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The uses and properties of almond oil

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Abstract

Almond oil [Oleum amygdalae] has long been used in complementary medicine circles for its numerous health benefits. Although no conclusive scientific data exists currently, almonds and almond oil have many properties including anti-inflammatory, immunity-boosting and anti-hepatotoxicity effects. Further, associations between almond oil and improved bowel transit have been made, which consequently reduces irritable bowel syndrome symptoms. Further, some studies show a reduced incidence of colonic cancer. Moreover, cardiovascular benefits have also been identified with almond oil elevating the levels of so-called 'good cholesterol', high-density lipoproteins (HDL), whilst it reduces low-density lipoproteins (LDL). Historically, almond oil had been used in Ancient Chinese, Ayurvedic and Greco-Persian schools of Medicine to treat dry skin conditions such as psoriasis and eczema. Further, it is through anecdotal evidence and clinical experiences that almond oil seemingly reduces hypertrophic scarring post-operatively, smoothes and rejuvenates skin. Almond oil has emollient and sclerosant properties and, therefore, has been used to improve complexion and skin tone. Further studies looking into the use of almond oil post-operatively for the reduction of scarring are suggested.

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... se prepara de una variedad de almendras y es un oleato de glicerilo que se obtiene del grano seco de este árbol Prunus dulcis, empleado en perfumes, esencias, alimentos, medicina, entre otras. Su composición química es rica en ácidos grasos esenciales, vitaminas del complejo B, zinc y proteínas (13,14). Posee propiedades antiinflamatorias, inmunomoduladoras, hepatoprotectoras, anticancerígenas, hipolipemiantes, entre otras (14)(15)(16)(17). ...
... Su composición química es rica en ácidos grasos esenciales, vitaminas del complejo B, zinc y proteínas (13,14). Posee propiedades antiinflamatorias, inmunomoduladoras, hepatoprotectoras, anticancerígenas, hipolipemiantes, entre otras (14)(15)(16)(17). Actualmente se utiliza el aceite de almendras solo o en combinación con agua en colirios para aplicar en el canal auditivo externo, ayudando a suavizar y eliminar el cerumen. ...
... A la luz de la evidencia actual se reconoce al aceite de almendras como un cerumenolítico, que tiene como función facilitar la extracción del cerumen localizado en el CAE. Además, cuenta con propiedades antiinflamatorias, inmunomoduladoras, hepatoprotectoras, anticancerígenas, hipolipemiantes, entre otras (14)(15)(16)(17). Por otro lado, la flor de narciso que se empleaba posterior a la extracción del cerumen ejercía probablemente acción antiinflamatoria en el CAE. ...
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... Amygdalin is a colorless to slightly yellow liquid and has an almond-like odor with an intense cherry aroma. Amygdalin has a mild to slightly astringent taste [122]. Almonds are considered to have originated in the Middle East, however, nowadays they are grown in places such as the Mediterranean region, Australia, North America, Asia, and South Africa [123]. ...
... Almond oil is also widely used for massage and has anti-itching effects. Additionally, almond oil has reported anti-inflammatory activity, reducing irritable bowel syndrome, anti-hepatic toxicity, and cardiovascular benefits [122]. ...
Article
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Oils, including essential oils and their constituents, are widely reported to have penetration enhancement activity and have been incorporated into a wide range of pharmaceutical formulations. This study sought to determine if there is an evidence base for the selection of appropriate oils for particular applications and compare their effectiveness across different formulation types. A systematic review of the data sources, consisting of Google Scholar, EMBASE, PubMed, Medline, and Scopus, was carried out and, following screening and quality assessment, 112 articles were included within the analysis. The research was classified according to the active pharmaceutical ingredient, dosage form, in vitro/in vivo study, carrier material(s), penetration enhancers as essential oils, and other chemical enhancers. The review identified four groups of oils used in the formulation of skin preparations; in order of popularity, these are terpene-type essential oils (63%), fatty acid-containing essential oils (29%) and, finally, 8% of essential oils comprising Vitamin E derivatives and miscellaneous essential oils. It was concluded that terpene essential oils may have benefits over the fatty acid-containing oils, and their incorporation into advanced pharmaceutical formulations such as nanoemulsions, microemulsions, vesicular systems, and transdermal patches makes them an attractive proposition to enhance drug permeation through the skin.
... For this purpose, O/W nanoemulsions (NEs) can be chosen and almond oil can be selected as internal phase to take advantage of its bioactive components (i.e. high concentration of linoleic acid [21]). Almond oil exhibits a wildly range of therapeutic effects such an antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-microbial activity, which may be useful as an adjuvant in enhancing the effect of other active compounds to be loaded in NEs [21]. ...
... high concentration of linoleic acid [21]). Almond oil exhibits a wildly range of therapeutic effects such an antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-microbial activity, which may be useful as an adjuvant in enhancing the effect of other active compounds to be loaded in NEs [21]. In addition, the antioxidant activity of almond oil may also protect the delivered drugs from oxidation and hydrolysis and potentially acts on the metabolic functional abnormalities in retinopathies [22]. ...
Article
In recent years, nanotechnology has allowed to formulate different ophthalmic vehicles to extend residence time in the eye after topical application, decreasing the number of instillations and improving patient's compliance. The goal of this study was to develop an oil-in-water (O/W) nanoemulsions (NEs), composed of almond oil as the inner oil phase and Hepes or Palitzsch buffer as the outer aqueous phase, stabilized by non-ionic surfactants (Tween 20 or Tween 80). By modifying the oil/surfactant/water ratio, the best nanoemulsion formulations in terms of chemical-physical characteristics for ocular application were selected. In particular, hydrodynamic diameter, size distribution, ζ-potential, microviscosity and polarity of the internal oil phase, along with pH, osmolarity, turbidity, stability in simulated eye tears and rheological properties were evaluated. Furthermore, mucoadhesive properties of selected samples have been measured by turbidimetric assay and mucin particle method to establish their potential interaction with mucin in simulated tear fluid. Finally, cytotoxicity studies using the Alamar Blue reduction assay in Y-79 (Human retinoblastoma cell line) cells have been performed, anticipating their compatibility and suitability for ocular administration.
... In this context, the objective of this work was to produce a stable W/O emulsion system using a natural oil to be tested as a base vehicle to incorporate natural hydrophilic extracts. The sweet almond oil is well known for its moisturizing, softening, and nutritive properties, being already used in the cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries [18]. Its use as the continuous phase confer to the emulsions high-added value for topical applications. ...
Article
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Water-in-oil (W/O) emulsions have high potential for several industrial areas as delivery systems of hydrophilic compounds. In general, they are less studied than oil-in-water (O/W) systems, namely in what concerns the so-called fluid systems, partly due to problems of instability. In this context, this work aimed to produce stable W/O emulsions from a natural oil, sweet almond oil, to be further tested as vehicles of natural hydrophilic extracts, here exemplified with an aqueous cinnamon extract. Firstly, a base W/O emulsion using a high-water content (40/60, v/v) was developed by testing different mixtures of emulsifiers, namely Tween 80 combined with Span 80 or Span 85 at different contents. Among the tested systems, the one using a 54/46 (v/v) Span 80/Tween 80 mixture, and subjected to 12 high-pressure homogenizer (HPH) cycles, revealed to be stable up to 6 months, being chosen for the subsequent functionalization tests with cinnamon extract (1.25–5%; w/v; water-basis). The presence of cinnamon extract leaded to changes in the microstructure as well as in the stability. The antimicrobial and antioxidant analysis were evidenced, and a sustained behavior compatible with an extract distribution within the two phases, oil and water, in particular for the higher extract concentration, was observed.
... Almond oil contains a high concentration of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA), particularly oleic fatty acids [10], that may reduce cellular apoptosis, oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, and inflammation in hepatocytes [11]. Moreover, Almond oil was used as a medicine substitute and indicated promise in pharmacological and biomedical and research [12]. ...
Article
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Osteoporosis is a common health problem distinguished by low bone mass and microarchitectural deterioration of bone tissue, thus increase bone fragility and fracture. Nutrition possesses a critical role in reducing osteoporosis risks among its impact on fragility factors, particularly on bone mass development and maintenance. The current study was carried out to assess and compare the protective effect of almond and thyme against osteoporosis induced by excessive intake of carbonated beverage (Coca-Cola) in rats. Forty-eight adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into six groups: G1, control negative fed balanced diet; G2, control positive fed balanced diet and received Coca-Cola orally by gavage (20 ml/day) (CB); G3, almond powder (5g/100g diet) (A); G4, thyme powder (5g/100g diet) (T) and G5, (CB) +(A); 6, (CB)+(T)). Almond and thyme supplementation significantly reduced the development of osteoporosis as well as inflammation and oxidative stress. Our findings show that almond and thyme can effectively reduce soft drink-induced bone loss and could be used as dietary supplements to prevent bone resorption and osteoporosis.
... Almond oil has high amounts of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA), especially a rich concentration of oleic fatty acids [20], which could alleviate cellular apoptosis, oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, and inflammation in hepatocytes [21]. Almond oil has long been used as a medicine substitution [22] and has significant potential in biomedical and pharmacological studies. Previous studies illustrated that the consumption of almond oil could inhibit lipid peroxidation processes in CCl 4 -induced hepatic damage rats and boost immunity [23,24] due to its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activity and free radical scavenging capacity. ...
Article
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Almond oil has been used as a medicine substitution for its numerous health benefits. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of almond oil on streptozotocin- (STZ-) induced diabetic rats for 4 weeks. The results showed that the administration of almond oil could significantly increase body weight, attenuate abnormally elevated blood glucose, promote insulin secretion, and improve glucose tolerance. Almond oil treatment also suppressed oxidative stress, reduced inflammation reaction, improved liver and kidney function, upregulated the expressions of Nrf2, HO-1, and NQO1, while downregulating the expression of Keap1. Furthermore, almond oil reversed the gut microbiota change by STZ and regulated the gut microbiota associated with glucose metabolism. At the phylum level, the relative abundance of Firmicutes was decreased, while Bacteroidetes was increased by almond oil treatment. More importantly, the ratio of Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes was significantly increased. At the genus level, administration of almond oil increased the abundances of Lactobacillus, Bacteroides, and Lachnospiraceae_NK4A136_group, while decreased the abundances of Ruminococcaceae_UCG-014, Clostridium_sensu_stricto_1, and Fusicatenibacter. These results provided evidence for the regulating effect of almond oil on diabetic rats via the Nrf2/HO-1 pathway and gut microbiota.
... Dermatologic effects Sultana et al. (2007) showed that almond oil was able to prevent the structural damage caused by UV irradiation and partially inhibit some of the histologic damage associated with the photoaging of mice skin. In traditional medicine, almond oil has been extensively used to maintain the skin's elasticity, to treat dry skin conditions such as psoriasis and eczema, and for grooming the hair (Ahmad, 2010;Berdick, 1972). It is used also as an emollient and emulsifier in cosmetic products and suggested to be safe for topical applications to humans (Elder, 1983). ...
Article
Almond oil, a rich source of macronutrients and micronutrients, is extracted for food flavorings and the cosmetics industry. In recent years, the need for high-quality and high-quantity production of almond oil for human consumption has been increased. The present review examines the chemical composition of almond oil, storage conditions, and clinical evidence supporting the health benefits of almond oil. From the reviewed studies, it appears that almond oil contains a significant proportion of poly and monounsaturated fatty acids, with oleic acid as the main compound, and an important amount of tocopherol and phytosterol content. Some variations in almond oil composition can be found depending on the kernel's origin and the extraction system used. Some new technologies such as ultrasonic-assisted extraction, supercritical fluid extraction, subcritical fluid extraction, and salt-assisted aqueous extraction have emerged as the most promising extraction techniques that allow eco-friendly and effective recovery of almond oil. This safe oil was reported by several clinical studies to have potential roles in cardiovascular risk management, glucose homeostasis, oxidative stress reduction, neuroprotection, and many dermatologic and cosmetic applications. However, the anticarcinogenic and fertility benefits of almond oil have yet to be experimentally verified. K E Y W O R D S
... The almond is the most important nut crop in the world in terms of its commercial production, which exceeds 3 million tons annually [1]. Almond kernel is a nutrient dense food, with a high content in proteins (12-22%) or carbohydrates (20%) [2,3], rich in fiber and minerals such as magnesium and copper [4]. In addition, similar to many other nuts, the almond stands out for its high oil content (40-67%), which is characterized by a fatty acid profile with a low percentage of saturated fats, and where monounsaturated fatty acids predominate [5]. ...
Article
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Almond is the most cultivated nut throughout the world. The oil content of almonds in most varieties exceeds 50%, which encourages the oil extraction to be used in gastronomy or in the cosmetic industry. The preferred system to extract almond oil is by means of pressure, which leads to obtaining a virgin oil ready for consumption. In this work, almond oil has been obtained using two pressure systems: screw press (SP) and hydraulic press (HP). The performance of both methods, as well as their influence on quality and composition characteristics of the almond oils obtained are analyzed from both a physical-chemical and sensory point of view. From an industry perspective, the highest oil yield is obtained with the SP when it operates at temperatures of 100–150 °C. Regarding the quality and chemical composition, the oils obtained by HP showed better quality indices, as they are subjected to a less aggressive treatment without influence of temperature, but lower content in total sterols. Fatty acid pattern, characterized by the predominance of unsaturated fatty acids (>90%), was not affected by the pressing system. The different operational conditions tested did not greatly affect the performance or composition of the oils obtained, but sensory tests showed two clearly differentiated products, the oil obtained by HP and that obtained by SP, according to consumer preferences. The defatted almond flours obtained as a by-product of the oil extraction process are characterized by a high content in protein and fiber, and a higher content in fat when the flour is produced from the pressing cake of HP.
... saturated fatty acids ratio. There is a great deal of scienti c research that sweet almond oil has anti-in ammatory, immuneenhancing and anti-hepatotoxicity effects and prevents the growth of primary and metastatic colon cancer cells [7][8][9][10]. ...
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In this study, it was aimed to investigate the synthesis, characterization and drug release behaviors of organohydrogels containing pH-sensitive Agar (A), Glycerol (G), Sweet Almond oil (SAO). Organohydrogels, which contained Agar, Glycerol and different amounts of Sweet Almond oil, were synthesized via the free-radical polymerization reaction with emulsion technique using glutaraldehyde or methylene bis acrylamide crosslinkers. Then, the degree of swelling, bond structures, blood compatibility and antioxidant properties of the synthesized organohydrogels were examined. In addition, Organohydrogels which loaded with Ceftriaxone (antibiotic) and Oxaliplatin (an anti-cancer agent), were synthesized with the same polymerization reaction and release kinetics were investigated. In vitro release studies were performed at media similar pH to gastric fluid (pH 2), skin surface (pH 5.5), blood fluid (pH 7.4) and intestinal fluid (pH 8), at 37° C. The effects on release of crosslinker type and sweet almond oil amount were investigated. Kinetic parameters were determined using release results and these results were applied to zero and first-order equations and Korsmeyer-Peppas and Higuchi equations. Diffusion exponential was calculated for drug diffusion of organohydrogels and values consistent with release results were found.
... Almond kernel oil obtained by ultrasonication system contained 5.903% palmitic, 1.206% stearic, 72.065% oleic and 20.060% linoleic acids [31]. Considering these results, UAE presents the advantage of being a non-destructive extraction technique since it does not damage essential fatty acids which could be used for its numerous health benefits [32]. When results were compared to previous studies, some differences were observed. ...
Article
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The bioactive properties of the almond kernel cultivars were determined in the 10 min sonication period with the highest values being observed in the “Ferraduel” almond cultivar. While total phenolic contents of almond kernel extracts obtained by extraction for 10 min change between 10.97 mg GAE/100 g (Texas) and 106.25 mg GAE/100 g (Ferraduel), total phenolic contents of almond kernels extracted for 20 min were determined between 12.57 mg GAE/100 g (Nonpareil) and 103.54 mg GAE/100 g (Ferraduel). Oleic acid amounts of almond kernel oil samples extracted at 10 min changed between 37.84% (Texas) and 75.90% (Ferragnes) while the oleic acid amounts of almond kernel oils obtained by ultrasound-assisted extraction at 20 min sonication period vary between 70.76% (Texas) and 75.91% (Ferragnes). Also, while linoleic acid contents of almond kernel oils at 10 min are identified between 15.78% (Ferragnes) and 21.40% (Texas), linoleic acid amounts of almond kernel oils extracted by ultrasound-assisted extraction at 20 min changed between 16.02% (Ferragnes) and 21.52% (Texas). Gallic acid acid contents of almond kernel extracts at 10 and 20 min sonication period changed between 2.21 mg/100 g (Bitter almond) and 12.90 mg/100 g (Ferragnes), to 3.08 mg/100 g (Nonpareil) and 15.13 mg/100 g (Ferraduel), respectively.
... The phenolic compounds from peanut oil has been associated with cardioprotective and anti-inflammatory properties (Akhtar et al., 2014). Almond oil have many health properties including anti-inflammatory, immunity-boosting and antihepatotoxicity effects (Ahmad, 2010). The edible oils studied in this review have shown to possess different health benefits. ...
Article
Edible oils are used as a frying medium and in the preparation of several food products. They are mainly constituting triacylglycerols as major components, while other compounds are classified as minor constituents, which include polyphenols. This class of compounds plays an important role in the thermal stability and quality attributes of the finished industrial food products. In addition to other antioxidants, the desired thermal stability of edible is achieved by either fortification or mixing of edible oils. This comprehensive review was therefore aimed to review the different classes of polyphenolic compounds present in commonly consumed edible oils. The edible oils reviewed include soybean, olive, rapeseed, canola, sunflower, flaxseed, sesame, cottonseed, palm, and hazelnut oils. The identified classes of polyphenolic compounds such as simple phenols, hydroxybenzoic acids, phenylethanoids, hydroxycinnamic acid, esters of hydroxycinnamic acids, coumarins & chromans, stilbenes, flavonoids, anthocyanins, and lignans were discussed. It was observed that a single edible from different origins showed the varied composition of the different classes of phenolic compounds. Among the oils, soybean, sunflower, olive, and brassica oils received higher attention in terms of polyphenol composition. Some classes of phenolic compounds were either not reported or absent in one edible oil, while present in others. Among the different classes of phenolics, hydroxybenzoic acids, hydroxycinnamic acid and flavonoids were the most widely present compounds. Phenolic compounds in edible oils possess several health benefits such as antioxidant, antibacterial, anti-viral, anti-inflammatory, anti-tumour, antioxidants, cardioprotective, neuroprotective, anti-diabetic properties and anti-obesity.
... The almond Prunus dulcis (Mill) D.A. Webb (subfamily Prunoideae of family Rosaceae) contains fixed oil, phenolic compounds abundant in almonds; it also contains and some micronutrients, vitamins, minerals and has different pharmacological activities [23][24][25][26] . Almond seeds and oil have cardio-protective, immune-stimulant effects, anti-inflammatory, and reduce irritable bowel syndrome symptoms , and they are also helpful in treating constipation 27,28 . Almond oil has also been used to treat dry skin disorders like psoriasis, eczema, and many more disorders in ancient treatment cultures but today it is used in aromatherapy and for producing many skin-hair cosmetics 29 . ...
Article
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Assuming that herbal preparation is better with fewer side effects than synthetics, natural treatments are more effective than allopathy in terms of side effects for better human body healing. Herbal products have a growing demand in the world market, and the plants have been reported in the literature as having various pharmacological activities such as anti-microbial, anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory activity, anti-cancer, anti-diabetic. The purpose of this study was to develop anti-aging poly-herbal cream by mixing the extract of Punica leaf, Neem Oil, Jamun powder, Carrot powder as the main ingredient, and then creams were developed based on the anti-oxidant ability of herbal extracts and performed their evaluation study. Punica granatam leaves were shade dried and extracted using the Soxhlet method with different solvents such as n-hexane, benzene, and alcohol. Fine extract powder was collected and removed distilled water thoroughly. The cream was formulated into different concentrations, namely F1, F2, F3, and F4. Similar types of research with similar components have been reported, but in this experiment, the formulation is different, and this work is kept cost-efficient and straightforward; it's an attempt to reduce few components and prepare cream and evaluate its potential. According to The International Council for Harmonization of Technical Requirements for Pharmaceuticals for Human Use ICH guidelines, the cream was stable during stability studies, and F3 turned out to be a better formulation than the other three.
... Almond is a good source of different types of B-complex vitamins, including thiamine (B1), riboflavin (B2), niacin (B3), pyridoxine (B6) and folate. In addition, almond is one of the richest sources of vitamin E. The alpha, beta, gamma and delta-tocopherol and tocotrienol are eight forms of vitamin E. Alpha (α) tocopherol is the major form of tocopherol found in almond (Ahmad, 2010;Çelik et al., 2019). Owing to the antioxidant activity of vitamin E, it has an effective role in the prevention and treatment of different disease (Rizvi, Raza, Faizal Ahmed, Abbas, & Mahdi, 2014). ...
Article
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Sweet almond (Prunus dulcis (Mill.) D.A.Webb) is a known nut, which has long been used in several ethnomedical systems, especially in Persian medicine (PM) for its nutritional and therapeutic activities. In this study, we aimed to provide a summary on traditional uses, phytochemistry, and pharmacological activities of sweet almond. Thus, we reviewed textbooks of PM and electronic literature on traditional medicine. Moreover, the available data on the usage of sweet almond were searched in electronic databases to find articles on its pharmacological properties and phytochemistry. According to phytochemical investigations, this plant contains macronutrients, micronutrients, essential oils, various phenolic compounds, and phytosterols. Current pharmacological studies represent that Prunus dulcis has several biological activities including prebiotic, antimicrobial, antioxidant, antiinflammatory, anticancer, hepatoprotective, cardiometabolic protection, nootropic, anxiolytic, sedative–hypnotic, and nervous‐improving effects. Further clinical trials and meta‐analysis are required to draw a definitive conclusion on the efficacy and therapeutic activities of almond.
... Blood samples were 50% oil [11]. Also, it contains proteins (12-22%) and collected from orbital venous plexus in non-heparinized carbohydrates (20%) [12,13]. Almond oil has long been tubes, centrifuged at 2500 rpm for 15 minutes and blood used in complementary medicine circles for its numerous sera were then collected and stored at -80°C. ...
Article
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Currently, the exposure to chemical toxicants is increasing and causing many complex health problems. Generally, herbal medicine is considered as an integral part of dietary supplement. Herbal medicines encompass the combination of practices of indigenous systems of medicine and several therapeutic experiences of many previous generations. The present study was aimed to evaluate the effect of almond oil on lipid profile in Wistar male rats exposed to thioacetamide (TAA). Experimental rats were distributed into four groups. Rats of the first group were served as normal controls. Rats of the second group were exposed to TAA (300 mg/kg body weight). Rats of the third group were exposed to almond oil (800 mg/ kg body weight) and TAA. Rats of the fourth group were supplemented with almond oil. At the end of experimental period (six weeks), blood serum samples were analyzed to evaluate the levels of lipid profile in all groups. The levels of serum triglycerides, cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), very low density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C), atherogenic index (AI) and cardiac risk ratio (CRR) were significantly increased, while the level of serum high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) was statistically declined in rats of the second group which exposed to TAA. Treatment with almond oil improved the observed alterations of lipid profile induced by exposure to TAA in rats of the third group. These new data indicate that almond oil has potential therapeutics properties against TAA toxicity.
... Almond oil is generally a combination of 68 % oleic acid, 25 % linolenic acid and 4 % palmitic acid. High content of double bonds-rich fatty acid as oleic acid offers this material the ability to protect metals against corrosion by free radical auto-oxidation reaction mechanism of the double bonds with oxygen [31][32][33][34]. ...
Article
This study reports for the first time the preparation of almond oil-based microcapsules using phosphorylated ethyl cellulose as shell material. Microcapsules of ethyl cellulose (EC) and phosphorylated ethyl cellulose (P-EC) containing almond oil as anti-corrosion inhibitor, for end use in self-healing coatings, were prepared by a solvent evaporation method. The results showed that phosphorus content in the modified ethyl cellulose was 6.26 wt.%, the specific surface area reached a high value of 21.4 m² g⁻¹ and a char residue of 18 wt.% at 400 °C after thermal degradation. Both prepared EC and P-EC based microcapsules were spherical shape-like. The scanning electron microscope (SEM) images showed that the freeze-drying influences the microcapsules surface morphology. The mean diameter of EC and P-EC microcapsules was about 140 μm and 150 μm, respectively. Anti-corrosion properties of prepared epoxy-based coatings loaded with microcapsules on the mild steel substrate were evaluated for 28 days using a simple salt spray test. The sample containing P-EC microcapsules showed the best anticorrosion resistance. The functionalization of the ethyl cellulose microcapsules shell with phosphonate groups can improve further the anti-corrosion resistance, the flame-retardant ability and the metal chelating properties of the final coatings.
... It is found to elicit a dose-dependent Th1 immune response (Rubab et al., 2013). Almond oil has many properties including anti-inflammatory, immunity-boosting (Ahmad, 2010). In a study, The extract from bark and root of Salacia of the family Hippocrateaceae (Salacia reticulata, Salacia oblonga, etc.) which have been used for traditional Ayurvedic medicine have shown to exert bioregulatory functions by boosting intestinal immunity (Oda et al., 2011).Curcumin is the bioactive pigment of turmeric, in some studies have indicated that this phytochemical could target regulatory T cells and convert them into T helper 1 cells and thus enhances immunity (Shafabakhsh et al., 2019). ...
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Today the whole world is in an endeavor to deal with a newly arrived pandemic, COVID-19 which has all the potential to be catastrophic to mankind at its worst. This is not new; the world faced many pandemics earlier. According to the WHO, the worldwide spread of a new disease is called a pandemic that is if an infection becomes widespread in several countries at the same time, it may turn into a pandemic. Pandemic may be a result of new infection resulting from the evolution or change of an existing pathogen/parasite resulting in a change of host range, vector, pathogenicity or strain; or the occurrence of a previously unrecognised infection or disease or due to a known or endemic disease that either shifts its geographical setting or expands its host range, or significantly increases its prevalence. Whenever a new bacterial or viral strain is formed or the existing ones undergoes genetic variation due to mutation like genetic shift, genetic drift or genetic reassortment and have a capability of rapid transmission and infecting large population then they have a potential to cause pandemic. Man has constantly altered its ecosystem by its activities. Tracing of the origins of emerging infectious diseases back to first emergence in the human population, lead to the revelation of some distinctive patterns. There are a number of agents present in the environment to which our body is exposed all the time. Not everyone exposed to these agents develops disease. Immunity is a major factor that governs susceptibility of individual towards any disease and thus governs health. People with low immunity are very susceptible to any disease and even a mild disease can take severe form in such individuals while people with strong immune system are comparatively resistant to infection. In today‘s scenario, the lifestyle of people is exposing them to various chemicals in a way that now chemicals are part and partial of our life, be it flavoring agents, food colours, skin lotions, cleansers, disinfectants, fertilizers, pesticides, medicines, washing powder or soaps etc. Many of these chemicals either singly or in combination are proved to be a major cause behind the decreased immunity of people now days. As people around the globe are exposed to such chemicals around the clock hence it may be a major cause of mass immunosuppression. Due to which population immunity goes down and the resistance towards coming infection decreases hence they become susceptible to coming infection. This may be a major cause of an endemic disease firstly becoming epidemic then pandemic as well as a possible reason behind progression of any novel infection within the population. Being too clean might be making us sick due to development of immunologically virgin population. Even the obsessive washing of hands and excessive hygienic measures because may result in developing immunologically virgin population which is not exposed to the environment. For containment of any pandemic an amalgamation of rapid diagnosis, prevention and control, case management i.e. treatment and mass vaccination is required. Because of their changing antigenic type vaccine development is strenuous job. Additionally, it has been proved now beyond any doubt that the allopathic system of medicine alone may not be able to control any such pandemic or epidemic. It includes ayurveda which gives prime importance to prophylaxis. Ayurveda have several strong points in preventive care like scope of prevention is very large, no or very minimum side or after ill effects are seen. It also includes cowpathy which is an age old system of medicine described in ancient Indian literature and also known as ‗Panchgavya Chikitsa‖. In order to reduce the immunodeficiency, some of the nutrients like vitamins, roughages, antioxidants, lipids, Carbohydrates, Proteins, Ionophores, Carotenoids, Bioflavenoids, Omega-3 fatty acids, etc. and crude preparations of some microorganisms are also used which are necessary for the development of the body to improve the nonspecific and specific immunity. There is a need to explore novel therapeutic approach like convalescent plasma treatment which has been shown to be effective in treatment of COVID-19, swine influenza, SARS etc. The pandemics we have experienced so far have shown a number of deficiencies and defects, including vulnerabilities in global, national, and local public health capacities; difficulties in decision making under conditions of uncertainty; limitations of scientific knowledge; complexities in international cooperation; and challenges in communication among experts, policymakers, and the public. Pandemics can be contained only by an amalgamation of rapid diagnosis, prevention, control, case management and mass vaccination. Global surveillance of emerging and previously unknown infections in both human beings and other species should be done. Preparation beyond planning, with advance protocols and agreements, the commitment of ready reserves of public health experts and a financial line of credit, and the fulfillment of the international health regulation requirements can all help. Besides, the known therapeutic and preventive measures in our own traditional system and are proven on the standards of the modern scientific parameters must be used instantly without any doubt and wasting time in further research in order to save the population at large and minimize their sufferings.
... Nowadays food, which can be supporter to lead a healthy life, are interested by people. These kinds of foods have an important role against diseases (Kök Taş, 2012) and the almond (Prunus amygdalus) welcomes us by high nutrition compounds (Ahmad, 2010). The consumption of almond regularly can help to reduce blood sugar and reduce the risk of cardiovascular diseases (Kendall et al., 2007). ...
... Across all previous research articles that probed the fatty acid profile of almonds, oleic acid was found to be the major FA with 57.54% to 73.94% [30,31]. Considering these results, UAE presents the advantage of being a non-destructive extraction technique since it does not damage essential fatty acids which could be used for its numerous health benefits [32]. ...
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Almond skin is an important by-product in the almond processing industry, rich in potentially health-promoting phenolic compounds. The objective of this present study is to separate the skin from the almond and extract its polyphenol contents using Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction (UAE) at room temperature. Optimization was performed according to a two-variable central composite design (CCD), and the optimum combination of ultrasonic intensity and extraction temperature was obtained through multi-response optimization: ultrasonic intensity (UI), 9.47 W.cm−2; and temperature, 20 °C for an extraction time of 20 min. Under the above-mentioned conditions, total phenolic content was 258% higher with UAE than silent experiment. Mathematic modelling and microscopic investigations were achieved to enable understanding physical and structural effects of ultrasound on almond skins and comprehension of the mechanism behind the enhancement of mass transfer phenomena. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) showed different acoustic cavitation impacts including fragmentation, sonoporation, and erosion. Extracts were analyzed by ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS), identifying a combination of flavanols, flavanones and non-flavonoids. UAE shows no negative effect on almond proteins and lipids when compared to natural almonds (NS).
... 1-Does not hold the shell, 3-Part of the shell remains, 5-The shell stays (code) Durability of outer shell 5 1-very little, 3-Low, 5-medium, 7-high, 9-too much (code) shell softness and hardness 6 1-Closed, 3-Semi-flourishing, 5-Blossoming (code) Open the shell 7 1-does not have, 3-Low, 5-medium, 7-big, 9-Very big (code) Extra edge of Nut 8 1-Sweet, 3-A little bitter, 5-Bitter (code) Taste of the Kernel 9 ...
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Almond (Prunus dulcis L.) is one of the most important nut fruits and products, which is commercially grown in vast areas of the world. Almond kernel contains valuable compounds including vitamins, carbohydrates (fiber and soluble sugars), protein, fatty acids and mineral salts. Considering the importance of fatty acids in almonds. this study investigated the fatty acid content of pollen and seed parents and offspring of Shahrood 12 with selective pollinizers using Gas chromatography (GC). Also oil extraction by Soxhlet Elements were measured by atomic absorption method in parents and progeny of crosses. Some quantitative and qualitative traits related to dried fruit and almond kernels were also analyzed. The results showed that the highest amount of kernels weight in progeny obtained from crosses was related to free pollination. The results showed that the highest amount of oleic acid (18: 1) and linoleic acid (18: 2) was observed in MSK84 (75.51%) and shahrood14 (19.20%) pollinizers, respectively. Also, the highest amount of oleic acid with 72% was obtained in the offspring of Shahrood 12 (♀) × Shahrood 14(♂). The maximum amount of linoleic acid was obtained with 18.40% in the offspring resulting from Shahrood 12 (♀) × MSK84 (♂). On the other hand, the highest amount of palmitic acid (9.5%) was found in the progeny obtained from open pollination of Shahrood 12. These three types of fatty acids have the highest percentage among the seven fatty acids measured in the almond kernel. The highest amount of oil was obtained in progeny of mother Shahrood 12 with 54.42% MSK82 and 38.32% in MSK83 also The results showed that among the different genotypes Rate of oil (38.32-54.42%), Iron (85.48-138.53 mg / 1000 g), Copper (20.32-47.48 mg / 1000 g), Manganese (18.04 -44.67 mg / 1000 g).
... saturated fatty acids ratio. There is a great deal of scientific research that sweet almond oil has anti-inflammatory, immune-enhancing and anti-hepatotoxicity effects and prevents the growth of primary and metastatic colon cancer cells [7][8][9][10]. ...
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In this study, it was aimed to investigate the synthesis, characterization and drug release behaviors of organo-hydrogels containing pH-sensitive Agar (A), Glycerol (G), Sweet Almond oil (Wu et al. in J Mol Struct 882:107–115, 2008). Organo-hydrogels, which contained Agar, Glycerol and different amounts of Sweet Almond oil, were synthesized via the free-radical polymerization reaction with emulsion technique using glutaraldehyde or methylene bis acrylamide crosslinkers. Then, the degree of swelling, bond structures, blood compatibility and antioxidant properties of the synthesized organo-hydrogels were examined. In addition, Organo-hydrogels which loaded with Ceftriaxone and Oxaliplatin were synthesized with the same polymerization reaction and release kinetics were investigated. In vitro release studies were performed at media similar pH to gastric fluid (pH 2.0), skin surface (pH 5.5), blood fluid (pH 7.4) and intestinal fluid (pH 8.0), at 37 °C. The effects on release of crosslinker type and sweet almond oil amount were investigated. Kinetic parameters were determined using release results and these results were applied to zero and first-order equations and Korsmeyer-Peppas and Higuchi equations. Diffusion exponential was calculated for drug diffusion of organo-hydrogels and values consistent with release results were found.
... Chemically, almond oil is a water insoluble, rapidly emulsifiable ester that is non-toxic, non-irritating, non-sensitizing, and non-comedogenic. According to a previous study, almond oil has immune-boosting and hepatoprotective properties (Ahmad, 2010). Proteins (amandine) and minerals including calcium and magnesium are found in almond oil. ...
... 1-Does not hold the shell, 3-Part of the shell remains, 5-The shell stays (code) Durability of outer shell 5 1-very little, 3-Low, 5-medium, 7-high, 9-too much (code) shell softness and hardness 6 1-Closed, 3-Semi-flourishing, 5-Blossoming (code) Open the shell 7 1-does not have, 3-Low, 5-medium, 7-big, 9-Very big (code) Extra edge of Nut 8 1-Sweet, 3-A little bitter, 5-Bitter (code) Taste of the Kernel 9 ...
... 22 Badem yağı güneş koruma ajanları ve uçucu silikonlar gibi lipofilik maddeleri çözme gücünden ötürü kozmetik sektörü için en önemli yağlardan birisidir. 23 Çocuklarda el, ayak ve dudak çatlaklarına karşı önemi bildirilmiştir. 24 Badem yağı aromaterapi mesajlarında kuru ve normal ciltler için olduğu kadar hassa ciltler içinde tavsiye edilmektedir. ...
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Aromaterapi, hastalıkları önleyici, tamamlayıcı ve tedavi edici amaçlarla uçucu yağların terapötik etkilerinden faydalanan bütünsel bir terapi yöntemidir. Aromaterapide kullanılan uçucu yağların büyük bir bölümü doğrudan kullanıldığında tahriş edici özellikte olduğu için uygun bir taşıyıcı yağ (sabit yağ) içerisinde seyreltilerek uygulanması gerekmektedir. Taşıyıcı olarak kullanılacak olan yağın seçimi, türü ve kalitesi en az uçucu yağın seçimi kadar önemlidir. Farmakopeler bu bağlamda sabit yağları ve kalite kriterlerini içeren monografları barındırmaktadırlar. İlgili yazıda Avrupa Farmakopesinde bulunan soğuk sıkım sabit yağların kalite kriterleri ve terapotik etkileri özetlenmiştir.
... Several potent drug candidates with fewer associated side effects have been synthesized from medicinal plants [22]. Furthermore, phytoconstituents from natural products possess anti-proliferative properties against different tumor cells [23,24]. Therefore, medicinal plants with anti-cancer activity and solid binding interactions can be used as a template for developing selective inhibitors against CYP 17 A 1 lyase. ...
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Prostate cancer (PCa) is the most common malignancy found in men and the second leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. Castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) is defined by PCa cells that stop responding to hormone therapy. Cytochrome P450 17α-hydroxylase/17,20-lyase (CYP17A1) plays a critical role in the biosynthesis of androgens in humans. Androgen signaling cascade is a principal survival pathway for prostate cancer cells, and androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT) remains the key treatment for patients marked with locally advanced and metastatic PCa cells. Available synthetic drugs have been reported for toxicity, drug resistance, and decreasing efficacy. Thus, the design of novel selective inhibitors of CYP17A1 lyase would help circumvent associated side effects and improve pharmacological activities. Therefore, we employed structural bioinformatics techniques via molecular docking; molecular mechanics generalized born surface area (MM-GBSA), molecular dynamics (MD) simulation, and pharmacokinetic study to identify putative CYP17A1 lyase inhibitors. The results of the computational investigation showed that the Prunus dulcis compounds exhibited higher binding energy than the clinically approved abiraterone acetate. The stability of the ligand with the highest binding affinity (Quercetin-3-o-rutinoside) was observed during MD simulation for 10 ns. Quercetin-3-o-rutinoside was observed to be stable within the active site of CYP17A1Lyase throughout the simulation period. The result of the pharmacokinetic study revealed that, these compounds are promising therapeutic agents. Collectively, this study proposed that bioactive compounds from P. dulcis may be potential selective inhibitors of CYP17A1Lyase in CRPC treatments.
... Herbalbased cosmetic products improve the functioning/texture of the skin by boosting collagen growth by eradicating harmful effects of free radicals, maintain keratin structure in good condition and making the skin healthier. 17,18 to treat itching due to sunburn, eczema and scabies. Fruit powder is used as skin exfoliat-ing agent. ...
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Introduction: The beauty product preparation from natural ingredients reaches is historical. People of rural area where the practice of modern cosmetic products are not accessible, they mostly use and depend upon the locally available ingredients in their own formulations. The inclusion of extracts in topical formulations can minimize the skin damage of oxidative stress, which has been associated with delaying the aging process. Therapeutic benefits by addition of plant-based active ingredients such as alpha-hydroxy acid, retinoic acid, ferulic acid, ascorbic acid, and coenzyme Q10 are common. Natural preservatives are also in priority but it is equally important to carry research for their efficacy and assurance.
... 1-Does not hold the shell, 3-Part of the shell remains, 5-The shell stays (code) Durability of outer shell 5 1-very little, 3-Low, 5-medium, 7-high, 9-too much (code) shell softness and hardness 6 1-Closed, 3-Semi-flourishing, 5-Blossoming (code) Open the shell 7 1-does not have, 3-Low, 5-medium, 7-big, 9-Very big (code) Extra edge of Nut 8 1-Sweet, 3-A little bitter, 5-Bitter (code) Taste of the Kernel 9 ...
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Almond (Prunus dulcis L.) is one of the most important nut fruits and products, which is commercially grown in vast areas of the world. Almond kernel contains valuable compounds including vitamins, carbohydrates (fiber and soluble sugars), protein, fatty acids and mineral salts. Considering the importance of fatty acids in almonds. this study investigated the fatty acid content of pollen and seed parents and offspring of Shahrood 12 with selective pollinizers using Gas chromatography (GC). Also oil extraction by Soxhlet Elements were measured by atomic absorption method in parents and progeny of crosses. Some quantitative and qualitative traits related to dried fruit and almond kernels were also analyzed. The results showed that the highest amount of kernels weight in progeny obtained from crosses was related to free pollination. The results showed that the highest amount of oleic acid (18: 1) and linoleic acid (18: 2) was observed in MSK84 (75.51%) and shahrood14 (19.20%) pollinizers, respectively. Also, the highest amount of oleic acid with 72% was obtained in the offspring of Shahrood 12 (♀) × Shahrood 14(♂). The maximum amount of linoleic acid was obtained with 18.40% in the offspring resulting from Shahrood 12 (♀) × MSK84 (♂). On the other hand, the highest amount of palmitic acid (9.5%) was found in the progeny obtained from open pollination of Shahrood 12. These three types of fatty acids have the highest percentage among the seven fatty acids measured in the almond kernel. The highest amount of oil was obtained in progeny of mother Shahrood 12 with 54.42% MSK82 and 38.32% in MSK83 also The results showed that among the different genotypes Rate of oil (38.32-54.42%), Iron (85.48-138.53 mg / 1000 g), Copper (20.32-47.48 mg / 1000 g), Manganese (18.04 -44.67 mg / 1000 g).
... The seed also contains nutrients that support growth until the developing seedling becomes autotrophic and establishes the next generation (16). The most famous coldpressed oil belonging to this genus is the cold-pressed almond oil (Prunus amygdalus), which has well-known positive properties on human health (17). The available literature reports the traditional use of seed oils from some species from the Rosaceae family for therapeutic purposes, used in some countries for their anti-inflammatory properties (18). ...
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Background/Aim: Sweet almond (Prunus amygdalus dulcis) oil is one of the most famous cold-pressed seed oils. However, other species of Prunus can provide oils with healthy properties. We analyzed the fatty acid (FA) composition, as well as the antioxidant, the in vitro anti-inflammatory properties, and the antibiofilm activity of five commercial vegetable cold-pressed seed oils of apricot, peach, plum, cherry, and black cherry. Methods: Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry was performed for the analysis of FAs The antioxidant property of the oils was carried using different tests [2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH assay)], Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power (FRAP), and the 2, 20 -azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS·+). The denaturation assay performed on bovine serum albumin (BSA) was used to evaluate the in vitro anti-inflammatory activity. The anti-biofilm activity was assessed using five pathogenic strains, namely, Acinetobacter baumannii, Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Staphylococcus aureus, through the crystal violet test and the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)−2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT), used to evaluate the metabolism of the microbial cells present within the biofilm. Results: Oleic acid and linoleic acids were the most abundant FAs. Black cherry seed oil exhibited the best antioxidant activity, but in general, the amount of oil needed to inhibit the activity of 1 ml of DPPH assay at 50% did not exceed 10 μg. The extract concentration for the 50% inhibition of the denaturation of the protein (IC50) did not exceed 4.4 μg. Linoleic and stearic acids affected the antioxidant activity of the oils; oleic acid, linolenic, and palmitoleic acids exhibited beneficial effects in preserving the BSA denaturation, as shown by the correlation data. The oils were able to inhibit the biofilm formation of the pathogens (up to 71.40% of inhibition) as well as act against their mature biofilm, although with different strengths, with values up to 61.54%. Concurrently, they also acted on the pathogen metabolism. Conclusion: The oils represent a valuable source of some healthy FAs. They showed potential antioxidant and anti-inflammatory in vitro activity, in addition, their potential effect on the biofilm can offer important ideas for research and reflection on their use as functional foods and/or ingredients.
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Hydrolysis of olive, rapeseed, linseed, almond, peanut, grape seed and menhaden oils was performed with commercial lipases of Aspergillus niger, Rhizopus oryzae, Rhizopus niveus, Rhizomucor miehei and Candida rugosa. In chromogenic plate tests, olive, rapeseed, peanut and linseed oils degraded well even after 2 h of incubation, and the R. miehei, A. niger and R. oryzae lipases exhibited the highest overall action against the oils. Gas chromatography analysis of vegetable oils hydrolyzed by R. miehei lipase revealed about 1.1 to 38.4-fold increases in the concentrations of palmitic, stearic, oleic, linoleic and α-linolenic acids after the treatment, depending on the fatty acids and the oil. The major polyunsaturated fatty acids produced by R. miehei lipase treatment from menhaden oil were linoleic, α-linolenic, hexadecanedioic, eicosapentaenoic, docosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids, with yields from 12.02 to 52.85 µg/mL reaction mixture. Folin–Ciocalteu and ferric reducing power assays demonstrated improved antioxidant capacity for most tested oils after the lipase treatment in relation to the concentrations of some fatty acids. Some lipase-treated and untreated samples of oils, at 1.25 mg/mL lipid concentration, inhibited the growth of food-contaminating bacteria. The lipid mixtures obtained can be reliable sources of extractable fatty acids with health benefits.
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Biobased raw materials like natural polysaccharides are increasingly sought by the cosmetic industry for their valuable properties. Such biodegradable and usually non-cytotoxic biopolymers are commonly used in skin-care products as rheological modifiers, bioemulsifiers and/or bioactive ingredients. FucoPol is a natural polysaccharide with reported biocompatibility, emulsion-forming and stabilizing capacity, shear-thinning behavior and bioactivity (e.g., antioxidant capacity, wound healing ability) that potentiate its utilization in skin-care products. In this study, olive oil and α-tocopherol containing emulsions were stabilized with FucoPol. Although the presence of α-tocopherol negatively impacted the emulsions’ stability, it increased their emulsification index (EI). Moreover, FucoPol outperformed the commercial emulsifier Sepigel® 305, under the tested conditions, with higher EI and higher stability under storage for 30 days. The formulation of FucoPol-based emulsions with olive oil and α-tocopherol was studied by Response Surface Methodology (RSM) that allowed the definition of the ingredients’ content to attain high emulsification. The RSM model established that α-tocopherol concentration had no significant impact on the EI within the tested ranges, with optimal emulsification for FucoPol concentration in the range 0.7–1.2 wt.% and olive oil contents of 20–30 wt.%. Formulations with 25 wt.% olive oil and either 0.5 or 2.0 wt.% α-tocopherol were emulsified with 1.0 wt.% or 0.7 wt.% FucoPol, respectively, resulting in oil-in-water (O/W) emulsions. The emulsions had similar shear-thinning behavior, but the formulation with higher FucoPol content displayed higher apparent viscosity, higher consistency, as well as higher firmness, adhesiveness and cohesiveness, but lower spreadability. These findings show FucoPol’s high performance as an emulsifier for olive oil/α-tocopherol, which are supported by an effective impact on the physicochemical and structural characteristics of the emulsions. Hence, this natural polysaccharide is a potential alternative to other emulsifiers.
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*e global consumption of plant-based cosmetics has shown spectacular growth in recent years because of rising consumer awareness regarding the long-term health benefits of natural ingredients. As the global demand for herbal cosmetics increases, there are ample opportunities for Sri Lanka as a tropical Asian country to expand its productions and global exports along with its unique biodiversity and inherited traditional knowledge. *erefore, the present review attempts to give an overview of the widely used medicinal plants in the global herbal cosmetic industry and strengths, challenges, and possible solutions for the development of the herbal cosmetic industry of Sri Lanka. Information was collected using electronic search (using Pub Med, Science Direct, Web of Science, Google Scholar, TEEAL, and Scopus) for articles published in peer-reviewed journals, industrial reports, market surveys, and library search for local books on ethnobotany. Important plant-derived ingredients used in the global herbal cosmetic industry are essential oils, colorants, oils, fats, and waxes. *e traditional usage of 108 medicinal plant species (belonging to 58 families) in cosmetic treatments was identified from the local books of Sri Lanka. Of these, 49 plant species were reported as new ingredients for the herbal cosmetic industry. However, the lack of ethnobotanical and ethnopharmacological surveys to identify the cosmetic potential plants, insufficient or absence of continuous supply of raw materials for production in line with the existing demand, the lack of quality control of raw materials and finished cosmetic products, improper systematic cultivation systems for medicinal plants, poor postharvest practices, and the lack of innovations are major challenges encountered in Sri Lanka for the development of the herbal cosmetic industry. In conclusion, addressing these vital knowledge gaps is a timely requirement of the country for the sustainable development of the herbal cosmetic industry in Sri Lanka. Furthermore, assembling of the multi�disciplinary cooperation of botanists, chemists, toxicologists, researchers, and biologists is crucial to analyze the interesting functional properties, efficacy, and effectiveness of documented medicinal plants with cosmetic potential.
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Purpose: The aim of our study was to determine the effect of topical almond oil for prevention of pressure injuries. Design: Single-blind randomized clinical trial. Sample and setting: Patients admitted to an intensive care unit in Besat Hospital, Hamadan, Iran, were invited to participate in the trial. Data were collected over an 8-month period. Methods: A convenience sample of 108 patients, using a permuted block randomization method was assigned to 3 equal groups that received the intervention almond oil, placebo (liquid paraffin), or control (standard of care). Data included demographic information, Braden Scale score, and National Pressure Ulcer Advisory Panel-European Pressure Ulcer Advisory Panel (NPUAP-EPUAP) pressure injury staging system classification score. The intervention and placebo groups received daily application of 6.5 cc of topical almond oil or paraffin to the sacrum, heels, and shoulders for 7 consecutive days. The skin was evaluated for pressure injuries by an expert nurse who was blinded to groups. Chi-square test, analysis of variance, and regression analyses were used to evaluate relationships within and between groups for study variables, incidence of pressure injuries, and duration of time of onset of pressure injuries. P values less than .05 were deemed statistically significant. Results: The incidence of pressure injury in the almond oil group (n = 2; 5.6%) was lower than that in the placebo (n = 5; 13.9%, P = .189) or control groups (n = 9; 25.1%, P = .024). The incidence of pressure injuries in the control group was 6.8 and 2.12 (P = .227) times higher than that in the almond and placebo groups, respectively. The onset day of a pressure injury occurred 5.4 days after initiation of the protocol in the almond oil group compared to 4.22 days in the control group (P = .023) and 5 days in the placebo group (P = .196). Conclusion: The topical application of almond oil was associated with a lower incidence of pressure injuries and that developed later during the study compared to participants who received paraffin or standard of care only. Further study is recommended to advance this work in populations at risk for pressure injury.
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The edible and tasty almond {Prunus amygdalus [syn. P. dulcis (Mill.) D.A.Webb]} kernel is not anymore the main reason for its production and uses, other properties related to its by-products, especially the sweet edible almond oil, which is mainly used as a salad dressing or as an ingredient in a highly appreciated Moroccan almond-based recipes. The studied almond populations are derived from seedling, the trees of these plantations are very heterogeneous in terms of vigor and flowering time and are facing a genetic bottleneck due to an attack by an insect ’bark beetle’, as well as the introduction of new foreigner cultivars. Our preliminary study concerns the evaluation of fruits quality of locally commercializedalmond ecotypes, with a shelling rate ranging from 22.37% to 34.21%and it comparison with the introducedFrench cultivars couple Ferragnes/Ferraduel (Fg/Fd) grown in the same region, that presents higher commercial values but yet lowest nutritional traits compared to local populations.Since Beldi almonds showed higher total tochopherols content with avalue equal to 511.64 mg/kg, while for Fg/Fd cultivars it presents only 433.1 mg/kg. Hence the interest of a detailed study to prove both the genetic variability of local Beldi almond populations for the conservation of biodiversity, and also the biochemical propertiesof almond oils and cakes lead to post-harvest recovery of these products by increasing it commercial value in favour of local farmers and cooperatives.
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Thee global consumption of plant-based cosmetics has shown spectacular growth in recent years because of rising consumer awareness regarding the long-term health benefits of natural ingredients. As the global demand for herbal cosmetics increases, there are ample opportunities for Sri Lanka as a tropical Asian country to expand its productions and global exports along with its unique biodiversity and inherited traditional knowledge. erefore, the present review attempts to give an overview of the widely used medicinal plants in the global herbal cosmetic industry and strengths, challenges, and possible solutions for the development of the herbal cosmetic industry of Sri Lanka. Information was collected using electronic search (using Pub Med, Science Direct, Web of Science, Google Scholar, TEEAL, and Scopus) for articles published in peer-reviewed journals, industrial reports, market surveys, and library search for local books on ethnobotany. Important plant-derived ingredients used in the global herbal cosmetic industry are essential oils, colorants, oils, fats, and waxes. e traditional usage of 108 medicinal plant species (belonging to 58 families) in cosmetic treatments was identified from the local books of Sri Lanka. Of these, 49 plant species were reported as new ingredients for the herbal cosmetic industry. However, the lack of ethnobotanical and ethnopharmacological surveys to identify the cosmetic potential plants, insufficient or absence of continuous supply of raw materials for production in line with the existing demand, the lack of quality control of raw materials and finished cosmetic products, improper systematic cultivation systems for medicinal plants, poor postharvest practices, and the lack of innovations are major challenges encountered in Sri Lanka for the development of the herbal cosmetic industry. In conclusion, addressing these vital knowledge gaps is a timely requirement of the country for the sustainable development of the herbal cosmetic industry in Sri Lanka. Furthermore, assembling of the multidisciplinary cooperation of botanists, chemists, toxicologists, researchers, and biologists is crucial to analyze the interesting functional properties, efficacy, and effectiveness of documented medicinal plants with cosmetic potential.
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The aqueous extraction process (AEP) allows the concurrent extraction of oil and protein from almond flour without the use of harsh solvents. However, the majority of the oil extracted in the AEP is present in an emulsion that needs to be demulsified for subsequent industrial utilization. The effects of scaling-up the AEP of almond flour from 0.7 to 7 L and the efficiency of enzymatic and chemical approaches to demulsify the cream were evaluated. The AEP was carried out at pH 9.0, solids-to-liquid ratio of 1:10, and constant stirring of 120 rpm at 50 • C. Oil extraction yields of 61.9% and protein extraction yields of 66.6% were achieved. At optimum conditions, enzymatic and chemical demulsification strategies led to a sevenfold increase (from 8 to 66%) in the oil recovery compared with the control. However, enzymatic demulsification resulted in significant changes in the physicochemical properties of the cream protein and faster demulsification (29% reduction in the incubation time and a small reduction in the demulsification temperature from 55 to 50 • C) compared with the chemical approach. Reduced cream stability after enzymatic demulsification could be attributed to the hydrolysis of the amandin α-unit and reduced protein hydrophobicity. Moreover, the fatty acid composition of the AEP oil obtained from both demulsification strategies was similar to the hexane extracted oil.
Thesis
According to the FAO reports, almonds are recognized as one of the most important nuts with the highest commercial value. Quality control of such product and its processes are the major obstacles in export activities. In that direction, removing the bitter almonds from the product is a significant issue in quality control. Despite extensive research on the use of image processing in the grading and identification of many agricultural products, there is no remarkable research to differentiate almonds in terms of their internal characteristics. Hence, the purpose of this study is to provide a relatively simple, accessible and powerful algorithm that be able to distinguish the bitterness and sweetness of almonds from both bark and kernel conditions. To achieve this, a combination of image processing and deep learning techniques were used. Investigating the effect of correctional processes on the input images and even accuracy of machine vision process identification was considered as one of the main research objectives with that of previous studies. Subsequnelty, it makes possbile to reduce the part of computational burden of the deep learning process and incearse the peforomace of the network indicators. The cannulation nerve is affected and healed. In this study, five samples of almond cultivars were selected, and then their images were processed in the Computer Automation and Vision Laboratory (CAVL) in the Department of Biosystems Engineering, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad (FUM), Iran. In order to maintain the importance of constant shooting conditions, eliminating the effect of ambient lights to obtain a very good quality image, a room of polarized lighting and indirect lighting with the ability of moving the light source was designed and built. The results of the machine vision process to isolate the bitter and sweet types of almonds incidated an increased cleaning accuracy rate above 95% and possibility of identifying the species in a shorter time. To achieve such objectives, two kind of designis like the tutorial and tutorial architecture were carred out and then analyzing the data was performed by Matlab 2019a software. In the first method, according to the design of the tutorial network architecture, the highest degree of accuracy and precision of the diagnosis was obtained in the training stage with the number of 3 to 5 hidden layers. According to the research results, recognizing almond varieties from the kernel requires an increased frequency of training with that of recognizing from the shell. Otherwise, identifying almond species through the kernel using deep learning theory would be highly error-prone. In the second method of architectural design, pre-training algorithms were used. The results showed that the adaptation of pre-learning algorithms to the simple structure of preprocessed input images is quite better than complex structures, where it improves the response level of the deep learning process. Moreover, the detection accuracy over 95% in the AlexNet algorithm indicates the higly structural adaptation of detection process through simple pre-training algorithms.
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Purpose Almond oil is a gourmet product with functional food characteristics owing to its high almond oil content and high nutritional quality. One of the primary constraints on its production is the lack of information regarding oil extraction from an industrial perspective, including by-products generation. Design/methodology/approach The performance, quality and composition characteristics were analyzed, both from the physical-chemical and organoleptic point of view, of the almond oils obtained through two pressure systems: screw press (SP) and hydraulic press (HP). To ensure the success of almond oil production at a commercial scale, in this work, an economic study of the costs of the process was carried out as a complementary part of optimizing the production of virgin almond oil. Findings Physicochemical analysis showed little difference, just in total sterols (HP 2069, SP 2153) and some quality indexes (K232: HP 1.63, SP 2.13; peroxide index: HP 1.74, SP 0.95), in contrast to sensory analysis. Consumer judges valued roasted almond oil extracted using a HP the best. The production cost of the oil extracted with the SP was €23.05/l. With the HP it was €25.13/l, owing to the lower oil yield in the extraction. The most expensive treatment was for the HP with toasted almonds (€27.76/l), owing to the greater need for processing. Originality/value Production costs derived from the method used have received little attention. This paper presents data that allow for the transference between academic and industrial ambit and their economic viability.
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Epidemiologic and clinical studies have shown that nut consumption is associated with favorable plasma lipid profiles and reduced cardiovascular risk. These effects may result from their high monounsaturated fat (MUFA) content but nuts contain constituents other than fatty acids that might be cardioprotective. We conducted a study to compare the effects of whole-almond vs. almond oil consumption on plasma lipids and LDL oxidation in healthy men and women. Using a randomized crossover trial design, 22 normolipemic men and women replaced half of their habitual fat (approximately 14% of approximately 29% energy) with either whole almonds (WA) or almond oil (AO) for 6-wk periods. Compliance was ascertained by monitoring dietary intake via biweekly 5-d food records, return of empty almond product packages and weekly meetings with a registered dietitian. Fat replacement with either WA and AO resulted in a 54% increase in percentage of energy as MUFA with declines in both saturated fat and cholesterol intake and no significant changes in total energy, total or polyunsaturated fat intake. The effects of WA and AO on plasma lipids did not differ compared with baseline; plasma triglyceride, total and LDL cholesterol significantly decreased, 14, 4 and 6% respectively, whereas HDL cholesterol increased 6%. Neither treatment affected in vitro LDL oxidizability. We conclude that WA and AO do not differ in their beneficial effects on the plasma lipid variables measured and that this suggests that the favorable effect of almonds is mediated by components in the oil fraction of these nuts.
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This preliminary investigation compares peripheral blood cell counts including red blood cells (RBCs), white blood cells (WBCs), neutrophils, peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs), CD4(+), CD8(+) and CD16(+) lymphocytes, CD4(+)/CD8(+) ratio, hematocrit, humoral parameters including serum interferon-gamma and interleukin-6, salivary secretory immunoglobulin A (IgA). Psychological measures including the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) questionnaire and the Self-rating Depression Scale (SDS) between recipients (n = 11) of carrier oil massage and aromatherapy massage, which includes sweet almond oil, lavender oil, cypress oil and sweet marjoram oil. Though both STAI and SDS showed a significant reduction (P < 0.01) after treatment with aromatherapy and carrier massage, no difference between the aromatherapy and control massage was observed for STAI and SDS. Aromatherapy, in contrast to control massage, did not significantly reduce RBC count or hematocrit. However, aromatherapy massage showed a significant (P > 0.05) increase in PBLs, possibly due to an increase in CD8(+) and CD16(+) lymphocytes, which had significantly increased post-treatment (P < 0.01). Consequently, the CD4(+)/CD8(+) ratio decreased significantly (P < 0.01). The paucity of such differences after carrier oil massage suggests that aromatherapy massage could be beneficial in disease states that require augmentation of CD8(+) lymphocytes. While this study identifies the immunological benefits of aromatherapy massage, there is a need to validate the findings prospectively in a larger cohort of patients.
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The use of peppermint oil in treating the irritable bowel syndrome has been studied with variable results probably due to the presence of patients affected by small intestinal bacterial overgrowth, lactose intolerance or celiac disease that may have symptoms similar to irritable bowel syndrome. The aim of the study was to test the effectiveness of enteric-coated peppermint oil in patients with irritable bowel syndrome in whom small intestinal bacterial overgrowth, lactose intolerance and celiac disease were excluded. Fifty-seven patients with irritable bowel syndrome according to the Rome II criteria, with normal lactose and lactulose breath tests and negative antibody screening for celiac disease, were treated with peppermint oil (two enteric-coated capsules twice per day or placebo) for 4 weeks in a double blind study. The symptoms were assessed before therapy (T(0)), after the first 4 weeks of therapy (T(4)) and 4 weeks after the end of therapy (T(8)). The symptoms evaluated were: abdominal bloating, abdominal pain or discomfort, diarrhoea, constipation, feeling of incomplete evacuation, pain at defecation, passage of gas or mucus and urgency at defecation. For each symptom intensity and frequency from 0 to 4 were scored. The total irritable bowel syndrome symptoms score was also calculated as the mean value of the sum of the average of the intensity and frequency scores of each symptom. At T(4), 75% of the patients in the peppermint oil group showed a >50% reduction of basal (T(0)) total irritable bowel syndrome symptoms score compared with 38% in the placebo group (P<0.009). With peppermint oil at T(4) and at T(8) compared with T(0) a statistically significant reduction of the total irritable bowel syndrome symptoms score was found (T(0): 2.19+/-0.13, T(4): 1.07+/-0.10*, T(8): 1.60+/-0.10*, *P<0.01 compared with T(0), mean+/-S.E.M.), while no change was found with the placebo. A 4 weeks treatment with peppermint oil improves abdominal symptoms in patients with irritable bowel syndrome.
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Background— Although recent studies have indicated that nut consumption may improve levels of blood lipids, nuts are not generally recommended as snacks for hyperlipidemic subjects because of their high fat content. Furthermore, the effective dose is still unknown. Methods and Results— The dose-response effects of whole almonds, taken as snacks, were compared with low-saturated fat (<5% energy) whole-wheat muffins (control) in the therapeutic diets of hyperlipidemic subjects. In a randomized crossover study, 27 hyperlipidemic men and women consumed 3 isoenergetic (mean 423 kcal/d) supplements each for 1 month. Supplements provided 22.2% of energy and consisted of full-dose almonds (73±3 g/d), half-dose almonds plus half-dose muffins, and full-dose muffins. Fasting blood, expired air, blood pressure, and body weight measurements were obtained at weeks 0, 2, and 4. Mean body weights differed <300 g between treatments. The full-dose almonds produced the greatest reduction in levels of blood lipids. Significant reductions from baseline were seen on both half- and full-dose almonds for LDL cholesterol (4.4±1.7%, P=0.018, and 9.4±1.9%, P<0.001, respectively) and LDL:HDL cholesterol (7.8±2.2%, P=0.001, and 12.0±2.1%, P<0.001, respectively) and on full-dose almonds alone for lipoprotein(a) (7.8±3.5%, P=0.034) and oxidized LDL concentrations (14.0±3.8%, P<0.001), with no significant reductions on the control diet. No difference was seen in pulmonary nitric oxide between treatments. Conclusions— Almonds used as snacks in the diets of hyperlipidemic subjects significantly reduce coronary heart disease risk factors, probably in part because of the nonfat (protein and fiber) and monounsaturated fatty acid components of the nut.
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Peppermint (Mentha piperita L.) is one of the most widely consumed single ingredient herbal teas, or tisanes. Peppermint tea, brewed from the plant leaves, and the essential oil of peppermint are used in traditional medicines. Evidence-based research regarding the bioactivity of this herb is reviewed. The phenolic constituents of the leaves include rosmarinic acid and several flavonoids, primarily eriocitrin, luteolin and hesperidin. The main volatile components of the essential oil are menthol and menthone. In vitro, peppermint has significant antimicrobial and antiviral activities, strong antioxidant and antitumor actions, and some antiallergenic potential. Animal model studies demonstrate a relaxation effect on gastrointestinal (GI) tissue, analgesic and anesthetic effects in the central and peripheral nervous system, immunomodulating actions and chemopreventive potential. Human studies on the GI, respiratory tract and analgesic effects of peppermint oil and its constituents have been reported. Several clinical trials examining the effects of peppermint oil on irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) symptoms have been conducted. However, human studies of peppermint leaf are limited and clinical trials of peppermint tea are absent. Adverse reactions to peppermint tea have not been reported, although caution has been urged for peppermint oil therapy in patients with GI reflux, hiatal hernia or kidney stones.
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Objective This paper provides a review of research on partially hydrolyzed guar gum that is relevant to clinical nutrition practice.
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Psyllium is an excellent dietary source for both soluble and insoluble fibers and has been used in supplemental and food products for its beneficial health effects. The strong water-absorbing and gelling capacities have made it a great challenge to incorporate psyllium in foods at the level needed to claim health benefits on the label. This review is focused on the approaches to improve the functionality, sensory property, and bioactivity of psyllium. Also included is a brief summary of the health beneficial effects of psyllium, along with its possible adverse effects. The information may be useful for those in psyllium research and functional food development.
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Almonds and other nuts appear to confer health benefits despite their high fat content. To assess the effect of almonds on colon cancer, whole almond-, almond meal- or almond oil-containing diet effects on aberrant crypt foci (ACF) in azoxymethane-treated F344 male rats were investigated. Six-week-old male F344 rats were fed the various almond and control diets and given subcutaneous injections of azoxymethane (15 mg/kg body weight) twice 1 week apart. After 26 weeks animals were injected with bromodeoxyuridine 1 h prior to sacrifice, after which colons were evaluated for ACF and cell turnover (labeling index, LI). Whole almond ACF and LI were both significantly lower than wheat bran and cellulose diet groups (-30 and -40%, respectively), while almond meal and almond oil ACF and almond meal LI declines were only significant vs. cellulose (P<0.05). These results suggest that almond consumption may reduce colon cancer risk and does so via at least one almond lipid-associated component.
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Almond oil was extracted from almond and saponified with saturated KOH-methanol. The mixed fatty acids methylated by methanol-H2SO4(4:1, V/V). Methyl esters were extracted by ether and detected by gas chromatography. The major fatty acids in Taiyuan almond oil were found to be about 68% oleic acid (C18:1), 25% linoleic acid(C18:2), 4.6%-4.8% palmitic acid(C16:0) and a little of palmitoleic acid(C16:1), stearic acid(C18:0). A trace of arachidic acid(C20:0) was also found.
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Enteral fiber-free diets alter intestinal transit and produce diarrhea or constipation. This prospective double blind, controlled study evaluates the use of guar gum, a soluble fiber and a candidate prebiotic in enteral feeds, to prevent diarrhea and potential health benefits in intensive care unit patients. Twenty patients on enteral nutrition with persistent diarrhea were randomized to receive a new enteral feed either enriched with 2% soluble guar gum (study group, n = 10) or fiber-free (control group, n = 10) for 4 successive days. The number of liquid stools in response to a soluble fiber-enriched diet was 2.0+/-0.9 (first day) vs. 1.0+/-0.7 (fourth day) (P < 0.01), and in the control group 1.2+/-0.7 (first day) vs. 2.1+/-0.8 (fourth day) (P < 0.05). In the fiber-enriched feed group, plasma glucose and cholesterol levels at termination of the study, respectively, reached 126+/-81 and 164+/-71 mg dl(-1), as compared to 333+/-108 and 378+/-26 mg dl(-1) on Day first (P < 0.01). In the control group, these values on the fourth day were, respectively, 267+/-94 and 263+/-79 vs. 247+/-115 and 315+/-78 on Day first (P > 0.05). Guar gum-enriched enteral nutrition was related to a decrease of diarrheal episodes in ICU patients with preexisting diarrhea; and to a trend for lower plasma glucose and cholesterol levels.
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The effects of partially hydrolyzed guar gum (PHGG) were compared in patients with irritable bowel syndrome, at 10 g/day (N = 40) and 5 g/day (N = 46) for 12 weeks. Gastrointestinal symptoms (GSRS), quality of life (SF-36), and psychological symptoms (HADS) were evaluated at baseline, during treatment (months 1 and 3), and at follow-up (month 6). In both groups symptoms and quality of life improved significantly after the first month of administration until follow-up compared to those at baseline. However, the improvement was significantly reduced at follow-up compared to the end of treatment. PHGG was effective for improving somatic (gastrointestinal symptoms) and psychological (quality of life and psychological distress) symptoms over the short term. Since the improvement tended to decrease after the end of the treatment period, further studies should evaluate the benefits of PHGG at a maintenance dosage.
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Insomnia is the most common of all sleep complaints and is under-researched. The current treatments of choice are conventional hypnotics agents, but these have potential for serious adverse reactions. Uncontrolled and anecdotal evidence suggests that lavender oil is an effective treatment for insomnia, but this has not been formally investigated. The aims of this study were to evaluate the proposed trial methodology and the efficacy of Lavandula augustifolia (lavender) on insomnia. Interventions: Interventions consisted of Lavandula augustifolia (treatment) and sweet almond oil as placebo/control. The aroma was supplied via an Aromastream device (Tisserand Aromatherapy, Sussex, UK). This was a pilot study with randomized, single-blind, cross-over design (baseline, two treatment periods, and a washout period, each of 1 week duration). Volunteers with defined insomnia treated on a domiciliary basis participated in the study. Outcomes were assessed with the following: Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) indicating insomnia (score > 5 at entry); Borkovec and Nau (B&N) Questionnaire evaluating treatment credibility; and Holistic Complementary and Alternative Medicine Questionnaire (HCAMQ) assessing attitudes to CAM and health beliefs. Ten (10) volunteers (5 male and 5 female) were entered and completed the 4 week study. Lavender created an improvement of -2.5 points in PSQI (p = 0.07, 95% CI - 4.95 to - 0.4). Each intervention was equally credible and belief in CAM did not predict outcome. Women and younger volunteers with a milder insomnia improved more than others. No period or carry-over effect was observed. The methodology for this pilot study appeared to be appropriate. Outcomes favor lavender, and a larger trial is required to draw definitive conclusions.
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Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is the world's most common gastrointestinal functional disorder and is associated with several social and economic costs. Health-related quality of life is often impaired in patients with IBS. The pathophysiologic mechanisms underlying IBS remain poorly defined. The therapeutic approach to patients with IBS is based on symptoms, and fibers may play an important role in treatment. Among the various types of fiber, water-soluble, non-gelling fibers seem to be a promising option for treatment of IBS. Partially hydrolyzed guar gum (PHGG) is a water-soluble, non-gelling fiber that has provided therapeutic benefits. In clinical trials, PHGG decreased symptoms in constipation-predominant and diarrhea-predominant forms of IBS and decreased abdominal pain. Further, an improvement in quality of life was observed in patients with IBS during and after treatment with PHGG. Moreover, PHGG seems to have prebiotic properties because it increases the colonic contents of short-chain fatty acids, Lactobacilli, and Bifidobacteria.
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Results of the pilot study of the four counties randomised controlled trial to evaluate the effectiveness of aromatherapy massage with 1% Santalum album (Sandalwood) (group A) when compared with massage with Sweet Almond Carrier oil, (group B) or Sandalwood oil via an aromastone (group C), in reducing levels of anxiety in palliative care. The aims of the pilot study were to evaluate the effectiveness of aromatherapy in reducing anxiety in patients receiving palliative care in four counties. The primary end points of the research were to report a statistically significant difference in anxiety scores between experimental group (B) and comparison groups (A and C) and to influence the integration of aromatherapy into all aspects of palliative care. The limited data of the pilot study (N=34) tested the logistics of the research, particularly the 25% attrition rate and the robustness of the data collection tools. The results were not substantial enough to generate coherent statistics. Therefore no assumptions could be drawn from these results due to the inconsistencies that were bound to occur in such a small sample. However, the results do seem to support the notion that Sandalwood oil is effective in reducing anxiety.
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This paper provides a review of research on partially hydrolyzed guar gum that is relevant to clinical nutrition practice. All relevant papers published on partially hydrolyzed guar gum were reviewed and the results summarized. Partially hydrolyzed guar gum (PHGG) is a water-soluble dietary fiber with a wide range of uses in clinical nutrition. Its low viscosity allows its use in enteral products and beverages. PHGG can be added to enteral formulas and food products as a dietary fiber source. PHGG provides the benefits associated with dietary fiber ingestion. Addition of PHGG to the diet reduced laxative dependence in a nursing home population. PHGG also reduced the incidence of diarrhea in septic patients receiving total enteral nutrition and reduced symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome. PHGG also increased production of Bifidobacterium in the gut. The ease of use of PHGG and its clinical effectiveness make it a good choice in clinical nutrition practice.
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Ultraviolet (UV) radiation has been implicated in photoaging and various types of skin carcinomas. Although the human skin has evolved several defense mechanisms to survive the insults of actinic damage like keratinization, melanin pigmentation, etc., it is still subjected to the harmful effects of sunlight. In this study, the role of almond oil in reducing the degradative changes induced in skin upon exposure to UV radiation was investigated. Mice were divided in four groups of 20 animals. Group I was the control group. Group II was negative control, which received almond oil treatment alone. Group III was exposed to UV radiation only and Group IV received both UV treatment and almond oil treatment. Visible skin grading assessed the changes based on a rating scale, biochemical tests (glutathione estimation and lipid peroxidation), and histopathologic studies. Upon exposure of mice to UV radiation, it was found that pronounced visible skin changes were seen after 12 weeks of exposure. The results of the biochemical tests, glutathione estimation, and lipid peroxidation showed that almond oil reduced the effect of UV light-induced photoaging on the skin. Histopathologic studies also indicated a photoprotective effect of almond oil on the skin after UV exposure. It was concluded that topical almond oil is capable of preventing the structural damage caused by UV irradiation and it was also found useful in decelerating the photoaging process.
Article
Constipation is a common gastrointestinal motility disorder that is often chronic, negatively affects patients' daily lives, and is associated with high healthcare costs. There is a considerable range of treatment modalities available for patients with constipation; however, the clinical evidence supporting their use varies widely. Nonpharmacologic modalities, such as increased exercise or fluid intake and bowel habit training, are generally recommended as first-line approaches, but data on the effectiveness of these measures are limited. The clinical benefits of various traditional pharmacologic agents (many of which are available over the counter, such as laxatives and fiber supplements) remain unclear. Although these modalities may benefit some patients with temporary constipation, their efficacy in patients for whom constipation is chronic is less well defined. Some studies suggest benefit with psyllium, polyethylene glycol, and lactulose; however, the use of other agents, such as calcium polycarbophil, methylcellulose, bran, magnesium hydroxide, and stimulant laxatives, is not supported by strong clinical evidence. More recently, newer agents have been approved for the treatment of patients with chronic constipation on the basis of comprehensive clinical investigation programs. Tegaserod, with its well-established clinical profile, and lubiprostone, the latest addition to the treatment armamentarium, represent the new generation of therapies for chronic constipation. This article reviews the efficacy and safety of traditional therapies used in the management of the multiple symptoms associated with chronic constipation and discusses recently approved and emerging therapies for this disorder.
Article
Topical application of oils and oil-based formulations is common practice in skin care for both adults and infants. Only limited knowledge however is available regarding skin penetration and occlusive potential of oils and common methods for measuring skin moisturization fall short when it comes to the moisturizing effect of oils. In this study we used in vivo confocal Raman microspectroscopy to test the efficacy of paraffin oil (mineral oil) and two vegetable oils in terms of skin penetration and occlusion. Petrolatum was used as a positive control. The products were applied topically on the forearms of nine volunteers and seven infants and Raman spectra were acquired before and at 30 and 90 min following application. Depth concentration profiles for lipid and water were calculated from the Raman spectra. Skin occlusion was assessed from the amount of stratum corneum (SC) swelling measured from the water concentration profiles. The paraffin oil and the vegetable oils penetrate the top layers of the SC with similar concentration profiles, a result that was confirmed both for adult and infant skin. The three oils tested demonstrated modest SC swelling (10-20%) compared to moderate swelling (40-60%) for petrolatum. These data indicate that there is no statistical difference between the paraffin oil and vegetable oils in terms of skin penetration and skin occlusion. The results for petrolatum show that in vivo confocal Raman microspectroscopy is sensitive and specific enough to measure both lipid uptake and skin occlusion events following topical application.
Article
Oil content and fatty acid composition were determined for two years in the kernel oil of eight cultivars and 47 advanced self-compatible almond genotypes developed in an almond breeding program. Considerable variation between genotypes was found for all parameters. Oil content ranged from 48% to 67% of the total kernel dry weight but was consistent over the two years. Fatty acid composition was also very variable, with significant differences between genotypes, even in genotypes of the same progeny. Oleic acid, ranging from 63% to 78%, and linoleic acid, ranging from 12% to 27%, were the major fatty acids, showing higher values in some selections than in their parents. The large variability observed for all fatty acids and the presence of selections with higher oil and fatty acid contents than the commercial cultivars represents a very promising base to obtain new almond cultivars with oil of higher quality, satisfying the industrial and consumer sectors.
The fruit of the matter
  • Cantor
Cantor D, Fleischer J, Green J, Israel DL. The fruit of the matter. Mental Floss 2006;5(4):12.