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Proportion of litters of purebred dogs born by caesarean section


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To describe the frequency of caesarean sections in a large sample of pedigree dogs in the UK. Data on the numbers of litters born in the previous 10 years were available from a cross-sectional study of dogs belonging to breed club members (2004 Kennel Club/BSAVA Scientific Committee Purebred Dog Health Survey). In this survey 151 breeds were represented with data for households that had reported on at least 10 litters (range 10-14,15): this represented 13,141 bitches which had whelped 22,005 litters. The frequency of caesarean sections was estimated as the percentage of litters that were reported to be born by caesarean section (caesarean rates) and are reported by breed. The dogs were categorised into brachycephalic, mesocephalic and dolicocephalic breeds. The 10 breeds with the highest caesarean rates were the Boston terrier, bulldog, French bulldog, mastiff, Scottish terrier, miniature bull terrier, German wirehaired pointer, Clumber spaniel, Pekingese and Dandie Dinmont terrier. In the Boston terrier, bulldog and French bulldog, the rate was > 80%. These data provide evidence for the need to monitor caesarean rates in certain breeds of dog.
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Journal of Small Animal Practice • Vol 51 • February 2010 • © 2010 British Small Animal Veterinary Association 113
Statistics on caesarean sections in dogs are
difficult to come by. There is anecdotal
evidence that brachycephalic dogs are
more likely to need a caesarean section,
most likely because of a mismatch between
the bitch’s pelvic size and the size of the
puppies’ heads. A small study in Sweden
looked at 40 whelpings in 20 Boston ter-
riers and found that dystocia was more
likely to occur with increasing cranial cir-
cumference of the pups (Eneroth and oth-
ers 1999). It has also been suggested that a
significant proportion of pregnant brachy-
cephalic bitches undergo elective caesare-
ans before natural parturition begins.
A retrospective, longitudinal study in
Sweden using insurance data from 1995
to 2002 which included 195,931 bitches
found that the risk of dystocia was high-
est in the Scottish terrier, Chihuahua,
Pomeranian, pug and Staffordshire bull
terrier, and 63·8% of dystocic bitches
underwent emergency caesarean section
(Bergström and others 2006). The authors
pointed out that the Boston terrier, Eng-
lish bulldog and French bulldog were not
represented in their database as caesarean
section is not covered by the insurance
company in these breeds. Moreover, the
database included all insured bitches, not
just those that were pregnant.
The caesarean rate in humans has
been reported to be approximately 24%
of all births in England in 2006 to 2007
(National Health Service 2008) or 31·8%
of all births in the USA in 2007 ( Hamilton
and others 2009). Of course, there are
significant differences between dogs and
humans in terms of anatomy, reproduc-
tion and medical care among many other
To clarify which breeds of dog are
brachycephalic, we considered the skull
classification system (Evans and Chris-
tensen 1979). Skulls are classified accord-
ing to the ratio of the length of the facial
skeleton to the length of the cranial cavity.
The three categories are:
1. Mesocephalic – the facial skeleton is
the same length as the cranial cavity,
for example Labrador.
2. Brachycephalic – the facial skeleton is
relatively short compared to the cra-
nial cavity, for example bulldog.
3. Dolicocephalic – the facial skeleton is
relatively long compared to the cra-
nial cavity, for example greyhound.
The purpose of this study was to
describe the frequency of occurrence of
caesarean sections in a large sample of ped-
igree dogs in the UK, which were included
in the 2004 Kennel Club/ BSAVA Scien-
tific Committee Purebred Dog Health
Data on the numbers of litters born in
the previous 10 years were available from
a cross-sectional study of pedigree dogs
in the UK (Adams and others 2010).
OBJECTIVES: To describe the frequency of caesarean sections in a
large sample of pedigree dogs in the UK.
METHODS: Data on the numbers of litters born in the previous 10 years
were available from a cross-sectional study of dogs belonging to breed
club members (2004 Kennel Club/BSAVA Scientific Committee
Purebred Dog Health Survey). In this survey 151 breeds were repre-
sented with data for households that had reported on at least 10 litters
(range 10–14,15): this represented 13,141 bitches which had whelped
22,005 litters. The frequency of caesarean sections was estimated as
the percentage of litters that were reported to be born by caesarean
section (caesarean rates) and are reported by breed. The dogs were cat-
egorised into brachycephalic, mesocephalic and dolicocephalic breeds.
RESULTS: The 10 breeds with the highest caesarean rates were the
Boston terrier, bulldog, French bulldog, mastiff, Scottish terrier,
miniature bull terrier, German wirehaired pointer, Clumber spaniel,
Pekingese and Dandie Dinmont terrier. In the Boston terrier, bulldog
and French bulldog, the rate was > 80%.
CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: These data provide evidence for the need to
monitor caesarean rates in certain breeds of dog.
Proportion of litters of purebred dogs
born by caesarean section
Journal of Small Animal Practice (2010)
51, 113–118
DOI: 10.1111/j.1748-5827.2009.00902.x
Accepted: 17 November 2009
Animal Health Trust, Lanwades Park, Kentford,
Newmarket, Suffolk CB8 7UU
114 Journal of Small Animal Practice • Vol 51 • February 2010 • © 2010 British Small Animal Veterinary Association
K. M. Evans & V. J. Adams
In brief, this survey gathered data on
dogs from 170 breeds recognised by The
Kennel Club (KC) and was administered
via breed club secretaries. Owners were
sent a questionnaire with a prepaid reply
envelope and were asked to complete it
anonymously for all dogs they owned of
the breed for which the breed club had
sent them the questionnaire. The ques-
tionnaire contained three sections per-
taining to the health status of all dogs
including questions covering the body sys-
tems, breeding of females and occurrence
of birth defects. A fourth section dealt
with dogs that had died in the previous
10 years. The questionnaire was designed
and pretested in two breeds, the Norfolk
terrier and German Spitz. Section B con-
tained seven questions on the breeding
history of all dogs owned and bred in the
previous 10 years of which the questions
“How many litters have your female dogs
had in total?” and “How many litters were
delivered by caesarean section?” were used
in this study. The questionnaire is avail-
able on the KC website (The Kennel Club
2006). Data were available for 36,006
live dogs of 169 breeds (as the German
Shepherd Breed Club did not participate)
and owners reported reproductive condi-
tions as open-ended responses in the first
section of the questionnaire.
In this analysis, 151 breeds were
included on which data were available
for at least 10 litters (range 10 to 1415):
this represented 13,141 bitches which had
whelped 22,005 litters. The frequency
of occurrence of caesarean sections was
estimated as the percentage of litters that
were reported to be born by caesarean sec-
tion, and these are referred to as caesarean
rates for each breed. The skull classifica-
tion system outlined above was used to
categorise the dogs into brachycephalic,
mesocephalic and dolicocephalic breeds.
The data were analysed using Excel (2002,
Microsoft Corporation).
The response rate to the survey was
24% (Adams and others 2010). There
were seven breeds for which there were
no reported caesareans (Table 1). These
were the Australian silky terrier, curly
coated retriever, German Pinscher,
Hamiltonstovare, Irish terrier, pharaoh
hound and Portuguese water dog. The
10 breeds with the highest caesarean rates
were the Boston terrier, bulldog, French
bulldog, mastiff, Scottish terrier, min-
iature bull terrier, German wirehaired
pointer, Clumber spaniel, Pekingese and
Dandie Dinmont terrier.
From the reporting of disease occur-
rence in the first section of the 2004
survey, reproductive conditions were the
most commonly reported overall and for
many individual breeds (The Kennel Club
2006). Dystocia was the third most com-
monly reported reproductive problem after
pyometra and false pregnancy. Five breeds,
French bulldog, King Charles spaniel,
Norfolk terrier, Norwich terrier and York-
shire terrier, were reported to have more
bitches that had suffered from dystocia
due to physical blockage than due to uter-
ine inertia. Nine breeds, Affenpinscher,
beagle, Boston terrier, Bullmastiff, Clum-
ber spaniel, deerhound, Irish wolfhound,
Labrador retriever and Scottish terrier,
were reported to have more bitches that
suffered from uterine inertia than physi-
cal blockage. Seven breeds, Border collie,
bull terrier, bulldog, Chihuahua, Dandie
Dinmont terrier, Pekingese and St Bernard
were reported to have approximately equal
numbers of bitches that suffered from
physical blockage and uterine inertia.
A multi-centre, prospective case series
studying dogs undergoing caesarean sec-
tion in the USA and Canada was under-
taken between 1994 and 1997 (Moon
and others 1998). The five most common
breeds to require emergency caesarean sec-
tion were the bulldog, Labrador retriever,
boxer, Corgi and Chihuahua, while the
five breeds most commonly undergoing
elective caesarean section were the bull-
dog, Labrador retriever, mastiff, Golden
retriever and Yorkshire terrier. In 1997 the
Labrador retriever and golden retriever
were both in the top four dog breeds
registered with the American KC, so the
authors felt that they were present in the
list of breeds most commonly undergoing
caesarean section as a result of their large
populations. However they concluded
that, as boxers and bulldogs were among
the most common breeds to undergo sur-
gery on an emergency basis, brachycephalic
breeds are predisposed to the development
of dystocia. Unfortunately it was impos-
sible to differentiate between emergency
and elective caesarean sections from the
data collected in the Purebred Dog Health
Survey. Despite this, the bulldog, Welsh
Corgi Pembroke, Chihuahua and mastiff
also had a high caesarean rate in the pres-
ent study, with the bulldog being the only
breed which had also been reported to be
in the top five breeds requiring both emer-
gency and elective caesarean section in the
North American study. Recall bias is a
potential limitation in this study as own-
ers were asked for information relating to
the breeding of bitches within the past
10 years. Nevertheless, owners appeared
to be able to provide the information
In the Swedish study of insured dogs,
the Scottish terrier was found to be the
breed at highest risk of dystocia, with an
incidence rate of 38·3 cases per 1000 dog
years (Bergström and others 2006). It
should be noted that the Boston terrier,
English bulldog and French bulldog were
not represented in the Swedish database.
Our data suggest that this may also be
the case for UK Scottish terriers as they
had the highest caesarean rate of all non-
brachycephalic breeds, at 60%. It has been
reported that some Scottish terriers have a
dorso-ventrally flattened pelvic canal that
increases the risk of obstructive dystocia
and the need for emergency caesarean sec-
tion (Eneroth and others 1999). However,
the data for UK bitches suggest that uter-
ine inertia may also be a problem in this
breed (The Kennel Club 2006).
A study of feline dystocia found that
cranial conformation was significantly
associated with dystocia (Gunn-Moore
and Thrusfield 1995). Interestingly, both
dolicocephalic and brachycephalic types
had a higher litter prevalence of dystocia
than mesocephalic cats, with the highest
prevalence occurring in dolicocephalic
breeds such as the Siamese. The present
data suggest that the dolicocephalic breeds
of dog may not have a higher occurrence
of dystocia compared to brachycephalic or
mesocephalic breeds.
Journal of Small Animal Practice • Vol 51 • February 2010 • © 2010 British Small Animal Veterinary Association 115
Proportion of litters of purebred dogs
Table 1. Number of litters reported and proportion born by caesarean section for 151 breeds for which data from the
2004 Purebred Dog Health Survey was available for 10 or more litters of puppies
Breed No. of forms No. of dogs No. of litters
Caesarean sections
Number %
Affenpinscher 22 69 131 32 24·4
Afghan hound 23 50 61 13 21·3
Airedale terrier 25 71 127 22 17·3
Akita 13 24 49 5 10·2
Alaskan Malamute 10 14 20 7 35
American cocker spaniel 24 56 83 9 10·8
Australian cattle dog 9 22 35 9 25·7
Australian shepherd 8 26 56 1 1·8
Australian silky terrier 3 7 11 0 0
Australian terrier 4 13 22 1 4·5
Basenji 12 28 34 5 14·7
Basset Fauve de Bretagne 9 19 33 4 12·1
Basset hound 32 76 116 41 35·3
Beagle 74 187 312 66 21·2
Bearded collie 78 165 264 19 7·2
Bedlington terrier 30 72 164 10 6·1
Belgian shepherd 33 69 100 11 11
Bernese mountain dog 64 181 281 72 25·6
Bichon frise 13 69 142 8 5·6
Bloodhound 11 34 42 4 9·5
Border collie 51 134 227 24 10·6
Border terrier 94 297 542 95 17·5
Borzoi 17 30 36 5 13·9
Boston terrier 14 43 52 48 92·3
Bouvier des Flandres 12 26 39 8 20·5
Boxer 45 150 283 50 17·7
Briard 20 35 47 14 29·8
Brittany 17 35 57 10 17·5
Bull terrier 50 113 186 43 23·1
Bulldog/British bulldog 71 195 288 248 86·1
Bullmastiff 29 61 82 29 35·4
Cairn terrier 34 140 251 43 17·1
Canaan Dog 2 10 16 1 6·3
Cavalier King Charles spaniel 201 670 1207 158 13·1
Cesky terrier 3 13 18 4 22·2
Chesapeake Bay retriever 15 49 103 7 6·8
Chihuahua 17 137 262 90 34·4
Chinese Crested 9 21 37 4 10·8
Chow Chow 20 71 135 38 28·1
Clumber spaniel 17 44 62 28 45·2
English cocker spaniel 131 472 802 81 10·1
Collie 27 119 171 19 11·1
Curly coated retriever 13 21 28 0 0
Dachshund 72 305 504 157 31·2
Dalmatian 89 175 291 46 15·8
Dandie Dinmont terrier 20 43 70 29 41·4
Deerhound 55 110 153 43 28·1
Dobermann 28 57 93 10 10·8
Dogue de Bordeaux 9 11 18 5 27·8
English setter 69 195 270 60 22·2
English springer spaniel 49 118 195 20 10·3
English toy terrier 13 39 68 7 10·3
Field spaniel 21 46 60 5 8·3
Finnish Lapphund 6 12 18 3 16·7
Finnish Spitz 12 26 37 9 24·3
Flatcoated retriever 153 277 398 54 13·6
Fox terrier 24 67 126 19 15·1
French bulldog 24 53 80 65 81·3
116 Journal of Small Animal Practice • Vol 51 • February 2010 • © 2010 British Small Animal Veterinary Association
K. M. Evans & V. J. Adams
Table 1. Number of litters reported and proportion born by caesarean section for 151 breeds for which data from the
2004 Purebred Dog Health Survey was available for 10 or more litters of puppies
Breed No. of forms No. of dogs No. of litters
Caesarean sections
Number %
German Pinscher 10 16 25 0 0
German shorthaired pointer 74 144 245 25 10·2
German Spitz 35 91 156 33 21·2
German wirehaired pointer 11 19 23 11 47·8
Giant schnauzer 12 29 51 6 11·8
Glen of Imaal terrier 8 13 16 3 18·8
Golden retriever 278 779 1415 250 17·7
Gordon setter 49 115 183 17 9·3
Great Dane 32 90 140 38 27·1
Greyhound 13 29 37 14 37·8
Griffon Bruxellois 23 53 82 32 39
Hamiltonstovare 4 9 13 0 0
Havanese 4 11 22 2 9·1
Hungarian Puli 8 19 29 5 17·2
Hungarian Vizsla 18 40 68 8 11·8
Hungarian Wirehaired Viszla 13 24 40 5 12·5
Irish red & white setter 44 97 144 15 10·4
Irish setter 115 238 343 38 11·1
Irish terrier 7 18 28 0 0
Irish water spaniel 24 49 73 4 5·5
Irish wolfhound 20 58 77 31 40·3
Italian greyhound 19 45 71 7 9·9
Italian Spinone 21 33 46 13 28·3
Japanese Chin 13 44 83 12 14·5
Japanese Spitz 7 17 35 1 2·9
Keeshond 25 63 90 11 12·2
Kerry Blue terrier 7 18 27 4 14·8
King Charles spaniel 15 52 78 17 21·8
Labrador retriever 197 492 866 175 20·2
Lagotto Romagnolo 3 5 12 1 8·3
Lakeland terrier 12 26 53 12 22·6
Lancashire Heeler 16 32 57 4 7
Large Munsterlander 17 30 35 7 20
Leonberger 22 48 72 17 23·6
Lhasa apso 37 130 216 29 13·4
Lowchen 10 54 108 8 7·4
Maltese 17 50 95 20 21·1
Manchester terrier 27 48 84 13 15·5
Maremma sheepdog 5 9 16 3 18·8
Mastiff 19 52 79 51 64·6
Miniature bull terrier 12 27 42 22 52·4
Miniature Pinscher 12 24 42 2 4·8
Miniature poodle 20 54 113 6 5·3
Miniature schnauzer 55 160 289 62 21·5
Neopolitan mastiff 3 7 11 4 36·4
Newfoundland 41 79 110 16 14·5
Norfolk terrier 77 181 324 56 17·3
Norwegian elkhound 15 33 56 6 10·7
Norwich terrier 24 78 134 49 36·6
Old English sheepdog 25 59 88 14 15·9
Otterhound 6 23 31 3 9·7
Papillon 44 106 189 33 17·5
Parson Russell terrier 23 81 165 37 22·4
Pekingese 20 101 178 78 43·8
Pharoah hound 5 8 10 0 0
Pointer 50 119 173 45 26
Polish lowland sheepdog 7 10 15 3 20
Pomeranian 16 87 168 37 22
Portuguese water dog 1 6 11 0 0
Journal of Small Animal Practice • Vol 51 • February 2010 • © 2010 British Small Animal Veterinary Association 117
Proportion of litters of purebred dogs
Breed No. of forms No. of dogs No. of litters
Caesarean sections
Number %
Pug dog 50 142 223 61 27·4
Pyrenean mountain dog 21 34 38 11 28·9
Pyrenean sheepdog 2 6 14 1 7·1
Rhodesian ridgeback 52 102 173 11 6·4
Rottweiler 29 70 127 22 17·3
Saluki 22 49 54 8 14·8
Samoyed 53 119 222 52 23·4
Schipperke 12 26 47 13 27·7
Schnauzer (standard) 16 29 48 9 18·8
Scottish terrier 26 99 164 98 59·8
Sealyham terrier 6 9 10 4 40
Shar-Pei 16 58 111 3 2·7
Shetland sheepdog 109 333 640 93 14·5
Shiba Inu (Japanese) 7 19 27 2 7·4
Shih Tzu 32 100 171 36 21·1
Siberian husky 62 121 175 43 24·6
Skye terrier 14 29 36 2 5·6
Soft coated wheaten terrier 54 82 149 16 10·7
St Bernard 11 32 34 14 41·2
Staffordshire bull terrier 64 135 220 42 19·1
Standard poodle 44 108 189 21 11·1
Sussex spaniel 19 40 62 12 19·4
Swedish Vallhund 9 14 20 6 30
Tibetan spaniel 57 149 252 39 15·5
Tibetan terrier 31 92 177 18 10·2
Toy poodle 6 25 43 5 11·6
Weimaraner 76 133 207 13 6·3
Welsh Corgi Cardigan 15 36 64 14 21·9
Welsh Corgi Pembroke 33 130 199 71 35·7
Welsh springer spaniel 61 127 205 17 8·3
Welsh terrier 16 40 84 6 7·1
West Highland white terrier 54 166 366 69 18·9
Whippet 145 317 438 66 15·1
Yorkshire terrier 14 66 139 14 10·1
In humans, it is currently thought that
a caesarean rate of between 5 and 10%
seems to achieve the best outcomes for
the health of both mothers and neonates
and that a rate of greater than 15%, a fig-
ure recommended by the World Health
Organisation (WHO 1985), “seems to
result in more harm than good” (Alathabe
and Belizán 2006).
Some studies suggest that, in humans,
elective caesarean section offers no
real health advantages to either moth-
ers or neonates, and may actually carry
increased health risks compared with
vaginal delivery (Armson 2007). Howev-
er, it has been shown that there are fewer
complications associated with planned
caesarean sections than with unplanned,
emergency caesarean sections (Häger and
others 2004). If this situation is mirrored
in bitches, it could be suggested that
performing an elective caesarean section
is preferable to letting labour commence
and fail to progress. Leaving a bitch to
whelp unassisted can lead to the need
for an emergency caesarean section if it
is anticipated that the bitch is likely to
experience dystocia (due to previous dys-
tocia, size of sire or breeding history of
female relatives, as has been suggested
in humans (Tollanes and others 2008)).
However, this raises concerns about ani-
mal welfare – such as, should that bitch
have been mated (or mated with that
dog) at all? The authors understand that
The KC is seeking the support of veteri-
nary organisations in the UK on a pro-
posal to prevent the registration of a litter
if the dam has already produced two lit-
ters delivered by caesarean section.
The results of this study cannot neces-
sarily be generalised to all dogs because the
2004 health survey was a convenience sam-
ple rather than a random sample of the UK
pedigree dog population. However, this
large cross-sectional study provides evidence
that the caesarean section rates appear to be
high in several breeds. This study found
that five of the 10 breeds with the highest
reported caesarean rate were brachycephalic
breeds. Indeed in three breeds, the Boston
terrier, bulldog and French bulldog, the rate
was greater than 80%. These data provide
evidence for the need to monitor caesarean
rates in certain breeds of dog.
The authors would like to thank the
Kennel Club Charitable Trust for funding
this study.
118 Journal of Small Animal Practice • Vol 51 • February 2010 • © 2010 British Small Animal Veterinary Association
K. M. Evans & V. J. Adams
(2010) Methods and mortality results of a health
survey of purebred dogs in the United Kingdom.
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... In dogs, dystocia and cesarean surgeries are more common in brachiocephalic breeds (especially English bulldogs, French bulldogs, and Boston terriers). [7][8][9] To promote better animal welfare, the European Union currently has Animal Welfare Best Practices in place. As per this policy dogs must be able to breed, whelp, and rear their litters naturally and dogs that had 1 or more cesarean surgeries cannot be used for breeding. ...
... 8 From an ethical standpoint, it is likely not in the owners' or breeding community's best ethical interest to continue to breed similarly affected animals. 8 One could argue in the case of bulldogs, it might not change the outcome of these cases, as a majority of bulldog litters are delivered via cesarean surgery; 7,9,17,19,24 however, with increasing changes to the breeding guidelines of brachiocephalic breeds, such as banning elective cesarean surgery in such breeds in European Union and banning the breeding of any English bulldogs and Cavalier King Charles spaniels in Norway, female animals with abnormalities of the reproductive tract should not be bred. 8,10 One could also argue that as we do not have enough information on Müllerian duct fusion abnormalities in dogs to make such claims; however, this might be an inherited condition that, with further gene expression or mutation, progresses to more diffuse fusion defects that could have detrimental effects on fertility, pregnancy rates, litter sizes, or animal welfare. ...
... In the cases presented, cervical duplication was an incidental finding at the time of breeding. Although 1 case resulted in dystocia and emergency cesarean surgery, it is heavily suspected that this outcome was more likely due to breed predisposition 7,9,24 and owner compliance, rather than from pathology of the cervix. Our reasoning is this is not a typical outcome for this condition in cows 4-6 and the stillborn pup was completely within the vaginal canal at presentation; though since we do not have any information on this condition in dogs, it cannot be completely ruled out as a cause. ...
Full-text available
Two maiden bulldogs with cervical duplication were presented for breeding management. Dogs were successfully impregnated via endoscope-assisted transcervical insemination (TCI) and had their litters via cesarean surgery. A common uterine body between 2 cervical openings and 2 uterine horns was noticed (with no other reproductive abnormalities) at surgery. Duplication of the cervix has apparently not been previously described in dogs. With TCI becoming a more frequently used method of breeding, it is probable that defects involving failed or incomplete fusion of the paramesonephric duct during embryological development will be more frequently observed by clinicians.
... On the other hand, the Gordon Setter had the lowest incidence of Csections of all included breeds. Such a difference between the Norwich Terrier and the Gordon Setter can be observed also in the study of Evans et al. (20). Eleven of the 13 breeds included in our study were represented in the study of Evans et al. (20). ...
... Such a difference between the Norwich Terrier and the Gordon Setter can be observed also in the study of Evans et al. (20). Eleven of the 13 breeds included in our study were represented in the study of Evans et al. (20). The reported incidences of cesarean section are similar in the Dachshund yet differ in some cases greatly such as in the Miniature Bullterrier and the Norwich Terrier compared with the results of our study. ...
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Dystocia in the canine species is a common problem, and elective cesarean sections (C-sections) have become more frequent in breeds that are at risk. The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence of C-section and contributing factors and to compare data on elective and emergency C-sections (e.g., regarding stillbirth). Using a questionnaire, a total of 423 bitches of 80 breeds and their 899 litters were included. The mean number of litters per bitch was 2.1 ± 1.1 litters. The overall rate of stillbirth was 6.7%. Of all litters, 194 were born via C-sections (21.6%), of which 35 were declared as elective and 159 as emergency due to dystocia. Significantly more C-sections were performed in either small litters (1-2 pups) or large litters (>12 pups) (p < 0.001). Bitches that have had prior C-sections had a 4-fold increase in the risk of successive C-sections (RR = 4.54 (95%CI 2.56–7.70; p < 0.001). Furthermore, primiparous bitches of advanced age had a significantly higher incidence of emergency C-sections ( p = 0.004). Stillbirth was significantly higher in emergency C-sections compared with that in elective C-sections ( p = 0.003). Also, timing of intervention had a significant impact on stillbirth in emergency C-sections ( p = 0.025). Within a breed-specific evaluation, significant differences were observed between breeds regarding incidence of C-section and stillbirth. Lesser-known breeds were represented in the population, and the results showed that the Norwich Terrier had the highest (51.6%) and the Gordon Setter had the lowest (4.8%) incidence of C-section ( p < 0.001). The inclusion and evaluation of lesser-known breeds regarding incidence of C-section is of importance as it shows that certain breeds without phenotypical traits such as brachycephaly may also have an increased incidence of emergency C-section and stillbirth. We further conclude that more importance may be given to the age at first parturition concerning the occurrence of dystocia and the decision making regarding possible elective C-sections.
... and 3.3-5.8% in dogs and cats, respectively, with a predisposition in some breeds. [1][2][3][4][5][6][7][8][9] Cesarean section (C-section) is performed in 54-66% of dogs and in 74-79% of cats with dystocia. 1,[4][5][6]10 Reported complications of C-section include hemorrhage, infection or dehiscence of the incision, and peritonitis. ...
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Cesarean section is a common treatment for canine and feline dystocia. Ovariohysterectomy may or may not be recommended concurrently. There are apparently no data in the literature providing evidence to guide decision-making regarding the advantages and disadvantages of performing these procedures concurrently. Animal signalment, history upon presentation, medical and anesthetic management of dystocia, and incidence of short-term complications were compared between bitches and queens undergoing Cesarean section alone and those undergoing concurrent Cesarean section and ovariohysterectomy. Short-term complications were defined as those happening after recovery from anesthesia and extubation and within several days after patient discharge. Complete data were available for two queens undergoing Cesarean section alone and two queens undergoing concurrent Cesarean section and ovariohysterectomy, and for 20 bitches undergoing Cesarean section alone and 22 bitches undergoing concurrent Cesarean section and ovariohysterectomy. No short-term complications were reported in any of these patients. An important limitation was small sample size; therefore, further investigations, perhaps by pooling data from several institutions, would be beneficial.
... When questioned about the low number of elective C-sections the KBS committee hypothesized that despite the perceived high risk of a C-section in this breed, most breeders try to avoid surgery thus letting the bitch proceed with a trial of labor and intervening only when a problem arises. The rate of C-sections within the dataset was higher than what was previously reported for the BMD [30] as well as for other breeds [29,31]. In addition, more than half of all the bitches had at least one C-section in their reproductive career. ...
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Background Dystocia is an important limiting factor in animal breeding due to its cost, stress for the mother and risk of death for the neonates. Assessment of incidence and characteristics of dystocia and the inherent risk of Cesarean section are of major importance. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the reproductive performance of Bernese Mountain Dogs in Switzerland, with a particular focus on the prevalence of Cesarean sections due to dystocia, and identification of possible risk factors. Results The investigated population included 401 bitches, 207 sires, and 1127 litters. Litter size was significantly influenced by age and parity of the dam. Incidence of Cesarean section was 30.4%, with 2.0% of procedures being elective. History of previous Cesarean section, age of the dam, and a small litter size significantly influenced the risk for Cesarean section. The stillbirth rate was 12.0%, and the number of stillborn pups was significantly higher for litters delivered by Cesarean sections after birth of the first pup. The inbreeding coefficient had a low to non-significant impact on all reproductive parameters (e.g., litter size, number of stillborn pups). Conclusion The sample of Bernese Mountain Dogs of our study had an increased prevalence of Cesarean sections compared to the literature, and advanced age of the dam, litter size and prior Cesarean sections in the dam’s reproductive history was identified as significantly influencing factors. In order to improve pups’ survival rate, elective Cesarean section may be indicated in bitches that have had a previous Cesarean-section/s, are of advanced age, and/or have a small litter.
... It is believed that there is a disproportion between the narrow maternal pelvis and head size of newborns in these breeds. In Bulldog bitches, a cesarean rate greater than 80% has been reported, including emergency and elective caesareans [6]. ...
The aim of this study was to evaluate B-mode ultrasonography and ARFI elastography of the central nervous system of canine fetuses as complementary methods to predict gestational age, monitor fetal development and establish standards. Ultrasound examinations were performed on 26 English Bulldog bitches at 34, 49 and 60 days of gestation. The circumference (C), area (A) and diameters of the short (D1) and long (D2) axis of the two cerebral hemispheres of the fetuses in cross-section were measured. Fetal cerebellum shape, echotexture, echogenicity, and transverse diameter (TCD) were evaluated in cross-section. Elastography was performed obtaining color elastograms and mean shear wave velocity (SWV m/s) of the fetal brain and cerebellar tissues. Ultrasound variables were correlated with gestational day (GD). Brain masses had a circular to oval shape, hyperechoic echogenicity, and homogeneous echotexture. C and D1 were the more accurate variables to predict gestational day, with the formulas: GD = 19.38 + 2,06∗C (R2 = 81%) and GD = 18.93 + 7.45∗D1 (R2 = 82%). Cerebellum had a "banana" shape, with hyperechogenic edges, hypoechoic echogenicity, and homogeneous echotexture. The TCD (P = 0.0001) and cerebellar stiffness (P = 0.0006) were greater at 60 days than at 49 days of gestation. The brain mass SWV was correlated positively with GD (P = 0.0001) and showed a gradual increase (P = 0.0001) in the three gestational timepoints evaluated. According to qualitative elastography, both brain mass and cerebellum became more rigid over the course of gestational days. It was possible to verify the development of the brain and cerebellum of canine fetuses during pregnancy by ultrasonographic characteristics and B-mode dimensions, as well as by evaluating the elasticity of these tissues through elastography. These unpublished findings allow a better follow-up of the central nervous system development in the prenatal period and may help in future studies with canine fetuses that present cerebral and cerebellar abnormalities.
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Cystinuria is a genetic disease that can lead to cystine urolith formation. The English bulldog is the dog breed most frequently affected. In this breed, three missense mutations have been suggested to be associated with cystinuria: c.568A>G and c.2086A>G in SLC3A1 and c.649G>A in SLC7A9. In this study, the occurrence of these three mutations in the Danish population of English bulldogs was investigated. Seventy-one English bulldogs were genotyped using TaqMan assays. The dogs' owners were given questionnaires concerning the medical histories of their dogs. Allele frequencies of 0.40, 0.40, and 0.52 were found for the mutant alleles in the three loci: c.568A>G, c.2086A>G, and c.649G>A, respectively. For both mutations in SLC3A1, a statistically significant association was found between cystinuria and homozygosity for the G allele among male, English bulldogs. For the mutation in SLC7A9, there was no statistically significant association between homozygosity for the mutant allele and cystinuria. Due to high allele frequencies, limited genetic diversity, continued uncertainty about the genetic background of cystinuria, and more severe health problems in the breed, selection based on genetic testing for the mutations in SLC3A1 cannot be recommended in the Danish population of English bulldogs. However, results of the genetic test may be used as a guide to recommend prophylactic treatment.
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Veteriner Hekimlik dünyanın en eski mesleklerinden birisidir. Yalnızca hayvan sağlığı ile değil aynı zamanda hayvansal gıdaların uygun şekilde insan tüketimine sunulması ve dolayısıyla halk sağlığı ile doğrudan ilişkili bir meslek grubudur. Sağlıklı insan, sağlıklı hayvan ve sağlıklı bir dünya için çalışan veteriner hekimlik mesleği etik değerlere bağlı bilimsel yaklaşımlarla sağlık alanında hizmet sunmaktadır. Veteriner hekimlik mesleği, fizyolojik, metabolik ve anatomik olarak farklı birçok hayvan türü ile ilgilenmektedir. Bu türler arasında kanatlılar, memeliler, sürüngenler, sıcakkanlılar, soğukkanlılar, kara hayvanları, deniz hayvanları gibi çok geniş bir alanda hizmet vermektedir. Bu canlıların her birinin sağlıklı yaşam alanlarının oluşturulması ekosistem içerisinde önemli yer tutmaktadır. Günümüzde ekonomik değeri olan sığır, koyun, keçi, tavuk gibi evcil hayvanların yanı sıra kedi ve köpek gibi evcil dostlarımız da insan hayatında büyük bir yeri kaplamaktadır. Artık birçok evde kedi ve köpeklerle birlikte yaşanıyor olması, onların ihtiyacı olan yaşam standartlarının da sağlanması koşulunu beraberinde getirmektedir. “Veteriner Hekimlikte Güncel Değerlendirmeler” isimli bu kitabımızda, alanında uzman hekimler tarafından derlenmiş özgün bilimsel konular ve yaklaşımlar ile okuyucularına ışık tutacaktır
This chapter provides suggested protocols for specific procedures and is heavily influenced by the author's opinions; however, the most suitable protocol for any procedure is based on familiarity of the anesthetist with anesthetics and analgesics available and the patient's preanesthetic assessment. In some cases, sedation is a suitable alternative to full general anesthesia. Amputations are often indicated for certain disease processes or as a salvage procedure. Patients may require an orthopedic procedure secondary to trauma, malignancy, malformation or degeneration, or rupture of joints and ligaments. There are no major contraindications regarding perianesthetic drugs specific to front limb orthopedic procedures. Patients requiring a dorsal hemilaminectomy have a herniated disk with spinal cord compression in the thoracic or lumbar spine. The drug protocol is tailored to the patient's preanesthetic assessment. Scoping procedures are minimally invasive means to visualize internal structures and obtain cultures or biopsies.
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In the present study, the 3-year breeding behavior of the parent dogs in a Pomeranian farm was followed, and the effects of season and insemination method on their reproductive performance were investigated. The gestation period was 62.4 days, the age at which sexual maturity is reached was 404.4 days and the average period between two estruses was found as 205.2 days. The mean number of offspring, and the mean number of male and female puppies were found as 3.4, 2.15 and 1.4 respectively. The stillbirth rate was found as 1.4% and the survival rate to 1 year was 83.3%. The pregnancy rate, the average number of female puppies, the number of stillbirths and the total number of offspring were found to be similar in naturally and artificially inseminated females (P>0.05). While 47.6% of estruses were seen in the spring-summer months, 52.4% were seen in the autumn-winter months (P>0.05). The mating season did not affect the number of female offspring, the stillbirth rate or the total number of offspring (P>0.05). However, when compared to the spring-summer months, the mortality rate of females up to 1 year of age showing estrus in the autumn-winter season was found to be significantly higher (P<0.01).
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To collect information on the cause of death and longevity of dogs owned by members of the numerically largest breed clubs of 169 UK Kennel Club-recognised breeds. A cross-sectional study was carried out. Approximately 58,363 questionnaires were sent out to breed club members in 2004 (nine clubs failed to report the exact number of questionnaires sent out). Owners reported age at death and cause(s) of death for all dogs that had died within the previous 10 years. A total of 13,741 questionnaires (24% response rate) containing information on 15,881 deaths were included in the analysis. Breed-specific response rates ranged from 64·7 to 4·5%. The median age at death was 11 years and 3 months (minimum=2 months, maximum=23 years and 5 months) and it varied by breed. The most common causes of death were cancer (n=4282, 27%), "old age" (n=2830, 18%) and cardiac conditions (n=1770, 11%). Clinical This survey shows breed differences in lifespan and causes of death, and the results support previous evidence that smaller breeds tend to have longer lifespan compared with larger breeds. Although many of the breeds in the study may not be representative of the general pedigree dog population in the UK, the results do contribute to the limited information currently available.
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This report presents final 2006 data on U.S. deaths, death rates, life expectancy, infant and maternal mortality, and trends by selected characteristics such as age, sex, Hispanic origin, race, marital status, educational attainment, injury at work, state of residence, and cause of death. It also presents more detailed information than previously presented about the mortality experience of the American Indian or Alaska Native and the Asian or Pacific Islander populations. Information reported on death certificates, which are completed by funeral directors, attending physicians, medical examiners, and coroners, is presented in descriptive tabulations. The original records are filed in state registration offices. Statistical information is compiled in a national database through the Vital Statistics Cooperative Program of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's National Center for Health Statistics. Causes of death are processed in accordance with the International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision (ICD-10). In 2006, a total of 2,426,264 deaths were reported in the United States. The age-adjusted death rate was 776.5 deaths per 100,000 standard population, a decrease of 2.8 percent from the 2005 rate and a record low historical figure. Life expectancy at birth rose 0.3 years, from a revised 2005 value of 77.4 years to a record 77.7 years in 2006. Age-specific death rates increased for those aged 25-34 years but decreased for most other age groups: 5-14 years, 35-44 years, 45-54 years, 55-64 years, 65-74 years, 75-84 years, and 85 years and over. The 15 leading causes of death in 2006 remained the same as in 2005. Heart disease and cancer continued to be the leading and second-leading causes of death, together accounting for almost half of all deaths. The infant mortality rate in 2006 was 6.69 deaths per 1,000 live births. Mortality patterns in 2006, such as the decline in the age-adjusted death rate to a record historical low, were generally consistent with long-term trends. Life expectancy increased in 2006 from 2005.
The litter prevalence of feline dystocia was investigated using a questionnaire survey of cat breeders. Information was obtained on 2928 litters, from 735 queens. Dystocia was reported to have occurred in 5.8 per cent of litters. The level of dystocia in individual breeds ranged from 0.4 per cent of litters born in a large colony of cats of mixed breeding, to 18.2 per cent of litters in the Devon rex. Pedigree litters were at significantly higher risk than litters of cats of mixed breeding (odds ratio: 22.6). Relatively high levels of dystocia were identified in Siamese-type, Persian and Devon rex litters, whereas cats of mixed breeding showed a relatively low litter prevalence. Dolicocephalic and brachycephalic types were found to have significantly higher levels of dystocia than mesocephalic cats.
To describe dogs undergoing cesarean section in the United States and Canada, to determine perioperative management, and to calculate survival proportions. Multicenter prospective case series. 3,908 puppies from 808 dams. Survival rates immediately, 2 hours, and 7 days after delivery were 92, 87, and 80%, respectively, for puppies delivered by cesarean section (n = 3,410) and 86, 83, and 75%, respectively, for puppies born naturally (498). For 614 of 807 (76%) litters, all puppies delivered by cesarean section were born alive. Maternal mortality rate was 1% (n = 9). Of 776 surgeries, 453 (58%) were done on an emergency basis. The most common breeds of dogs that underwent emergency surgery were Bulldog, Labrador Retriever, Boxer, Corgis, and Chihuahua. The most common breeds of dogs that underwent elective surgery were Bulldog, Labrador Retriever, Mastiff, Golden Retriever, and Yorkshire Terrier. The most common methods of inducing and maintaining anesthesia were administration of isoflurane for induction and maintenance (n = 266; 34%) and administration of propofol for induction followed by administration of isoflurane for maintenance (237; 30%). Mortality rates of dams and puppies undergoing cesarean section in the United States and Canada are low. Knowledge of mortality rates should be useful to veterinarians when advising clients on the likelihood of puppy and dam survival associated with cesarean section.
Radiographic pelvimetry was used to assess the role of pelvic anatomy in obstructive dystocia in bitches. Based on the history of previous whelpings, 20 Boston terrier and 14 Scottish terrier bitches were divided into two equal groups: normally whelping bitches and bitches with obstructive dystocia. Additional whelpings during the period of study were closely observed and the pups were immediately weighed and measured. The bitches were clinically examined and the pelvis was radiographed in ventrodorsal and lateral projections. Measurements from the radiographs showed a significantly smaller pelvic size in the bitches with obstructive dystocia compared to the normally whelping bitches. Fetal-pelvic disproportion in the Scottish terrier was mainly due to a dorsoventrally flattened pelvic canal, whereas in the Boston terrier it arose from the combination of a dorsoventrally flattened pelvic canal and big fetuses with large heads. These results suggest that radiographic pelvimetry could be used to predict a disposition for dystocia in individual bitches, and as a basis for selection of breeding animals.
This report presents preliminary data for 2000 on births in the United States. U.S. data on births are shown by age, race, and Hispanic origin of mother. Data on marital status, prenatal care, cesarean delivery, and low birthweight are also presented. Data in this report are based on more than 96 percent of births for 2000. The records are weighted to independent control counts of births received in State vital statistics offices in 2000. Comparisons are made with 1999 final data. The number of births rose 3 percent between 1999 and 2000. The crude birth rate increased to 14.8 per 1,000 population in 2000, 2 percent higher than the 1999 rate. The fertility rate rose 3 percent to 67.6 per 1,000 women aged 15-44 years between 1999 and 2000. The birth rate for teenagers, which has been falling since 1991, declined 2 percent in 2000 to 48.7 births per 1,000 females aged 15-19 years, another historic low. The rate for teenagers 15-17 years fell 4 percent, and the rate for 18-19 year olds was down 1 percent. Since 1991, rates have fallen 29 percent for teenagers 15-17 years and 16 percent for teenagers 18-19 years. Birth rates for all of the older age groups increased for 1999-2000: 1 percent among women aged 20-24 years, 3 percent for women aged 25-29 years, and 5 percent for women in their thirties. Rates for women aged 40-54 years were also up for 2000. The birth rate for unmarried women increased 2 percent to 45.2 births per 1,000 unmarried women aged 15-44 years in 2000, but was still lower than the peak reached in 1994. The number of births to unmarried women was up 3 percent, the highest number ever reported in the United States. However, the number of births to unmarried teenagers declined. The proportion of women who began prenatal care in the first trimester of pregnancy (83.2 percent) did not improve for 2000, nor did the rate of low birthweight (7.6 percent). The total cesarean rate rose for the fourth consecutive year to 22.9 percent, the result of both a rise in the rate of primary cesarean deliveries and a decline in the rate of vaginal births after previous cesarean delivery.
The purpose of this study was to determine complication rates after cesarean delivery and to identify independent risk factors for complications. In a prospective population-based cohort study in Norway, rates of predefined types of complications from 2751 cesarean deliveries were determined. The complications that were studied were intraoperative complications, blood loss, wound infection, cystitis, endometritis, hematoma, and reoperation. Independent risk factors were identified by stratification and multiple logistic regression analysis. Altogether, 21.4% of the women had > or =1 complications. The degree of cervical dilation, general anesthesia, low gestational age, and fetal macrosomia were independent risk factors. For operations that were performed at 9 to 10 cm cervical dilation, the complication rate was 32.6% versus 16.8% at 0 cm (odds ratio, 2.39; 95% CI, 1.77-3.22; P<.001). Cesarean delivery was associated with a high complication rate. Increasing cervical dilation and, in particular, cervical dilation of 9 or 10 cm at the time of operation, general anesthesia, low gestational age, and fetal macrosomia were identified as independent risk factors.