National Profile of Nonemergent Pediatric Emergency Department Visits

ArticleinPEDIATRICS 125(3):454-9 · March 2010with11 Reads
DOI: 10.1542/peds.2009-0544 · Source: PubMed
Abstract
Emergency department (ED) crowding prevents the efficient and effective use of health services and compromises quality. Patients who use the ED for nonemergent health concerns may unnecessarily crowd ED services. In this article we describe characteristics of pediatric patients in the United States who use EDs for nonemergent visits. We analyzed data from the 2002-2005 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey. The Medical Expenditure Panel Survey is conducted by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality and consists of a nationally representative sample of the civilian noninstitutionalized population of the United States. Our study sample consisted of 5512 person-years of observation. We included only ED visits for children from birth to 17 years of age with a specified International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification diagnosis code. The main dependent variable for our multivariate logistic model was nonemergent ED use, which was constructed by using the New York University ED-classification algorithm. Independent variables were derived from Andersen's Behavioral Model of Health Services Utilization. We found that from 2002 to 2005, a nationally representative sample of US children from birth to 17 years of age used EDs for various nonemergent or primary care-treatable diagnoses. Overall, children from higher-income families had higher ED expenditures than children from lower-income families. Children with private insurance had higher total ED expenditures than publicly insured or uninsured children, but uninsured children had the highest out-of-pocket expenditures. We found that children from birth to 2 years of age were less likely to use the ED for nonemergent diagnoses (odds ratio [OR]: 0.13; P < .01) compared with older children. Non-Hispanic black children were also less likely to use the ED for nonemergent diagnoses (OR: 0.40; P = .03) than were non-Hispanic white children. Children's sociodemographic characteristics were predictors of nonemergent use of ED services.
    • "Overcrowding negatively impacts quality of care for both high and low-acuity patients, leads to longer wait-times and lower patient/parent satisfaction . Staff morale and emergency department finances may also be strained11121314 . In response to unacceptable wait-times in the busiest emergency departments in Ontario, the Ministry of Health and Long Term Care implemented a " Pay-for-Results " program in 2008, which currently provides approximately $100 million in additional funding to the 74 busiest emergency departments in the province[15] . "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Canadian pediatric emergency department visits are increasing, with a disproportionate increase in low-acuity visits locally (33% of volume in 2008-09, 41% in 2011-12). We sought to understand: 1) presentation patterns and resource implications; 2) parents' perceptions and motivations; and 3) alternate health care options considered prior to presenting with low-acuity problems.We conducted a prospective cohort study at our tertiary pediatric emergency department serving two provinces to explore differences between patients with and without a primary care provider. During four, 2-week study periods over 1 year, parents of low-acuity visits received an anonymous survey. Presentation times, interventions, diagnoses and dispositions were captured on a data collection form linked to the survey by study number.Parents completed 2,443 surveys (74.1% response rate), with survey-data collection form pairs available for 2,146 visits. Overall, 89.7% of respondents had a primary care provider; 68% were family physicians. Surprisingly, 40% of visits occurred during weekday office hours and 27.3% occurred within 4 hours of symptom onset; 67.5% of those early presenters were for injuries. Few parents sought care from their primary care provider (25%), health information line (20.7%), or urgent care clinic (18.5%); 36% reported that they believed their child's problem required the emergency department. Forty-five percent required only a history, physical exam and reassurance; only 11% required an intervention not available in an office setting. Patients without a primary care provider were significantly more likely to present during weekday office hours (p = 0.003), have longer symptom duration (p
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2015
    • "For planning of future healthcare and emergency policies in pediatric population, it is imperative to understand the comprehensive profile of pediatric emergencies. Most of the studies depicting profile of patients presenting in emergency departments and those treated in PICU are either from the developed countries56789101112 or from the metropolitan cities of India131415. Even continent-wide directories of profiles and outcomes of patients attending emergency care and admitted to pediatric intensive care have been prepared [16, 17]. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective. Children have limited physiological reserve that deteriorates rapidly. Present study profiled patients admitted to PICU and determined PIM2 score applicability in Indian setting. Patients and Methods. Prospective observational study. Results. In 742 consecutive admissions, male : female ratio was 1.5 : 1, 35.6% patients were ventilated, observed mortality was 7%, and 26.4% were <1 year. The profile included septicemia and septic shock (29.6%), anemia (27.1%), pneumonia (19.6%), and meningitis and encephalitis (17.2%). For the first year, sensitivity of PIM2 was 65.8% and specificity was 71% for cutoff value at 1.9 by ROC curve analysis. The area under the curve was 0.724 (95% CI: 0.69, 0.76). This cutoff was validated for second year data yielding similar sensitivity (70.6%) and specificity (65%). Logistic regression analysis (LRA) over entire data revealed various variables independently associated with mortality along with PIM2 score. Another logistic model with same input variables except PIM2 yielded the same significant variables with Nagelkerke R square of 0.388 and correct classification of 78.5 revealing contribution of PIM2 in predicting mortality is meager. Conclusion. Infectious diseases were the commonest cause of PICU admission and mortality. PIM2 scoring did not explain the outcome adequately, suggesting need for recalibration. Following PALS/GEM guidelines was associated with better outcome.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2014
    • "Many studies on inappropriate ED visits use the New York University algorithm (NYU) to assess whether an ED visit is inappropriate or not (Ballard et al. 2010; Ben-Isaac et al. 2010; Tsai, Chen, and Liang 2011). This algorithm (recently validated) uses the ICD9-CM international diagnosis code to determine the probability of an ED visit to be a nonemergency, a primary care treatable emergency, a preventable or avoidable emergency, or a nonpreventable or avoidable emergency (Ballard et al. 2010). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To better understand the issue of inappropriate pediatric Emergency Department (ED) visits in Italy, including the impact of the last National Health System reform. A retrospective cohort study was conducted with five health care providers in the Veneto region (Italy) in a 2-year period (2010-2011). ED visits were considered "inappropriate" by evaluating both nursing triage and resource utilization, as addressed by the Italian Ministry of Health in 2007. Factors associated with inappropriate ED visits were identified. The cost of each visit was calculated. In total, 134,358 ED visits with 455,650 performed procedures were recorded in the 2-year period; of these, 76,680 (57.1 percent) were considered inappropriate ED visits. Patients likely to make inappropriate ED visits were younger, female, visiting the ED during night or holiday, when the primary care provider (PCP) is not available. The National Health System reform aims to improve efficiency, effectiveness, and costs by opening PCP offices 24 hours a day and 7 days a week. This study highlights the need for a deep reorganization of the Italian Primary Care System not only providing a larger time availability but also treating the parents' lack of education on children's health.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2014
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