Aorto-right ventricular fistula after transfemoral aortic valve
A 91-year-old female patient presented with worsening exertional dyspnea 1 month after transfemoral aortic valve implantation using an Edwards Sapien valve. She was found to have a paraprosthetic sinus of Valsalva rupture with a left-to-right shunt into the right ventricular cavity. The patient underwent coil closure of the defect with successful shunt elimination.
Available from: Remy Coeytaux
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ABSTRACT: Surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR) is the only treatment known to improve symptoms and survival in patients with severe, symptomatic aortic stenosis. Perioperative mortality, however, is high among many patients for whom SAVR may be indicated. Percutaneous heart valve replacement (PHVR) is an emerging, catheter-based technology that allows for implantation of a prosthetic valve without open heart surgery. This review describes the available literature on PHVR for aortic stenosis, which comprised 84 published reports representing 76 distinct studies and 2375 unique patients. Successful implantation was achieved in 94% of patients; 30-day survival was 89%. Differences between patients undergoing PHVR and those typically selected for SAVR make full interpretation of these results difficult. A large, multicenter, randomized, controlled trial comparing PHVR with SAVR or medical management was recently completed, with initial results expected in September 2010. Pending publication of findings from that trial, the available evidence is inadequate to determine the most appropriate clinical role of PHVR or the specific patient populations for whom it might eventually be indicated.
Available from: Manuel Jiménez-Navarro
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ABSTRACT: Aortocardiac fistulas are rare, especially if they develop after an aortic valve replacement surgery. We report the case of a 54-year-old male submitted to aortic valve replacement and implantation of an ascending aortic prosthetic graft, complaining of exertional dyspnea, who was found to have significant shunt between the aortic root and right ventricle (RV), and de novo moderate pulmonary hypertension. At the catheterization laboratory, the left-to-right shunt was confirmed (Qp:Qs = 1.9:1). Contrast angiography of the ascending aorta showed a significant flow into the right ventricular cavity, and the fistulous tract was then measured, inflating a Tyshak II balloon of 10 × 20 mm (NuMED, Hopkinton, New York), until achieving a complete interruption of flow. Minimal diameter of the defect was 4.9 mm. Percutaneous closure of the aorto-RV shunt was performed under general anesthesia and transesophageal echocardiogram and fluoroscopic guidance. Using a venous and an arterial femoral access, a 0.035″ hydrophilic guide-wire crossed the defect between the aorta and RV, creating an arteriovenous loop. Then, using a 7F Delivery System 45° (AGA medical corporation, Golden Valley, MN) an Amplatzer Duct Occluder(®) (AGA Medical Corporation) 8/6 mm was advanced and released within the defect, achieving an almost complete closure of the fistulous tract.
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