Development of a Candidate Reference Measurement Procedure for the Determination of 25-Hydroxyvitamin D-3 and 25-Hydroxyvitamin D-2 in Human Serum Using Isotope-Dilution Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry

Analytical Chemistry Division, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899-8392, USA.
Analytical Chemistry (Impact Factor: 5.64). 02/2010; 82(5):1942-8. DOI: 10.1021/ac9026862
Source: PubMed


Vitamin D exists in two major forms, vitamin D(3) and vitamin D(2). Vitamin D helps the body absorb calcium and promote optimal bone health. Both forms of vitamin D are metabolized to 25-hydroxyvitamin D in the body, and the levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D(3) [25(OH)D(3)] and 25-hydroxyvitamin D(2) [25(OH)D(2)] in serum are considered the best indicators of vitamin D status. A candidate reference measurement procedure for serum 25(OH)D(3) and 25(OH)D(2) has been developed and critically evaluated. The deuterated compounds 25(OH)D(3)-d(3) and 25(OH)D(2)-d(3) are used as internal standards for 25(OH)D(3) and 25(OH)D(2), respectively. The 25(OH)D(3) and 25(OH)D(2) and their respective labeled internal standards are simultaneously extracted from serum using liquid-liquid extraction prior to reversed-phase liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Chromatographic separation was performed using a cyano (CN) column for both 25(OH)D(3) and 25(OH)D(2). Atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) in the positive ion mode and multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) were used for LC-MS/MS. The accuracy of the method was evaluated by recovery studies of measuring 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] in spiked samples with known 25(OH)D levels. The recoveries of the added 25(OH)D(3) and 25(OH)D(2) ranged from 99.0% to 101.0%. The absolute recoveries with this method were 97% and 92% for 25(OH)D(3) and 25(OH)D(2), respectively. Excellent precision was obtained with between-set coefficients of variation (CVs) of 0.2-0.6% for 25(OH)D levels >1 ng/g and within 2% for the level of <1 ng/g. Chromatographic separation of 25(OH)D(3) and 25(OH)D(2) from their respective isomers 3-epi-25(OH)D(3) and 3-epi-25(OH)D(2) was achieved. The limit of detection at a signal-to-noise ratio of approximately 3 was 40 pg of 25(OH)D on column (or approximately 0.15 ng/g as expressed as a concentration). This candidate reference measurement procedure for serum 25(OH)D(3) and 25(OH)D(2) demonstrates good accuracy and precision and low susceptibility to interferences. It can be used to provide an accuracy base to which clinical methods for 25(OH)D(3) and 25(OH)D(2) can be compared and that will serve as a standard of higher order for measurement traceability.

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Available from: Karen W Phinney, Apr 09, 2014
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    • "The NIST-GHENT-RMPs have the potential to become the international standard procedure in total 25(OH)D measurement [8], [11], [30]. Nevertheless, for large studies and clinical routine, immunoassays will still have a future for reasons of convenience, speed, turnaround and cost [7], provided they are adequately calibrated. "
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    ABSTRACT: The interest in vitamin D measurement has strongly increased in recent years. The best indicator for circulating vitamin D levels is 25-hydroxy-vitamin D (25(OH)D) which is often measured by different immunoassays. We demonstrate problems in comparability of measures by different immunoassays and the need for standardization in the context of a large population-based cohort study. 25(OH)D was measured with the immunoassays Diasorin Liaison in 2006 in 5,386 women and in the context of another project with IDS-iSYS in 4,199 men in 2009-2010 (when the Diasorin Liaison was no longer available in the version utilized in 2006). Standardization was performed by re-measuring of 25(OH)D levels in 97 men and 97 women with liquid chromatography tandem-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) to obtain linear regression conversion equations. Applying a 30 nmol/L cut-off value for vitamin D deficiency would have resulted in 48.3% of women and 12.1% of men with vitamin D deficiency ahead of standardization. The large gender difference was strongly attenuated after standardization of the assays with only 15.7% of women and 14.3% of men with vitamin D deficiency. Standardization on average increased the 25(OH)D levels by 10.3 nmol/L in women and decreased 25(OH)D levels by 2.9 nmol/L in men. The standardization with LC-MS/MS revealed that much of the observed gender difference was only assay-driven and the extremely high proportion of 48.3% vitamin D deficient women proved to be an exaggeration of the old version of the Diasorin-Liaison immunoassay. Standardization of 25(OH)D immunoassay results by LC-MS/MS is recommended to improve their accuracy and comparability, provided the LC-MS/MS method itself is adequately validated and standardized.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2012 · PLoS ONE
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    • "c o m / l o c a t e / c l i n c h i m (12 ng/ml) is considered deficient and a 25OHD concentration between 30 and 49 nmol/l (12–29 ng/ml) is considered inadequate. The candidate reference method [11] [12] [13] [14] [15] for 25OHD assay, Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), requires technical expertise, specialized equipment, and expensive deuterated internal standards. Commercial assays such as immunoassays and chemical binding assays are used more frequently in clinical laboratories, as they have automated pre-treatment steps and produce results within a shorter duration. "
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    ABSTRACT: Vitamin D testing is becoming increasingly important with recent research demonstrating a correlation between vitamin D insufficiency and metabolic diseases, immunodeficiencies and other diseases. However, existing 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) assays lack comparability to the candidate reference method, causing difficulties in diagnosis and monitoring of vitamin D deficiency. We looked at the accuracy of 3 automated assays (Roche Diagnostics Elecsys® Total 25OHD assay, Abbott Architect® Total vitamin D assay, Advia Centaur® vitamin D Total assay) and Diasorin® Radioimmunoassay (RIA) compared to a routine laboratory Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The correlation based on Passing Bablok regression was good with the slopes between 0.95 and 1.31 and the intercepts between -3.24 and 3.68. However, a significant positive bias was observed using the Abbott Architect and the Diasorin RIA. Using published analytical goals of coefficient of variation (CV) <10% and bias <5%, most methods did not meet these criteria. Using measurement of uncertainty of 9%, most methods were able to meet criteria using quality control materials but not patient samples. Inadequacies of these assay performances are contributed by differences in method of extraction of vitamin D from vitamin D binding protein, cross-reactivities to 25OHD(2), 25OHD(3) and other vitamin D metabolites, matrix interferences and a lack of standardization.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2012 · Clinica chimica acta; international journal of clinical chemistry
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    • "HPLC–UV and LC–MS are suitable for 25OHD 3 measurement; however, due to detection limits, they cannot quantitate metabolites found at very low concentrations . Accordingly, HPLC–MS/MS (tandem mass spectrometry ) methods have been developed to measure nonderivatized 25OHD 3 [27] [28] [29] [30] [31] and 1a,25(OH) 2 D 3 [32] [33], which provide much higher sensitivity and specificity [34]. In addition, it was found that derivatization by Cookson-type triazolinediones and related reagents can enhance ionization efficiencies of vitamin D metabolites and thereby improve sensitivity [35] [36] [37]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Simultaneous and accurate measurement of circulating vitamin D metabolites is critical to studies of the metabolic regulation of vitamin D and its impact on health and disease. To that end, we have developed a specific liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method that permits the quantification of major circulating vitamin D(3) metabolites in human plasma. Plasma samples were subjected to a protein precipitation, liquid-liquid extraction, and Diels-Alder derivatization procedure prior to LC-MS/MS analysis. Importantly, in all human plasma samples tested, we identified a significant dihydroxyvitamin D(3) peak that could potentially interfere with the determination of 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) [1α,25(OH)(2)D(3)] concentrations. This interfering metabolite has been identified as 4β,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) [4β,25(OH)(2)D(3)] and was found at concentrations comparable to 1α,25(OH)(2)D(3). Quantification of 1α,25(OH)(2)D(3) in plasma required complete chromatographic separation of 1α,25(OH)(2)D(3) from 4β,25(OH)(2)D(3). An assay incorporating this feature was used to simultaneously determine the plasma concentrations of 25OHD(3), 24R,25(OH)(2)D(3), 1α,25(OH)(2)D(3), and 4β,25(OH)(2)D(3) in healthy individuals. The LC-MS/MS method developed and described here could result in considerable improvement in quantifying 1α,25(OH)(2)D(3) as well as monitoring the newly identified circulating metabolite, 4β,25(OH)(2)D(3).
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2011 · Analytical Biochemistry
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