. Methods This review involved an investigation with different search engines for Moroccan ethnobotanical surveys published between 1991 and 2021. The plants used to treat skin diseases have been determined. Information regarding pharmacological effects, phytochemical, and clinical trials related to the plants listed in this review was collected from different scientific databases like PubMed, Science Direct, Google Scholar, Web of Science and Scopus. The data were analyzed and summarized in the review. Results A total of 401 plants belonging to 86 families mainly represented by Asteraceae, Lamiaceae, Fabaceae, and Apiaceae which have been documented to be in common use by Moroccans for managing skin diseases. Among those plants recorded, the most commonly used are Allium cepa L, Chamaeleon gummifer (L.) Cass and Salvia rosmarinus Schleid. Mill. Leaves were the most commonly used plant part, while powder and decoction were the most common method of traditional drug preparation. 107 of the 401 plants (27%) have undergone pharmacological validation. A total of 44 compounds isolated from 27 plants were investigated to treat different types of skin diseases, and 25 plants have been clinically studied for their activities against skin diseases. Conclusion The beneficial effects of using Moroccan medicinal plants to treat skin diseases, according to traditional practices, have been proven in numerous scientific studies. Therefore, other studies should focus on isolating and identifying specific bioactive compounds from plant extracts, revealing more valuable therapeutic properties. Furthermore, additional reliable clinical trials are needed to confirm their beneficial effect on patients with skin diseases.
... In this sense, the Pteridaceae family have been described in Ayurveda medicine; this is the case for the species Adiantum incisum Forssk. (Pteridaceae) used for the treatment of skin disorders [7], or Adiantum capillus-veneris L. (Pteridaceae) which is described for treating measles [10]. Currently, the fern with a high number of studies as an agent in the treatment of skin conditions is the aqueous extract of Polypodium leucotomos (Polypodiaceae) fronds (PLE) because of its phenolic content [11,12]. ...
... The correct documentation of medicinal uses is essential before they fall into oblivion [16]. For example, in an ethnopharmacological study of medicinal plant uses in Pakistan, the treatment of measles is documented with an extract of the fronds of A. capillus-veneris (Pteridaceae) [10]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Ferns can be a source of polyphenolic compounds, with the fronds being the main parts described in ethnopharmacological studies. The present study screened polyphenolic phytochemicals and evaluated in vitro activities of a methanolic extract of Asplenium adiantum-nigrum L. fronds (AAM), an Aspleniaceae fern collected from the Prades mountains (Tarragona, Spain). Phytocharacterization by HPLC-MS/MS confirmed that the major flavonoids isolated in AAM are flavanols while the major phytochemicals are phenol acids, with chlorogenic acid being the most representative one. Cytotoxicity, cytoprotection, cellular repair activity, and phototoxicity were determined in vitro in the presence of 0.01, 0.1, and 1 mg/mL of the extract. No cytotoxicity was obtained in any of the cell lines tested: non-tumoral (3T3 and HaCaT) and tumoral (HeLa, HepG2, and A549) cells. Additionally, the polyphenolic extract showed greater protective effect against H2O2 in 3T3 than HaCaT cells. Despite the low total phenolic content of AAM (1405.68 mg phenolic phytochemicals/kg dry extract), the cytoprotective activity of this extract could be associated with the synergistic antioxidant action of their polyphenolic profile. In addition, the extract did not present phototoxicity against the non-cytotoxic 1.8 J/cm2 dose of UVA light in both non-tumoral cell lines.
... It has been discovered that medicinal resources obtained from plants play an important role in the management of skin disorders [17,18]. The work presented was done to demonstrate the in vitro and in vivo wound healing activity and the mechanisms and putative molecular pathways exerted by Bacopa extract. ...
Preprint
Wounds represents a medical problem that contribute importantly to patient morbidity and to the healthcare costs in several pathologies. In Hidalgo, Mexico, Bacopa procumbens plant has been traditionally used for wound healing care for several generations; in vitro and in vivo experiments were design to evaluate the effects of bioactive compounds obtained from B. procumbens aquoethanolic extract and to determine the key pathways involved in wound regeneration. Bioactive compounds were characterized by HPLC- QTOF-MS and proliferation, migration, adhesion, and differentiation studies were done on NIH/3T3 fibroblasts. Polyphenolic compounds from Bacopa procumbens (PB) regulated proliferation and cell adhesion; enhanced migration reducing the artificial scratch area; and modulated cell differentiation. PB compounds were included in a hydrogel for topical administration on rat excision wound model. Histological, histochemical and mechanical analysis showed that PB treatment accelerates wound closure in at least 48 h; reduce inflammation, increasing cell proliferation and deposition and organization of collagen in earlier times. These changes resulted in the formation of a scar with better tensile properties. Immunohistochemistry and RT-PCR molecular analyses demonstrated that treatment induces: i) overexpression of transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β); and ii) the phosphorylation of Smad 2/3 and ERK1/2, suggesting the central role of some PB to enhance wound healing, modulating TGF-β activation.
... According to the literature, more than 50,000 flowering taxa have been used for medical purposes all over the globe [11]. Pakistan has diverse flora comprised of about 6000 flowering plant species [12,13] and about 600 plant species have been identified with medicinal values [14]. About 80% of the inhabitants of remote areas of Pakistan are still dependent on medicinal plants [15]. ...