ArticlePDF AvailableLiterature Review

Beans and Diabetes: Phaseolus vulgaris Preparations as Antihyperglycemic Agents



Bean pods (Phaseolus vulgaris) are among the most widely used traditional remedies against diabetes mellitus. Historical knowledge is summarized and compared to recent study results. Reports dating from the first half of the 20(th) century as well as recent publications show contradictory results. It seems that Phaseolus preparations should not be considered the first choice in phytopharmaceutical treatment of diabetes or lead structure research. To be effective, fairly high doses of aqueous extracts need to be given. Because of their fiber content and an alpha-amylase inhibitory effect, beans might be more useful as food components in preventing or ameliorating type 2 diabetes.
Beans and Diabetes—Phaseolus vulgaris Preparations
as Antihyperglycemic Agents
Axel Helmsta
Institute for the History of Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Philipps-University, Marburg, Germany
ABSTRACT Bean pods (Phaseolus vulgaris) are among the most widely used traditional remedies against diabetes
mellitus. Historical knowledge is summarized and compared to recent study results. Reports dating from the first half of the
century as well as recent publications show contradictory results. It seems that Phaseolus preparations should not be
considered the first choice in phytopharmaceutical treatment of diabetes or lead structure research. To be effective, fairly high
doses of aqueous extracts need to be given. Because of their fiber content and an a-amylase inhibitory effect, beans might be
more useful as food components in preventing or ameliorating type 2 diabetes.
KEY WORDS: antihyperglycemic agents glukokinin traditional medicine
Almost a thousand medicinal plants are described as
antidiabetic agents, and most of them have been used in
traditional medicine for a long time.
Some species have
been scientifically investigated in detail during the 20
century, and today there is still considerable interest in an-
tidiabetic activity of plants and their components.
Investigating experiences of traditional use and early
scientific studies about antidiabetic plants it seems reason-
able to start with those most often used. A survey of diabetes
therapy practice prior to the discovery of insulin showed that
Syzygium cumini (syn. Syzygium jambolanum,Eugenia
jambolana), Vaccinium myrtillus, and Phaseolus sp. were
the most widely used antidiabetic agents of plant origin
around 1900.
S. cumini, native in the West Indies and Java,
was introduced in Europe in the 1880s and was soon in-
vestigated extensively. So approximately 100 clinical case
reports and animal studies were published before the dis-
covery of insulin, and the plant has later been subject of
intensive research leading to more than 50 similar studies
published between 1945 and 2007, which have recently been
Syzygium fruits have sometimes been used as
food, while from Vaccinium, leaf extracts were medicinally
used instead of blueberries. Beans, however, are widely used
as a legume all over the world. Thus, studies of the antidi-
abetic potential of Phaseolus vulgaris shall be summarized
here and compared with recent research about the plant,
which has long been recommended for its glucose-lowering
Early reports date back to the pre-insulin era, when, for
example, in 1908, Martin Kaufmann, collaborator of the
famous diabetologist Carl von Noorden (1858–1944) in
Frankfurt=Main, Germany, described Phaseolus prepara-
tions in a review of oral drugs with supposed antidiabetic
activity. He described three case studies where bean pod tea
had no effect on glucosuria; therefore the preparation was
regarded as useless.
Beans and other vegetables were also mentioned by the
insulin investigator James Bertram Collip (1892–1965) in an
article published in 1923,
where he mainly described ex-
periments with different clam and yeast extracts (page 525).
All preparations were, quite surprisingly, subcutaneously
injected into rabbits. The alcoholic extract of ‘‘bean greens’
led, after an initial rise, to a reduction of blood sugar values
by about 20% after 12 hours. The effect lasted for about 36
hours while the rabbits received only water but no food.
Prof. E. Kaufmann from the University of Cologne, Co-
logne, Germany, also investigated potential insulin sub-
titutes of plant origin in the 1920s and published a series of
articles about ‘‘insulin-like plant extracts.’’ Part 2 of these
studies dealt with hot aqueous extracts of P. vulgaris (or
Phaseolus multiflorum), in other words, bean pod tea.
Kaufmann also injected aqueous and ethanolic extracts in-
travenously to rabbits. He saw a moderate hypoglycemic
effect in normal animals and a mitigation of hyperglycemia
after glucose injection. In a clinical study, patients received 1
cup of bean pod tea in the morning. Their blood sugar values
dropped by about 10% within 4 hours. Kaufmann also saw
Manuscript received 1 January 2009. Revision accepted 3 June 2009.
Address correspondence to: Priv.-Doz. Dr. rer. nat. Axel Helmsta
¨dter, Institute for the
History of Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Philipps-University, Roter Graben 10,
D-35032 Marburg, Germany, E-mail:
J Med Food 13 (2) 2010, 1–4
#Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. and Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
DOI: 10.1089=jmf.2009.0002
Type: review-article
JMF-2009-0002-Helmstadter_1P.3D 12/30/09 5:38pm Page 1
improvements in glucosuria and glucose tolerance after ad-
ministration of the tea for a period of up to several weeks. He
compared the effect with that of 3–5 units of insulin.
Gessner and Siebert, working in the Pharmacological In-
stitute of Marburg University, Marburg, Germany, studied
the effect of homemade and commercial aqueous-alcoholic
Phaseolus extracts when administered orally to 38 rabbits.
Blood sugar values dropped by about 20–40 mg%.
and Portheim in Vienna, Austria, investigated the effect of
alcoholic Phaseolus extracts on carbohydrate-cleaving en-
zymes and found some inhibitory effects.
Gohr and Hil-
genberg at Bonn University, Bonn, Germany, tested the
same commercial extract as Gessner and Siebert (Phaseo-
lanum fluidum Tosse) after oral administration to dogs. The
results were disappointing in normoglycemic animals; some
effect was, however, seen in hyperglycemic dogs, in which
intensity and duration of hyperglycemia were reduced.
This extract was also used by Gebhardt in Leipzig, Germany,
and characterized as a dark brown-colored liquid derived
from bean pods. One gram of extract was said to be equiv-
alent to 1 g of drug; suggested ingredients were a long-chain
primary alcohol called ‘‘phasol’’ and a globulin called
‘phaseolin.’’ Seventeen starving rabbits received different
doses of extract; 10 showed a reduction in blood sugar levels
by 20–40 mg%, whereas the others remained unaffected. No
effect at all was seen in rabbits after glucose loading. Five
diabetes patients did not improve in the clinical part of
Gebhardt’s study. The author therefore considered Phaseo-
lus extract not to be a convincing therapeutic agent.
tradictory results were also reported by Hartleb in Breslau,
Germany (now Wroclaw, Poland): Phaseolus extract did not
influence blood sugar levels of healthy volunteers, but some
diabetes patients showed an effect that was, however, not
confirmed in other cases. All patients tolerated the drug very
well. It was therefore concluded that the extract might be
tried in diabetes patients but that effects were not predict-
In contrast to Gebhardt, Lapp from the University of
Vienna stated that bean pod tea reduced blood sugar of
healthy people, but not in diabetes patients.
This confusion
had already been seen by Kaufmann, who discussed con-
tradictions in clinical case studies done with Phaseolus in
1928, after having observed a sudden lack of effiency in
patients initially treated succesfully. He implicated differ-
ences in drug material and extract composition, which was
not standardized that time. After experimental comparison
of two different materials he suggested that extracts should
be prepared from unripe fruits to produce the effects initially
Considering all this, it has to be concluded that the anti-
diabetic potential of Phaseolus extracts is at least uncertain,
as is that of some other vegetables investigated in the 1920s,
like peas or lentils.
The literature review, however, shows
that the search for an antidiabetic principle therein was a
intense subject of worldwide research right after the dis-
covery of insulin, while some researchers like Bertram in
Hamburg, Germany, early declared that the search for an oral
hypoglycemic agent of plant origin has failed.
Others were
more optimistic.
Scientific interest in the antidiabetic potential of bean pods
never vanished completely and even was raised in the past
decade. Results of recent studies are, as historical investi-
gations were, inconsistent. In 1991, Mexican investigators
found considerable antihyperglycemic effects of a Phaseolus
preparation. In a glucose tolerance test in rabbits, an aqueous
Phaseolus extract prepared from 132 g of dried plant=Lof
water and given in a dose of 4 mL=kg led to a decrease in the
area under the glucose tolerance curve by 18.5%, whereas
with tolbutamide only a 14.3% reduction was achieved.
However, seven medicinal plants used in Mexican ethno-
pharmacology showed even better results than did Phaseo-
A very similar study was published by the same group
in 1995; again, a decoction of Phaseolus pods (132 g=L)
when administered orally to rabbits in a dose of 4 mL=kg
showed decreases in blood glucose levels significantly dif-
ferent from control and comparable to tolbutamide.
2003, Pari and Venkateswaran
found that the glucose-
lowering effect of a hot aqueous extract of P. vulgaris
(200 mg=kg) exceeded that of glibenclamide in rats made
diabetic by streptozotocin. The authors confirmed their re-
sults in a similar, additional study, finding a decrease in
blood glucose and an increase in insulin levels comparable to
that after glibenclamide.
In contrast to that, Neef et al.
could not find any effect of an aquoeus Phaseolus extract
(prepared from 15 g of powdered pods in 300 mL of water) in
an oral glucose tolerance test in mice when given in a dose of
25 g of extract=kg. A clinical investigation in healthy vol-
unteers in 2006 did not reveal any positive effects on glucose
tolerance as well but assumed that contents of chromium,
soluble fiber, and vitamin C might exert some beneficial
From authors of successful studies, it has been suggested
that the antioxidant potential of bean pod ingredients might,
at least in part, be responsible for the beneficial effects.
Other suggestions include a contribution of soyasaponin V
present in P. vulgaris, which has a known lipoxygenase ac-
Recently it was shown that P. vulgaris pericarp, as
well as its dry extract, inhibits a-amylase by 45–75%; in this
study, the effect was only exceeded by that of acarbose,
Tamarindus indica, and Vaccinium myrtillus leaves (inhibi-
tion >75%).
This observation coincides well with the
recommendation to ingest relatively large quantities of le-
gumes and vegetables known to be rich in soluble fibers and
phenolic phytochemicals to control glucose absorption.
P. vulgaris is, in contrast to several plants traditionally used
against diabetes, not an activator of the human peroxisome
proliferator-activated receptor and does therefore not im-
prove insulin resistance.
The perspective to find a blood glucose-lowering agent in
the plant kingdom has been fascinating scientists for almost
JMF-2009-0002-Helmstadter_1P.3D 12/30/09 5:38pm Page 2
100 years. This paradigm has first been formulated by the
discoverers of insulin. Banting, Best, Macleod, and in par-
ticular Collip were convinced of being able to identify an
insulin-like substance in lower organisms, like clam, yeasts,
and plant tissue, and spent a great deal of research efforts on
this subject in the early 1920s.
In 1923 Collip even an-
nounced the discovery of a ‘‘new hormone’’ named ‘‘glu-
cokinin’’ present in yeast, onions, barley roots, sprouted
grains, green wheat leaves, bean tops, and lettuce and being
‘probably universally present in plant tissue.’’
An en-
thusiastically sounding publication summarized the experi-
mental results and gave the rationale behind this kind of
research: ‘‘As the power of the liver to form glycogen is so
intimately associated with the presence of the pancreatic
hormone in the circulation it seems obvious to predict that
wherever glycogen occurs a hormone similar to, if not
identical with, that produced by the islet cells of the pancreas
will be found.’
Collip started his, in the first step successful,
experiments with yeasts but soon extended his research to
all the plant species mentioned above. This attempt might
explain why, in the beginning, plant extracts were in-
travenuously injected. The existence of a insulin-like hor-
mone in plants is still under discussion today, as has recently
been stated by Xavier-Filho et al.,
who ‘‘are convinced of
the presence of insulin in plants’’ relying on molecular bi-
ology and genetic studies.
Besides that, another strong impact for research was the
desire to replace insulin injections with an orally active an-
tihyperglycemic agent,
a strategy that may lead to vegetable
antidiabetic preparations and to determine lead compounds of
plant origin that can further be developed to modern active
agents. In this context one should remember that the devel-
opment of biguanide antidiabetics has some roots in plant
research. Galegin, a guanidine derivative derived from Ga-
lega officinalis (goat’s rue) seeds, has been investigated as an
antihyperglycemic agent in 1927.
The plant is almost
ubiquitously spread over Southern England.
However, it
soon became evident that diguanides were more effective and
were marketed as synthalin A and B. Also in the 1920s, the
development of synthetic biguanidines began. Initially for-
gotten, biguanides were rediscovered in the 1950s, when,
among others, metformin was tested, which is still state-of-
the-art therapy of type 2 diabetes.
It is interesting to note that antidiabetic lead compounds
have been isolated from Syzygium by Sanofi-Aventis (Paris,
France) but obviously not investigated further.
In general, a historical survey can reveal some important
information to guide lead structure research, to design ani-
mal and clinical studies, to avoid repetition of identical
experiments, and to estimate effectiveness of a traditional
treatment. Furthermore, safety issues are concerned, as
phytomedical preparations have been usually been used for
a very long time, and side effects not known today may have
been documented in historical literature. Of course, the
value of historial study results is limited because of weak-
nesses in experimental design and documentation in former
times, but keeping their previous results in mind while
conducting recent research may nevertheless be of benefit.
P. vulgaris belongs to the most widely used traditional
remedies said to be antidiabetic and has therefore been
discussed here.
The analysis shows that the traditionally used prepara-
tions are aqueous extracts of bean pods in different con-
centrations. These preparations were ususally tolerated very
well, at least after oral administration. But overall, results
regarding glucose-lowering efficacy were contradictory, and
no clear trend towards effectiveness can be seen. This is also
the case for studies done in the last decade, with the ex-
ception of the work of Pari and Venkateswaran,
who de-
scribed effects comparable to those of glibenclamide; they
administered, however, very high doses of a quite concen-
trated extract.
So it has to be concluded that there is only a weak ra-
tionale behind the traditional use of Phaseolus as an anti-
diabetic agent, and the plant should also not be the first
choice in searching for new lead structures for oral antidi-
abetic agents, which have already been found in G. offici-
nalis or S. cumini. If clinical studies are conducted, fairly
high doses should be considered. Phaseolus seems to have a
better potential as food component than a remedy in pre-
venting development and progress of type 2 diabetes, which
is strongly supported by the a-amylase inhibitory effects and
the fiber content of this plant.
No conflicts of interest are declared.
1. Atta-Ur-Rahman, Zaman K: Medicinal plants with hypoglycemic
activity. J Ethnopharmacol 1989;26:1–55.
2. Bailey CJ, Day C: Traditional plant medicines as treatments for
diabetes. Diabetes Care 1989;12:553–564.
3. Helmsta
¨dter A: Antidiabetic drugs used in Europe prior to the
discovery of insulin. Pharmazie 2007;62:717–720.
4. Helmsta
¨dter A: Syzygium cumini (L.) Skeels (Myrtaceae) against
diabetes—125 years of research. Pharmazie 2008;63:91–101.
5. Elllingwood F: Ellingwood’s Therapeutist, Vol. 2, 1908. http:== www
html (accessed November 29, 2008).
6. Kaufmann M: Ueber die Einwirkung von Medicamenten auf die
Glukosurie der Diabetiker. Z Klin Med 1908;48:260–289, 436–
7. Collip JB: Glucokinin. A new hormone present in plant tissue.
Preliminary paper. J Biol Chem 1923;56:513–543.
8. Kaufmann E: Insulinartige Pflanzenextrakte. II. Mitteilung. Die
Behandlung des Diabetes mit Bohnenschalentee. Z Ges Exp Med
9. Geßner O, Siebert K: Ueber die blutzuckersenkende Wirkung
von Phaseoluspra
¨paraten (Decoctum Phaseoli sine semine und
Phaseolanum fluidum ‘‘Tosse’’). Mu
¨nch Med Wochenschr 1928;
10. Eisler M; Portheim I: U
¨ber insulinartige Stoffe aus Bohnen und
deren Wirkung auf den Kohlehydratstoffwechsel. Biochem Z
11. Gohr H, Hilgenberg L: Tierexperimentelle Untersuchungen u
die blutzuckersenkende Wirkung des vinum fluidum ‘‘Tosse’’ mit
JMF-2009-0002-Helmstadter_1P.3D 12/30/09 5:38pm Page 3
besonderer Beru
¨cksichtigung der Organanalyse. Arch Exp Pathol
Pharmakol 1929;143:269–282.
12. Gebhardt F: U
¨ber Phaseolan. Z Ges Exp Med 1930;70:397–
13. Hartleb HO: Experimentelle und klinische Untersuchungen zur
Frage der peroralen Diabetesbehandlung mit insulina
pflanzlichen Stoffen (Phaseolan). Mu
¨nch Med Wochenschr 1932;
14. Lapp FW: Wert der Insulin- und Kohlehydratersatzmittel in der
Diabetestherapie. Ther Gegenwart 1937;78:195–199.
15. Kaufmann E: Insulinartige Pflanzenextrakte. III. Mitteilung.
Weiteres u
¨ber die Wirkung des Bohnenschalentees (Phaseolin). Z
Ges Exp Med 1928;60:285–288.
16. Kaufmann E: Insulinersatzmittel. V. Mitteilung. U
¨ber blutzuck-
ersenkende Stoffe in Cerealien und Leguminosen. Z Ges Exp
Med 1928;62:147–153.
17. Bertram F: U
¨ber die medikamento
¨se Behandlung des Diabetes
mellitus (mit Ausschluss der parenteralen Insulintherapie). Klin
Wochenschr 1928;7:1209–1214.
18. Labbe
´H: The vegetable insulinoids and their therapeutic indi-
cations. Can Med Assoc J 1936;34:141–144.
19. Roma
´n-Ramos R, Flores-Sa
´enz JL, Partida-Herna
´ndez G, Lara-
Lemus A, Alarco
´n-Aguilar F: Experimental study of the hypo-
glycemic effect of some edible plants. Arch Invest Med ( Mex)
20. Roma
´n-Ramos R, Flores-Saenz JL, Alarcon-Aguilar F: Anti-
hyperglycemic effect of some edible plants. J Ethnopharmacol
21. Pari L, Venkateswaran S: Effect of an aqueous extract of Pha-
seolus vulgaris on plasma insulin and hepatic key enzymes of
glucose metabolism in experimental diabetes. Pharmazie 2003;
22. Pari L, Venkateswaran S: Protective role of Phaseolus vulgaris
on changes in the fatty acid composition in experimental diabetes.
J Med Food 2004;7:2014–209.
23. Neef H, Declercq P, Laekeman G: Hypoglycemic activity of
selected European plants. Phytother Res 1995;9:45–48.
24. Cerovic
´A, Miletic
´I, Konic
´A, Baralic
´I, Djordjevic
´I, Radusinovic
´M: The dry plant extract of common
bean seed (Phaseoli vulgari pericarpium) does not have an affect
on postprandial glycemia in healthy human subject. Bosn J Basic
Med Sci 2006;6(3):28–33.
25. Venkateswaran S, Pari L: Antioxidant effect of Phaseolus vul-
garis in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr
26. Tan GY, Li XJ, Zhang HY: Antidiabetic components in vege-
tables and legumes. Molecules 2008;13:1189–1194.
27. Melzig MF, Funke I: Pflanzliche alpha-Amylasehemmer—eine
¨glichkeit zur Phytotherapie bei Diabetes mellitus Typ II?
Wien Med Wochenschr 2007;157:320–324.
28. Venn BJ, Mann JI: Cereal grains, legumes and diabetes. Eur J
Clin Nutr 2004;58:1443–1446.
29. Kwon YI, Apostolidis E, Kim YC, Shetty K: Health benefits of
traditional corn, beans, and pumpkin: in vitro studies for hyper-
glycemia and hypertension management. J Med Food 2007;10:
30. Rau O, Wurglics M, Dingermann T, Abdel-Tawab M, Schubert-
Zsilavecz M: Screening of herbal extracts for activation of the
human peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor. Pharmazie
31. Best CH, Scott DA: Possible sources of insulin. J Metab Res
32. Bliss M: The Discovery of Insulin. Faber and Faber, London,
1982, p. 183.
33. Li A: J.B. Collip and the Development of Medical Research in
Canada. Extracts and Enterprise, Montreal, 2003, pp. 38–40.
34. Xavier-Filho J, Oliveira AEA, Belarmindo da Silva L, Azevedo
CR, Vena
ˆncio TM, Machado OLT, Oliva ML, Fernandes KVS,
Xavier-Neto J: Plant insulin or glucokinin: a conflicting issue.
Braz J Plant Physiol 2003;15:67–78.
35. Lewis JJ: Diabetes and the insulin-administration problem.
Physiol Rev 1949;29:75–89.
36. Otten JH: Die Geschichte der oralen Diabetestherapie [medical
dissertation]. University of Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany, 1966, p. 47.
37. Bailey CJ, Day C: Metformin: its botanical background. Pract
Diabetes Int 2004;21:115–117.
38. Hadden DR: Goats’s rue—French lilac—Italian fitch—Spanish
sainfoin: Galea officinalis and metformin: the Edinburgh con-
nection. J R Coll Phys Edinb 2005;35:258–260.
39. Ratsimamanga RA, Ratsimamanga SR, Rasoanaivo P, Leboul J,
Provost J, Freisdorf D: Mischungen ausgehend von Eugenia
jambolana Lamarck Samen, Herstellung und Verwendung sol-
cher Mischungen sowie einiger Inhaltsstoffe als Medikamente.
EU Patent 0879 058 B1 (DE 697 05 108 T2). February 6, 1996.
JMF-2009-0002-Helmstadter_1P.3D 12/30/09 5:38pm Page 4
... Plants used in traditional medicine are an especially rich source of α-glucosidase inhibitors making them valuable nutritional and therapeutic tool for prevention of onset and long-term T2D complications [5,6]. Recent studies have shown that most patients use medicinal plants as a complementary therapy for T2D [7] and a potential value of herbal products for T2D may lay primarily in the area of prevention of diabetic complications [8]. In order to develop such products from plants, it is important to investigate the influence of different types of extraction, as they may radically affect the composition and, as a result, the biological activity of the prepared extracts [9]. ...
... For example, it was interesting to note that, while both beans and pods (pericarp) of Phaseolus vulgaris are well-known traditional antidiabetic agents, only the beans are rather well studied and recognized as functional food for diabetics. The pods, on the other hand, are still under-researched and the existing studies failed to establish its efficacy unequivocally [8]. In spite of that, Phaseolus vulgaris pods were still one of the most popular remedies in Croatia, recommended by 50% of herbalists, surpassed only by Urtica dioica [7]. ...
... This complex binds to β-subunit of the insuline receptor, thus activating it and increasing the insulin signal [12]. Even though it has been postulated that PV might exert its potential antidiabetic effect due to its chromium content [8], among the investigated samples, only AA contained a significant amount of this metal. On the other hand, all the investigated plants contained significant amounts of magnesium, zinc, and manganese. ...
Full-text available
Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a chronic disease with a growing prevalence worldwide. In addition to the conventional therapy, many T2D patients use phytotherapeutic preparations. In the present study, chemical composition, antioxidant, and α-glucosidase inhibiting activity of traditional antidiabetics from Croatian ethnomedicine (Achillea millefolium, Artemisia absinthium, Centaurium erythraea, Morusalba, Phaseolus vulgaris, Sambucus nigra, and Salvia officinalis) were assessed. The efficacy of water and 80% ethanol as extraction solvents for bioactive constituents was compared. HPLC analysis revealed that the prepared extracts were rich in phenols, especially rutin, ferulic, and chlorogenic acid. Antiradical (against DPPH and ABTS radicals), reducing (towards Mo6+ and Fe3+ ions), and enzyme inhibiting properties were in linear correlation with the content of phenolic constituents. Ethanolic extracts, richer in phenolic substances, showed dominant efficacy in those assays. Aqueous extracts, on the other hand, were better Fe2+ ion chelators and more active in the β-carotene linoleic acid assay. Extracts from S. officinalis and A. millefolium were particularly active antioxidants and α-glucosidase inhibitors. A. absinthium, another potent α-glucosidase inhibitor, contained chromium, a mineral that promotes insulin action. The investigated plants contained significant amounts of minerals useful in management of T2D, with negligible amounts of heavy metals deeming them safe for human use.
... this plant by other scientists (Venkateswaran et al., 2002;Helmstädter, 2010;Almuaigel et al., 2017). ...
Full-text available
Background: Polyherbal mixtures called “medical species” are part of traditional and officinal medicine in Russia. This review aimed to analyze medical species used in Russia for the treatment of diabetes and related disorders. The information relevant to medical species, diabetes, and obesity was collected from local libraries, the online service, and Google Scholar. The prediction of the antidiabetic activity for the principal compounds identified in plants was performed using the free web resource PASS Online. Results: We collected and analyzed information about the compositions, specificities of use, and posology of 227 medical species. The medical species represent mixtures of 2–15 plants, while the most frequently mentioned in the literature are species comprising 3–6 plants. The top 10 plants among the 158 mentioned in the literature include Vaccinium myrtillus L., Phaseolus vulgaris L., Taraxacum campylodes G.E. Haglund., Urtica dioica L., Rosa spp., Hypericum spp ., Galega officinalis L., Mentha × piperita L., Arctium spp, and Fragaria vesca L. The leading binary combination found in medical species comprises the leaves of V. myrtillus and pericarp of P. vulgaris ; leaves of V. myrtillus and leaves of U. dioica ; and leaves of V. myrtillus and aerial parts of G. officinalis . In triple combinations, in addition to the above-mentioned components, the roots of T. campylodes are often used. These combinations can be regarded as basic mixtures. Other plants are added to improve the efficacy, treat associated disorders, improve gastrointestinal function, prevent allergic reactions, etc. Meanwhile, an increase in plants in the mixture necessitates advanced techniques for quality control. A feature of medical species in Russia is the addition of fresh juices, birch sap, seaweeds, and adaptogenic plants. Modern studies of the mechanisms of action and predicted activities of the principal compounds from medicinal plants support the rationality of polyherbal mixtures. Nevertheless, the mechanisms are not well studied and reported due to the limited number of compounds. Further investigations with calculations of synergistic or additive indices are important for strengthening the scientific fundamentals for the wider use of medical species in the therapy of diabetes. Two medical species, “Arfazetin” (7 medicinal plants) and “Myrphasinum” (12 medicinal plants), are approved for use in officinal medicine. The efficacy of these species was confirmed in several in vivo experiments and clinical trials. According to modern regulatory rules, additional experiments and clinical trials are required for more detailed investigations of the mechanisms of action and confirmation of efficacy. Conclusion: We believe that the scientifically based utilization of rich plant resources and knowledge of Russian herbal medicine can significantly contribute to the local economy as well as to the sectors seeking natural healing products.
... Traditionally the herbal material has also been used to treat diabetes, but a detailed investigation of a potential antidiabetic effect of an aqueous pericarp extract indicated only significant glucose-lowering activity at relatively high concentrations, and thus, further investigations have been discontinued (Helmstädter, 2010). Diuretic activity of Phaseoli pericarpium water infusion has been reported in historical monographies (Dodoens, 1608). ...
Ethnopharmacological relevance Phaseaoli pericarpium (bean pods) is a pharmacopeial plant material traditionally used as a diuretic and antidiabetic agents. Diuretic activity of pod extracts was reported first in 1608. Since then Phaseoli pericarpium tea figures in many textbooks as medicinal plant material used by patients. Aim of the study Despite the traditional use of extracts from Phaseolium vulgaris pericarp, limited information is available on bioactivity, chemical composition, and bioavailability of such preparations. The following study aimed to investigate the phytochemical composition, the in vitro permeability of selected extract’s constituents over the Caco-2 permeation system, and potential antivirulence activity against uropathogenic Escherichia coli of a hydroalcoholic Phaseoli pericarpium extract (PPX) in vitro to support its traditional use as a remedy used in urinary tract infections. Material and methods The chemical composition of the extract PPX [ethanol:water 7:3(v/v)] investigated by using UHPLC-DAD-MSⁿ and subsequent dereplication. The permeability of compounds present in PPX was evaluated using the Caco-2 monolayer permeation system. The influence of PPX on uropathogenic E.coli (UPEC) strain NU14 proliferation and against the bacterial adhesion to T24 epithelial cells was determined by turbidimetric assay and flow cytometry, respectively. The influence of the extract on the mitochondrial activity of T24 host cells was monitored by MTT assay. Results LC-MSⁿ investigation and dereplication, indicated PPX extract to be dominated by a variety of flavonoids, with rutin as a major compound, and soyasaponin derivatives. Rutin, selected soyasaponins and fatty acids were shown to permeate the Caco-2 monolayer system, indicating potential bioavailability following oral intake. The extract did not influence the viability of T24 cells after 1.5h incubation at 2 mg/mL and UPEC. PPX significantly reduced the bacterial adhesion of UPEC to human bladder cells in a concentration-dependent manner (0.5 to 2 mg/mL). Detailed investigations by different incubation protocols indicated that PPX seems to interact with T24 cells, which subsequently leads to reduced recognition and adhesion of UPEC to the host cell membrane. Conclusions PPX is characterised by the presence of flavonoids (e.g. rutin) and saponins, from which selected compounds might be bioavailable after oral application, as indicated by the Caco-2 permeation experiments. Rutin and some saponins can be considered as potentially bioavailable after the oral intake. The concentration-dependent inhibition of bacterial adhesion of UPEC to T24 cells justifies the traditional use of Phaseoli pericarpium in the prevention and treatment of urinary tract infections.
... Traditionally the herbal material has also been used to treat diabetes, but a detailed investigation of a potential antidiabetic effect of an aqueous pericarp extract indicated only significant glucose-lowering activity at relatively high concentrations, and thus, further investigations have been discontinued (Helmstädter, 2010). Diuretic activity of Phaseoli pericarpium water infusion has been reported in historical monographies (Dodoens, 1608). ...
Bilberries (Vaccinium myrtillus) are used to treat non-specific diarrhea and for symptoms related to varicose veins. Because they are quite expensive fruits, quality problems and compositional fraud might occur for dietary supplements. This study investigated fresh/dried bilberries and dietary supplements by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) fingerprinting against a quantified bilberry reference extract for identity testing and to test total anthocyanin content by HPLC and for quantification of hydrolyzable and condensed tannins. Protocols were detecting improper drying/storage and adulteration with other Vaccinium species or elderberries. The majority (91%) of dried bilberries from different sources proved to be of good overall quality. Investigation of dietary supplements revealed major problems, with 45% of unacceptable quality (e.g., bilberry-free products, nearly anthocyanin/tannin-free products, and samples being falsified with anthocyanins from other sources). Three representative samples of bilberry juices were shown to have good quality in all tested parameters. Increased analytical efforts must be implemented to improve product quality.
... Haricot bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. (Fabaceae)) is a crop that has been used in medicine for many years. Preparations, containing haricot bean as active substance, normalize carbohydrate metabolism and reduce sugar level due to the presence of amino acids, proteins macro-and microelements, flavonoids in this plant [8,9,10]. ...
Commonly, the production of herbal medicines is more advantageous economically than chemical synthesis. Agricultural crops, having sufficient raw material base, are of main interest. In this respect the shells of haricot bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. (Fabaceae)), that are waste products of beans, are of special interest. Due to the absence of regulatory documents for this kind of drug raw material in Ukraine the development of standardization parameters for the raw material of haricot bean is a very topical. Pharmacotherapeutic action of this drug raw material is caused by the presence of amino acids, proteins, macro- and microelements as well as flavonoids. There are medicines at the pharmaceutical market of Ukraine that was produced from the haricot bean: «Sadifit» (ZAO «Liktravy», Ukraine), «Arphazetin» (ZAO Pharmaceutical plant «Viola», Ukraine), «Hepatophyt» (LLC «Research and production pharmaceutical company «AIM», Ukraine), «Shells of haricot bean» (ZAO «Liktravy», Ukraine). Medicines are introduced to the market in the form of medicinal herbs mixture that's why main method of application is a preparation of restorative drinks, tinctures, teas. In light of this, study of amino acid composition in the water extracts from raw material is reasonable. Research of qualitative and quantitative amino acid composition of 5 lots of the shells of haricot bean was carried out by HPLC method. This raw material was harvested in different regions of Ukraine over a period of 2014 – 2016. 16 amino acids were identified in the water extracts of the shells of haricot bean. Glutamic acid (1.60 – 5.56 ´µg/100 mg), L-alanine (1.41 – 2.23 µg/100 mg), L-arginine (0.65 – 2.12 µg/100 mg) had the greatest content in the investigated samples. D-serine (0.04 – 0.13µg/100 mg) and D,L-methionine (0.02 – 0.43 µg/100 mg) had the lowest quantity in the investigated samples. Sufficiently high content of amino acids makes it possible to consider them as potential substances-markers at the development of assay procedure for the standardization of raw material.
... [9] Antidiabetic activity diabetes. [12] Since diabetes complications are often associated with increased oxidative stress, studies of the antioxidant properties of Phaseolus vulgaris are essential to clarify the mechanism of its therapeutic effect. Current investigations show that P. vulgaris bean extract's long-term oral administration is at a dose of 200 mg/kg BW. ...
Full-text available
This review aims to provide basic knowledge of the medicinal plant Chickpeas (Phaseolus vulgaris). Currently, Chickpeas are considered a medicinal plant for diabetes mellitus. However, natural compounds for treating diabetes mellitus are the most alternative and complementary therapies due to their various biological and therapeutic properties. We conducted a limited, open search in English from the Mendeley, Google Scholar, Scopus, Web of Science, and Pubmed databases for all available literature from 2000-2020, using terms related to phytochemical, pharmacological and Phaseolus vulgaris compounds. This view of the phytochemical content and pharmacological activity of Phaseolus vulgaris provides a solid basis for developing new treatments. Chickpeas (Phaseolus vulgaris L) have several bioactive components associated with health benefits, such as alkaloids, anthocyanins, carbohydrates, catechins, fiber, and flavonoids phytic acid, quercetin, saponins, steroids, tannins, and terpenoids and trypsin inhibitors. Therefore, Chickpeas have various biological activities, including analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antidiabetic, diuretic, antioxidant, hypocholesterolemic, and antiobesity. Also, Chickpeas (Phaseolus vulgaris) have been shown to have vigorous antidiabetic activity and may be useful in developing new antidiabetic therapies.
... Journal of Functional Foods 73 (2020) 104117 digestive tract and decreasing the digestion and absorption of dietary carbohydrates via an α-amylase inhibitor present in white kidney beans and DNJ present in mulberry leaves (Lajolo & Genovese, 2002;Thaipitakwong et al., 2018), and flavonoids and polysaccharides in MWEM, who also exhibit alpha-glucosidase inhibitory activity (Gao & Kawabata, 2005;Ji et al., 2016;Yuan, Ma, Jiang, & Li, 2006). Additionally, dietary fibre may be partially responsible for the anti-diabetic activity of MWEM, which was highly correlated with viscosity (Helmstadter, 2010;Hayat et al., 2014). Since insulin secretion is primarily regulated by the glucose level, a lower postprandial glucose response might stimulate lower insulin and C-peptide responses (Kim et al., 2015), which might be a potential explanation for the decrease in insulin and C-peptide levels and their iAUCs 0-120min in the test group. ...
Full-text available
Mulberry leaves and white kidney beans may improve postprandial glycaemic control. However, data are lacking on the combined anti-diabetic effect of these two plant extracts among pre-diabetic individuals. This randomized controlled study aimed to evaluate the acute and chronic effects of mulberry leaf and white kidney bean extract mix (MWEM) on postprandial glycaemic control in 66 pre-diabetic subjects. In the acute effect test, ingestion of MWEM led to a significant decrease in the postprandial glucose, insulin, and C-peptide, as well as the incremental area under the curves from 0 to 120 min (iAUCs0–120min) for glucose, insulin, and C-peptide. In the chronic effect test, no significant treatment × time interactions were observed in the iAUCs0–120min, as well as the homeostatic model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), and glycated serum protein (GSP) levels. The consumption of MWEM with a meal could potentially help to improve postprandial glycaemic control in pre-diabetic individuals.
Full-text available
Pulses (beans, peas, and lentils) have been consumed for at least 10,000 years and are among the most extensively used foods in the world. Legumes (including alfalfa, clover, lupins, green beans and peas, peanuts, soybeans, dry beans, broad beans, dry peas, chickpeas, and lentils) represent an important component of the human diet in several areas of the world, especially in the developing countries, where they complement the lack of proteins from cereals, roots, and tubers. In some regions of the world, legume seeds are the only protein supply in the diet. In this research, the Biblical verses concerning beans are described. Therefore, this research deals with various aspects of the beans. The Bible gives a description of the consumption of beans. Over the years, humans have recognized the many positive health benefits of beans. However, some toxic and adverse side effects may be experienced. Nevertheless, beans should be included in the modern menu of human nutrition, as in ancient times.
The term ‘Nutraceuticals’ was coined to project the food or modified food items that can ameliorate diseases together with meeting the nutrients requirements. Legumes are a group of plants implicated with high nutritional quality, cheap cultivation needs and adaptation to climatic conditions which made them an important and essential food among the common men. The safe levels of anti-nutritional factors of legumes are significant in eliciting some bioactivities. Anti-nutritional factors of legume are mainly contributing to their richness of ingredients. They include phytochemicals like phytoestrogens, phytosterols, phytates, various enzyme inhibitors, lectins, polyphenols, alkaloids, saponins, flavonoids, oligosaccharides etc.
Full-text available
This article traces the roots of the antihyperglycaemic biguanide metformin from the use of Galega officinalis (goat's rue or French lilac) as a herbal treatment for the symptoms of diabetes. G. officinalis was found to be rich in guanidine, a substance with blood glucose-lowering activity that formed the chemical basis of metformin. This insulin sensitising drug was introduced in 1957. Copyright © 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Every schoolchild in Canada—particularly in the Toronto in which I grew up—knows that Banting and Best discovered insulin. Together at the University of Toronto, with very few resources and against terrific odds, they made a singularly great discovery that has saved the lives of millions over the years. But Michael Bliss, a renowned medical historian at this same university and biographer of both Osler and Cushing, debunks this myth and tells the true story in a most engaging manner. In fact, the book is so interesting and entertaining that it reads like a cross between a sober Greek tragedy and a riveting detective story.
Zusammenfassung In unseren Versuchen senkte Phaseolan fluidum Tosse den Blutzucker bei 10 von 17 Hungerkaninchen in geringem Ma�e, beeinflu�te ihn hingegen nicht bei den restlichen 7 Tieren. Es konnte also die gleichm��ige Wirkung, wie sie fr�here Untersucher (Ge�ner undSiebert) angegeben haben, nicht beobachtet werden. Die in den positiven F�llen festgestellte Senkung des Blutzuckers schwankt zwar auch zwischen 20 und 40 mg-%, doch k�nnen Differenzen von etwa 20 mg-% nur mit gro�er Reserve verwertet werden, besonders dann, wenn der N�chtern-Blutzuckerwert ein hoher ist. Aus dem Einflu� des Phaseolans auf den Ablauf der Adrenalinhyperglyk�mie seine Wirksamkeit zu beurteilen, ist nicht ang�ngig; denn die Zuckerkurve nach Adrenalininjektion verl�uft bei verschiedenen und denselben Tieren auch ohne Phaseolan so unterschiedlich, da� generell Schl�sse daraus nicht gezogen werden k�nnen. �ber den Wirkungsmechanismus des Phaseolans in den F�llen, wo im Tierexperiment der Blutzucker gesenkt wurde, l��t sich nichts aussagen. Bei 5 zuckerkranken Patienten wurde durch Phaseolan weder die Blutzuckerkurve noch die Harnzuckerausscheidung beeinflu�t, ebensowenig die leichte Acidose in einem Falle.
Nine European plants were selected to be screened for hypoglycaemic activity. Selection criteria were based on traditional use and literature references. Total extracts of the plants were prepared by boiling the dried material with water or macerating it with 80% ethanol. Male Swiss mice were orally loaded with glucose after the extracts had been given by oral gavage. Four extracts improved the glucose tolerance: Adiantum capillus veneris, Daucus carota, Galega officinalis and Juglans regia. Further investigation will be focused on bioguided isolation of active fractions.
Es wurde die Wirkung des Phaseolanum fluidum Tosse im Tierexperiment an Hunden von verschiedenem Alter und verschiedener Rasse nachgeprft. Organschdigende oder sonstwie toxische Wirkungen des Prparates konnten in keinem Fall beobachtet werden. Beim Hungerhund und vollwertig ernhrten Tier waren die blut- und organanalytischen Befunde normal. Eine Blutzuckersenkung wurde beim Hungertier gar nicht und beim Normalhund nur unwesentlich festgestellt. Die Adrenalinhyperglykmie wurde am 2 und 3. Phaseolantage gnstig beeinflut. Eine klar erkennbare Wirkung lie sich bei alimentrer Belastung mit Glukose feststellen. Hier zeigte sich vom 1. Phaseolantage an ein eindeutiger Einflu auf Intensitt und Dauer der Hyperglykmie.