Ascaridia galli: A report of erratic migration

Italian Journal of Animal Science 01/2010; 4(3). DOI: 10.4081/ijas.2005.310
Source: DOAJ


This paper describes a case of an unusual recovery of adult Ascaridia galli in hen’s egg. Several data are available on this occurrence but it appears to be the first case described in Italy. The worm was identified as an adult female, 6.8 cm in length, with three trilobed lips, cervical narrow alae, oesophagus club-shaped without posterior bulb, vulva near the middle of body, with gravid uteri containing a large number of eggs. The presence of Ascaridia galli in hen’s eggs cannot be considered as hazard for public health but may be cause of a potential consumer complaint. Moreover it is a sign of presence of ascaridiosis, parasitosis that still produces economic losses in modern poultry production system.

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Available from: Patrizia Casagrande Proietti
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    • "Infection with A. galli may directly contribute to economic losses due to higher feed conversion rates/reduced weight gain and decreased egg production (Permin and Ranvig, 2001; Skallerup et al., 2005). In severe cases, A. galli infections are furthermore associated with increased mortality (Das et al., 2010; Gauly et al., 2005; Kilpinen et al., 2005; Permin et al., 2006), increased susceptibility to secondary infections (Dahl et al., 2002; Eigaard et al., 2006; Permin et al., 2006; Saif et al., 2003), impaired vaccine responses (Pleidrup et al., 2014) and even migration of worms into eggs of laying hens (Fioretti et al., 2005; Reid et al., 1973). Previously, A. galli control has been based on synthetic anthelmintics, but concerns about parasite drug resistance and left-over residues in food products call for alternative disease control strategies (Sangster, 1999). "
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    ABSTRACT: Ascaridia galli is a gastrointestinal nematode infecting chickens. Chickens kept in alternative rearing systems or at free-range experience increased risk for infection with resulting high prevalences. A. galli infection causes reduced weight gain, decreased egg production and in severe cases increased mortality. More importantly, the parasitised chickens are more susceptible to secondary infections and their ability to develop vaccine-induced protective immunity against other diseases may be compromised. Detailed information about the immune response to the natural infection may be exploited to enable future vaccine development. In the present study, expression of immune genes in the chicken spleen during an experimental infection with A. galli was investigated using the Fluidigm® BioMark™ microfluidic qPCR platform which combines automatic high-throughput with attractive low sample and reagent consumption. Spleenic transcription of immunological genes was compared between infected chickens and non-infected controls at week 2, 6, and 9 p.i. corresponding to different stages of parasite development/maturation. At week 2 p.i. increased expression of IL-13 was observed in infected chickens. Increased expression of MBL, CRP, IFN-α, IL-1β, IL-8, IL-12β and IL-18 followed at week 6 p.i. and at both week 6 and 9 p.i. expression of DEFβ1 was highly increased in infected chickens. In summary, apart from also earlier reported increased expression of the Th2 signature cytokine IL-13 we observed only few differentially expressed genes at week 2 p.i. which corresponds to the larvae histotrophic phase. In contrast, we observed increased expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and acute phase proteins in infected chickens, by week 6 p.i. where the larvae re-enter the intestinal lumen. Increased expression of DEFβ1 was observed in infected chickens at week 6 p.i. but also at week 9 p.i. which corresponds to a matured stage where adult worms are present in the intestinal lumen.
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    ABSTRACT: SUMMARY The population dynamics of Ascaridia galli was studied in 70 ISA Brown layer pullets, 42 of them were each experimentally infected with 500 embryonated A. galli eggs and 28 chickens were kept as uninfected controls. Six chickens from the infected group and 4 from the control group were necropsied at 3, 7, 10, 14, 21, 28 and 42 days post-infection (d.p.i.). The mean worm recovery varied from 11-20% of the infection dose with the highest recovery at 3 d.p.i. and the lowest at 21 and 42 d.p.i. (P < 0·05). More larvae were recovered from the intestinal wall than from the content (P < 0·0001) and intestinal content larvae were longer than those from the wall (mean length 1·6 and 1 mm, respectively, P < 0·0001). Although larvae were growing over time, a population of small-sized larvae (length < 1 mm) was recovered at all d.p.i. During the first week of infection most of the larvae were located in the anterior half of the jejunoileum but they moved posteriorly with the age of infection. Thus, a subpopulation of larvae mainly in the lumen grew with time while another subpopulation remained small and associated with the mucosa. During the infection both subpopulations moved to a more posterior localization in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract.
    No preview · Article · May 2013 · Parasitology