Development of a High-Current Hydrogen-Negative Ion Source for LHD-NBI System
We have developed a high-current hydrogen-negative ion source for a negative-ion-based NBI system in Large Helical Device (LHD). The ion source is a cesium-seeded volume-production source equipped with an external magnetic filter. An arc chamber is rectangular, the dimensions of which are 35 cm x 145 cm in cross section and 21 cm in depth. A three-grid single-stage accelerator is divided into five sections longitudinally, each of which has 154 (14 x 11) apertures in an area of 25 cm x 25 cm. The ion source was tested in the negative-NBI teststand, and 25 A of the negative ion beam is incident on a beamdump 13 m downstream with an energy of 104 keV for 1 sec. Multibeamlets of 770 are focused on a focal point 13 m downstream with an averaged divergence angle of 10 mrad by the geometrical arrangement of five sections of grid and the aperture displacement technique of the grounded grid. A uniform beam in the vertical direction over 125 cm is obtained with uniform plasma production in the arc chamber by balancing individual arc currents flowing through each filament. Long-pulse beam production was performed, and 1.3 MW of the negative ion beam is incident on the beamdump for 10 sec, and the temperature rise of the cooling water is almost saturated for the extraction and the grounded grids. These results satisfy the first-step specification of the LHD-NBI system.
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ABSTRACT: This paper reviews the operational phase of the negative-ion-based neutral beam systems on the JT-60U tokamak in Naka, Japan and the large helical device (LHD) stellarator in Toki, Japan. These systems were the first high power negative ion beam systems to be deployed for any application, and thus represented large advances in the state of the art for negative ion sources and accelerators, especially since the ions used were hydrogen and deuterium, which have only a modest electron affinity. This paper reviews the systems, the principal problems encountered, and the improvements they engendered, as well as the progress of these systems to the present time. The role of neutral beams in fusion is also discussed, and some of the contributions of the negative ion systems to the physics programs of JT-60U and LHD are briefly reviewed. These systems have been central to the success of JT-60U and LHD, and the knowledge gained about their characteristics should provide a strong basis for the development of the next generation of negative-ion-based neutral beams for ITER and other large fusion devices.
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ABSTRACT: We describe a concept for spacecraft propulsion by means of an energetic ion beam, with the ion source fixed at the spacecraft starting point (e.g., a lunar-based ion beam generator) and not onboard the vessel. This approach avoids the substantial mass penalty associated with the onboard ion source and power supply hardware, and vastly more energetic ion beam systems can be entertained. We estimate the ion beam parameters required for various scenarios and consider some of the constraints limiting the concept. We find that the “ion beam sail” approach can be viable and attractive for journey distances not too great, for example, within the Earth–Moon system, and could potentially provide support for journeys to the inner planets.
Article: Negative Halogen Ion Sources[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: This paper reviews recent progress in developing high current density ion sources for positive and negative halogen ion beams. These sources have produced CI<sup>-</sup> current densities almost equal to their positive chlorine current densities, and also close to the current densities of Ar<sup>+</sup> beams extracted under similar conditions. The emittance of the CI<sup>-</sup> and positive chlorine beams was at least as low as that of an Ar<sup>+</sup> beam extracted from the same source. The coextracted electron ratios (e/Cl<sup>-</sup>) as low as six-seven were much lower than would be expected from the mass ratio dependence of mobility, and appear to be due to the existence of a novel plasma near the extraction plane composed primarily of positive ions and negative ions with few electrons. The results of research across the past eight decades into discharges with electronegative gases and vapors lend insight into the processes occurring in recent experiments, which employed innovations developed in the magnetic fusion energy program to produce high current D beams.
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