Disruption of the Podosome Adaptor Protein TKS4 (SH3PXD2B) Causes the Skeletal Dysplasia, Eye, and Cardiac Abnormalities of Frank-Ter Haar Syndrome

Department of Human Genetics 855, Nijmegen Centre for Molecular Life Sciences, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.
The American Journal of Human Genetics (Impact Factor: 10.93). 02/2010; 86(2):254-61. DOI: 10.1016/j.ajhg.2010.01.009
Source: PubMed


Frank-Ter Haar syndrome (FTHS), also known as Ter Haar syndrome, is an autosomal-recessive disorder characterized by skeletal, cardiovascular, and eye abnormalities, such as increased intraocular pressure, prominent eyes, and hypertelorism. We have conducted homozygosity mapping on patients representing 12 FTHS families. A locus on chromosome 5q35.1 was identified for which patients from nine families shared homozygosity. For one family, a homozygous deletion mapped exactly to the smallest region of overlapping homozygosity, which contains a single gene, SH3PXD2B. This gene encodes the TKS4 protein, a phox homology (PX) and Src homology 3 (SH3) domain-containing adaptor protein and Src substrate. This protein was recently shown to be involved in the formation of actin-rich membrane protrusions called podosomes or invadopodia, which coordinate pericellular proteolysis with cell migration. Mice lacking Tks4 also showed pronounced skeletal, eye, and cardiac abnormalities and phenocopied the majority of the defects associated with FTHS. These findings establish a role for TKS4 in FTHS and embryonic development. Mutation analysis revealed five different homozygous mutations in SH3PXD2B in seven FTHS families. No SH3PXD2B mutations were detected in six other FTHS families, demonstrating the genetic heterogeneity of this condition. Interestingly however, dermal fibroblasts from one of the individuals without an SH3PXD2B mutation nevertheless expressed lower levels of the TKS4 protein, suggesting a common mechanism underlying disease causation.

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    • "TKS4 is also a Src substrate and essential for mature podosome formation and function [22]. Absence of TKS4 in humans and mice due to inactivating mutations or gene deletion leads to severe developmental defects in the craniofacial area, skeleton and heart as well as shortened lifespan, which are hallmarks of the Frank-Ter Haar syndrome [23]. Likewise, knock-down of Tks5 in zebrafish embryos causes abnormalities in neural crest cell-derived structures such as those on the craniofacial zone and pigment cells. "
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    ABSTRACT: Tks5 is a scaffold protein and Src substrate involved in cell migration and matrix degradation through its essential role in invadosome formation and function. We have previously described that Tks5 is fundamental for zebrafish neural crest cell migration in vivo. In the present study, we sought to investigate the function of Tks5 in mammalian development by analyzing mice mutant for sh3pxd2a, the gene encoding Tks5. Homozygous disruption of the sh3pxd2a gene by gene-trapping in mouse resulted in neonatal death and the presence of a complete cleft of the secondary palate. Interestingly, embryonic fibroblasts from homozygous gene-trap sh3pxd2a mice lacked only the highest molecular weight band of the characteristic Tks5 triplet observed in protein extracts, leaving the lower molecular weight bands unaffected. This finding, together with the existence of two human Expressed Sequence Tags lacking the first 5 exons of SH3PXD2A, made us hypothesize about the presence of a second alternative transcription start site located in intron V. We performed 5'RACE on mouse fibroblasts and isolated a new transcript of the sh3pxd2a gene encoding a novel Tks5 isoform, that we named Tks5β. This novel isoform diverges from the long form of Tks5 in that it lacks the PX-domain, which confers affinity for phosphatidylinositol-3,4-bisphosphate. Instead, Tks5β has a short unique amino terminal sequence encoded by the newly discovered exon 6β; this exon includes a start codon located 29 bp from the 5'-end of exon 6. Tks5β mRNA is expressed in MEFs and all mouse adult tissues analyzed. Tks5β is a substrate for the Src tyrosine kinase and its expression is regulated through the proteasome degradation pathway. Together, these findings indicate the essentiality of the larger Tks5 isoform for correct mammalian development and the transcriptional complexity of the sh3pxd2a gene.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2014 · PLoS ONE
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    • "To confirm that the intact PX domain is instrumental for the adequate tyrosine phosphorylation, a point mutation was introduced into the PX domain of Tks5 changing its conserved arginine 42 to alanine, as described earlier [16,20]. Similar mutation was identified in the structure of Tks4 PX domain leading to the change of the highly conserved arginine 43 to triptophan which resulted in the development of Frank-ter Haar syndrome [21]. Latter mutation was predicted to abolish binding to phosphoinositides [21]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Tks5/FISH is a scaffold protein comprising of five SH3 domains and one PX domain. Tks5 is a substrate of the tyrosine kinase Src and is required for the organization of podosomes/invadopodia implicated in invasion of tumor cells. Recent data have suggested that a close homologue of Tks5, Tks4, is implicated in the EGF signaling. Here, we report that Tks5 is a component of the EGF signaling pathway. In EGF-treated cells, Tks5 is tyrosine phosphorylated within minutes and the level of phosphorylation is sustained for at least 2 hours. Using specific kinase inhibitors, we demonstrate that tyrosine phosphorylation of Tks5 is catalyzed by Src tyrosine kinase. We show that treatment of cells with EGF results in plasma membrane translocation of Tks5. In addition, treatment of cells with LY294002, an inhibitor of PI 3-kinase, or mutation of the PX domain reduces tyrosine phosphorylation and membrane translocation of Tks5. Our results identify Tks5 as a novel component of the EGF signaling pathway.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2013 · Journal of Molecular Signaling
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    • "We identified three regions of shared homozygosity on chromosomes 5 (150943995–173861414; hg18 coordinates), 8 (134041593–146264218) and 12 (115552170–123960781). Following the identification of mutations in Frank-ter Haar syndrome [7], it was noted that the region of homozygosity on chromosome 5 included the SH3PXD2B gene. All coding exons of SH3PXD2B were therefore PCR amplified in samples from the family (primer sequences available on request). "
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    ABSTRACT: Background Frank-ter Haar syndrome is a rare disorder associated with skeletal, cardiac, ocular and craniofacial features including hypertelorism and brachycephaly. The most common underlying genetic defect in Frank-ter Haar syndrome appears to be a mutation in the SH3PXD2B gene on chromosome 5q35.1. Craniosynostosis, or premature fusion of the calvarial sutures, has not previously been described in Frank-ter Haar syndrome. Case presentation We present a family of three affected siblings born to consanguineous parents with clinical features in keeping with a diagnosis of Frank-ter Haar syndrome. All three siblings have a novel mutation caused by the deletion of exon 13 of the SH3PXD2B gene. Two of the three siblings also have non-scaphocephalic sagittal synostosis associated with raised intracranial pressure. Conclusion The clinical features of craniosynostosis and raised intracranial pressure in this family with a confirmed diagnosis of Frank-ter Haar syndrome expand the clinical spectrum of the disease. The abnormal cranial proportions in a mouse model of the disease suggests that the association is not coincidental. The possibility of craniosynostosis should be considered in individuals with a suspected diagnosis of Frank-ter Haar syndrome.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2012 · BMC Medical Genetics
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