Undiagnosed Diabetes in Kidney Transplant Candidates: A Case-Finding Strategy

Laboratory for Renal Physiology, Section for Nephrology, Department of Medicine, Oslo University Hospital Rikshospitalet, 0027 Oslo, Norway.
Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology (Impact Factor: 4.61). 04/2010; 5(4):616-22. DOI: 10.2215/CJN.07501009
Source: PubMed


Guidelines recommend that candidates for kidney transplantation (KTx) who do not have diabetes perform a pretransplantation oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) when fasting plasma glucose (FPG) is <110 mg/dl (<6.1 mmol/L); however, the OGTT is potentially costly and cumbersome. We studied the role of the OGTT for diagnosing diabetes and the accuracy of FPG and glycated hemoglobin (HbA(1c)) for predicting a diabetic OGTT before KTx.
In this cross-sectional study, 889 first single-kidney transplant candidates without diabetes, mainly white, performed an OGTT during the transplantation workup. Results were studied using receiver operating characteristic analysis.
Of 72 (8.1%) patients with undiagnosed diabetes, only 16 (22%) had a diabetic FPG (> or =126 mg/dl [> or =7.0 mmol/L]). In patients with a nondiabetic FPG, diabetes (2-hour plasma glucose [2h-PG] > or =200 mg/dl [> or =11.1 mmol/L]) was predicted by FPG but not by HbA(1c). Performing the OGTT in patients with FPG 92 to 125 mg/dl (5.1 to 6.9 mmol/L) identified 65 (90%) patients with diabetes (16 by FPG, 49 by 2h-PG) and required seven OGTTs per patient identified. Subjecting all patients with FPG <110 mg/dl (<6.1 mmol/L) to the OGTT identified 60 (83%) patients with diabetes (16 by FPG, 44 by 2h-PG) but required 14 OGTTs per patient.
The OGTT was paramount in finding most cases of undiagnosed diabetes before KTx. FPG but not HbA(1c) predicted a diabetic OGTT. We suggest that white KTx candidates without diabetes perform a pretransplantation OGTT when FPG is 92 to 125 mg/dl (5.1 to 6.9 mmol/L).

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Available from: Tone Gretland Valderhaug, Jan 23, 2016

  • No preview · Article · Mar 2010 · Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology
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    ABSTRACT: New-onset diabetes after transplantation (NODAT) increases infectious and cardiovascular complications and reduces patient and graft survival. We assessed the incidence and the risk factors for glucose metabolism abnormalities before and after kidney transplantation using an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). The purpose of the study was to better identify patients at risk for NODAT to adapt their immunosuppressive treatment and their management after transplantation. OGTT was performed before transplantation in 243 patients placed on the kidney waiting list between January 1, 2005, and December 31, 2008. Of these 243 patients, 120 received a kidney transplant and also had an OGTT after transplantation. Impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) was identified in 22 of 120 patients (18%) before transplantation. After transplantation, diabetes developed in 31 patients and 16 patients had IGT. According to univariate analyses, risk factors for NODAT were age more than 50 years, body mass index more than 25 kg/m, pretransplant IGT, autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease, and acute rejection. According to multivariate analyses, pretransplant IGT (relative risk=2.4), autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (relative risk=3), and acute rejection (RR, 2.8) remained significantly associated with NODAT. Patients were stratified by age, primary kidney disease, and pretransplant OGTT. The risk of developing NODAT increased 2.4-, 5-, and 14-fold, depending on the number of risk factors. Pretransplant OGTT, together with age and nephropathy, is a helpful tool for identifying patients at risk for NODAT. For patients with two or three of these risk factors, the adjustment of immunosuppression may be recommended.
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