Geobotánica, estructura demográfica, consevación y biología predispersiva de prunus lusitanica L. (loro) en la Península Ibérica

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Tesis doctoral inédita leída en la Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Facultad de Ciencias, Departamento de Biología. Fecha de lectura: 03-11-2006

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... This understory tree is one of the subtropical species related to the Tertiary flora that persists in the Iberian Peninsula (García et al., 2002 ). The progressive increase of seasonality and climate cooling that occurred during the second half of the Tertiary Era, and the Quaternary glaciations, are widely used to explain the current paucity and fragmented distribution of P. lusitanica in the Iberian Peninsula (Calleja, 2006 ). Extant populations are thought to be constrained to refuge habitats (mountainous and steep ravines) that buffer winter frosts and summer drought ( García et al., 2002 ). ...
... Eventually, connections can fade out giving origin to new independent clonal individuals and thus, promoting clonal propagation. Both types of sprouts (basal and layering) are considered vegetative reproduction that promotes a multi-stemmed architecture (Calleja, 2006). The resulting P. lusitanica individuals are hereafter identified as clumps and can comprise four different stages: a) a single stem or trunk; b) a principal trunk with one to dozens of basal shoots sharing the same root system; c) a principal trunk with one to dozens of layering shoots; and d) a principal trunk with basal shoots and layering shoots. ...
... The average altitude is 650 m and the average annual temperature varies slightly around 12.5°C. The typical Mediterranean summer drought is poorly marked since the average summer rainfall is between 225 and 295 mm (Calleja, 2006) (Table 1). The studied P. lusitanica clumps grow along with diverse temperate and Atlantic species (Fraxinus excelsior L., Alnus glutinosa (L.) Gaertn., Corylus avellana L., Salix atrocinerea Brot. ...
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Aim of study: The present work provides novel insights on factors (either intrinsic or extrinsic) that trigger sprouting in woody species living at range margins. We aim to explain the inter-individual variability in the multi-stemmed architecture of Prunus lusitanica L., an Iberian evergreen relict tree related to the Tertiary flora. Area of study: Northeastern Mediterranean mountains of the Iberian Peninsula, the Northeast limit of the global distribution of the species. Material and methods: We gathered data on two modes of vegetative reproduction, basal and layering sprouts, in 288 clumps of Prunus lusitanica from four populations. We modeled and analyzed the effect of environmental factors (topography, canopy cover, soil moisture and disturbances) and plant size (diameter at breast height) on sprouting by means of Generalized Linear Model and other statistical approaches. Main results: Plant size arises as the principal factor to explain the variability of the numbers of both types of sprouts yet it is not a trigger factor. Natural and anthropogenic disturbances promote basal and layering shoots, while tree canopy is mainly relevant for basal shoots, and slope and soil moisture are significant factors for layering shoots. Research highlights: The multi-stemmed architecture of P. lusitanica at the Northeastern limit of its worldwide distribution is triggered by local environmental factors and disturbances. Each external factor shows different levels of influence on the variability and type of vegetative reproduction yet the intensity of the response is driven by the size of the largest trunk of each clump.
... These taxa were part of lauroid forests growing under subtropical conditions that faced severe drought and increased warming as the Mediterranean climate became established (Palamarev, 1989; Milne & Abbott, 2002). As a result, these tree species invariably exhibit highly fragmented ranges and low population sizes in southern Europe, the eroding edge of their distribution (Hampe & Arroyo, 2002; Mejías et al., 2002; Milne, 2004; Hampe & Petit, 2005; Calleja, 2006). In contrast to this scattered mainland distribution, these species are widespread in regions where temperature and precipitation oscillations have been modest, such as within the cloud forest of Macaronesia, resembling ancient subtropical scenarios (Fernández-Palacios & Arévalo, 1998). ...
... Plant populations declining at the range limit of a given species are most likely to persist in regions providing local climatic refuges (Tzedakis et al., 2002). According to this expectation, Mediterranean climatic relict trees are concentrated in riparian habitats where they have been able to escape from increasing water stress (Hampe & Arroyo, 2002; Mejías et al., 2002; Calleja, 2006). Nevertheless, meeting water needs could also involve coping with a novel irradiance environment as compared with former habitats due to (1) decreased day length in terms of solar irradiance reaching the bottom of topographical depressions where springs occur, (2) differences in the disturbance regime and thus in the frequency and distribution of forest gaps, and (3) differences in the ratio of deciduous to evergreen tree species, which involve seasonal differences in the amount of irradiation. ...
... We followed this approach in a study of performance during early establishment of the Portuguese laurel cherry (Prunus lusitanica L.), a Tertiary relict tree, Iberian populations of which grow at the northern, eroding edge of the species' range (Calleja, 2006). In contrast to what has been observed in its subtropical habitats in Macaronesia (Fernández-Palacios & Arévalo, 1998), marginal populations grow in river belts, presumably because of down-slope habitat displacement (Calleja, 2006). ...
Aim  To investigate the ecophysiological traits allowing persistence of a subtropical relict tree (Prunus lusitanica L.) under a dry Mediterranean climate at the eroding edge of its range.Location  A glasshouse for the study under controlled conditions and two marginal populations located in riparian forests of central Spain and exposed to summer drought, in contrast to subtropical populations that grow in mountain cloud forests.Methods  Two experiments were conducted to assess tolerance to the abiotic conditions found in riparian habitats. In a glasshouse experiment, gas-exchange and light-use parameters were measured to evaluate seedling responses to a factorial combination of irradiance (60%, 10%, 2% and 0.5% full sun) and moisture (well watered control and drought stress). In a parallel field experiment, irradiance and soil moisture were measured as predictors of seedling survival at two sites in which half the seedlings were subjected to a threefold increase in summer precipitation by adding water every 10 days.Results Soil moisture strongly determined survival both in the glasshouse and in the two field sites. In the field, periodic addition of water failed to increase survival. Water-use efficiency (WUE) increased with drought. Seedlings did not tolerate deep shade (2–0.5%) and their performance and survival were better when exposed to moderate (10%) or high (60%) irradiance. The effect of water stress on seedling performance was stronger at moderate irradiance, moderate at high irradiance and negligible at very low light. Seedling size (height and number of leaves) attained after 1 month of experimental treatments had a positive effect on survival at the end of the summer, hence greater survival was not achieved at the expense of vertical growth.Main conclusions  While studies in Macaronesia have shown that P. lusitanica occupies a wide range of moisture conditions along mountain slopes, it behaves as an obligate riparian species in dry peripheral populations. Intolerance to deep shade and tolerance to moderate and high irradiance allow the species to grow in small and moist gaps, or in treeless river sections. Despite the species’ low range filling in marginal, drought-prone regions, long-term persistence might have been achieved through shifts to riparian habitats serving as local refuges.
... En un tipo de hábitat diferente podrían incluirse las manifestaciones de hojaranzo que no crecen con aliso. Por el contrario, si se mantiene la discriminación de las alisedas aljíbicas por albergar hojaranzos, entonces habría que segregar también las alisedas con helechos subtropicales de la costa Atlántica y las alisedas del Sistema Central (Ávila), Ancares (León) y Las Villuercas (Cáceres) por la presencia abundante del loro (Prunus lusitanica), que es otro relicto paleotropical muy escaso (Calleja, 2006). ...
... • Las avellanedas con Prunus lusitanica del Montseny y Guillerías, pues a pesar de estar en espacios naturales protegidos sufren talas, ¡y hay menos de 1.000 individuos! (Calleja, 2006). Cartografía del tipo de hábitat clasificado según 5. ...
Technical Report
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Esta ficha forma parte de la publicación Bases ecológicas preliminares para la conservación de los tipos de hábitat de interés comunitario en España, promovida por la Dirección General de Medio Natural y Política Forestal (Ministerio de Medio Ambiente, y Medio Rural y Marino).
... Polysticho setiferi-Coryletum avellanae prunetosum lusitanicae O. de Bolòs 1956 is an exclusive subassociation of Catalonia (Bolòs, 1956). Several P. lusitanica communities are not represented at the phytosociological level of association (Calleja 2006;Lara et al. 2007;Garilleti et al. 2012). The only indigenous population of P. lusitanica in France (Vallée des Aldudes) was discovered by J. Richter (Rouy, 1892) and later described in detail mostly by Neyraut (1910), Hibon (1927) and Allorge (1941). ...
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The relict communities of Prunus lusitanica are globally threatened, mainly by climatic and anthropic factors. Solid knowledge about floristic composition and serial dynamics provides a valuable basis for the implementation of management and conservation measures. This article focuses on peculiar communities that occur in hydric-compensated areas of the Iberian Peninsula and south of France, a submediterranean ecotonal area. A hierarchical cluster analysis allowed to identify two new syntaxa. For the first time an association of Prunus lusitanica, Lonicero periclymeni-Prunetum lusitanicae ass. nova, is reported for France, representing the mature stage of a minoriseries of vegetation, attributed to Lonicerion periclymeni. The discovery of populations of P. lusitanica in valleys embedded in the Municipality of Mação (Portugal), represent the new association Smilaco asperae-Prunetum lusitanicae ass. nova, enriched by thermophilous taxa. This relict association occurs in the South Beira District and corresponds to the southern limit of the natural distribution area in mainland Portugal, integrated in the suballiance Fraxino angustifoliae-Ulmenion minoris. Additional notes on the occurrence of P. lusitanica in other areas of the Iberian Peninsula are provided.
... Tan sols un exemplar procedent de Tossa de Mar, al vessant de Sant Grau, podria correspondre a la subsp. Sylvestris»; Bou (1984) la indica d'un lloc del massís de les Salines i, fa poc, Calleja (2006), de dos del vessant marítim del Montseny. Val a dir que la citació de les Salines -i, en general, les del nord-est de la Catalunya autònoma-és coherent amb l'acceptació recent, per part d'autors francesos, de la presència del tàxon al vessant nord del massís de l'Albera (Terral et al., 2010). ...
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The S Iberian Peninsula and NW Africa constitute one of the main hotspots for plant biodiversity within the Mediterranean Basin. At the core of this hotspot, across the Strait of Gibraltar, lies a smaller region whose singular Cenozoic history and ecological features have created a distinct, nested sub-hotspot. In particular, an important relict flora, a high endemism, and the dominance of vegetation types other than the paradigmatic Mediterranean-type sclerophyllous forests and shrublands, are biogeographical features of paramount relevance. These singular environments may have provided suitable mesic habitats for stable human populations in this region throughout the Quaternary. Here we explore the possible causes of the unique biodiversity of this region. First, we show that endemism is associated with poor soils and mild Mediterranean climate, whereas relictness is primarily associated with riparian and humid habitats which might have remained relatively stable since the Late Tertiary. We then review and provide new results on lineage and molecular diversity of some taxa based on their evolutionary relationships inferred from phylogenetic and phylogeographical analyses. These indicate that long-lived plants, such as trees, tend to show some discontinuity in effective gene flow, in comparison with short-lived and pioneer plants. Colonization abilities rather than dispersal vectors appear to be a crucial factor. We also analyze the role of microevolutionary processes that generate plant biodiversity in terms of reproductive features involved in lineage formation, such as breeding system, pollination biology and postdispersal regeneration. The few available studies show that this region is prone to changes in reproductive systems, associated with both abiotic and biotic conditions in the new habitats that plants face during colonization. Dispersal and regeneration ecology is especially important for relict species, as most of these species face some biotic (e.g., lack of dispersers, predation) and abiotic (edaphic and/or microclimate requirements) limitations to their recruitment. Nevertheless current limitations in the recruitment of relict plant species should not obscure the fact that they have been resilient in the face of Plio–Pleistocene climate changes in the Gibraltar region, whereas they became extinct in other Mediterranean areas. The relatively stable and mild climate of this region may have provided a suitable long-term environment for many other organisms, including humans.
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Prunus lusitanica L. is a tree which presents an outstanding botanical interest. In the present work, the distribution, the physical medium and the vegetal groups of this species on the Iberian Peninsula have been studied. In order to carry out this work, most of the information about this species generated for the last 30 years has been collected in the first place. Later, a survey of all the places included by the available bibliography was carried out, and also a search around neighbouring areas and other ones with similar characteristics. During this survey, 133 locations of the species in the Iberian Peninsula have been described, of which 25 were discovered during the field work. This survey has served to make cartography of plants in the Iberian Peninsula, scale 1:25.000 in Portugal and 1:50.000 in Spain. It has also served the collection of plants data and physical medium data (lithological and physiographic mainly). At a later stage, new data about the physical medium have been collected (edaphic and climatic mainly). All the data collected during the two previous stages have been analysed in order to obtain the common features of all locations on the one hand; and, on the other hand, the particularities of each geographical area of the Iberian Peninsula inhabited by the above mentioned species.
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Amigo, J., Izco, J., Guitián, J. & Romero, M.I. Reinterpretación del robledal termófilo galaico-portugués: Pusco aculeati-Quercetum roboris. Lazaroa 19:85-98 (1998). La asociación de los robledales termófilos de Galicia y Noroeste de Portugal (Rusco aculeati-Quercetum roboris) estaba insuficientemente documentada: desde su descripción, hace 4 décadas, no se habían publicado inventarios de territorio gallego bajo dicho nombre, a pesar de que se ha estado utilizando ampliamente en la bibliografía y cartografiando como cabeza de una serie de vegetación. Para suplir esta carencia de información, hemos reunido 111 inventarios (35 de ellos nuevos) procedentes de las cuatro provincias gallegas. Reconocemos dentro de Rusco-Quercetum roboris dos subasociaciones: la típica o viletosum rivinianae y la quercetosum suberis, que proponemos como nueva; tanto la asociación como sus subasociaciones han sido tipificadas. Respecto a otras dos subasociaciones descritas con anterioridad, consideramos que una de ellas (viburnetosum tini) debe reubicarse en la asociación Arbuto-Quercetum pyrenaicae, en tanto que la otra (ericetosum arboreae) no merece tal rango.
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Three main groups of releves have been established: the first one concerns Alnus glutinosa forests from the atlantic versant, typical of small rivers with fast running waters and slight low water; the second one spreads out into the Navarro-Alaves alder forests, in rivers of slow stream and a certain low water, and the third one corresponds to those from rivers which penetrate into the Mediterranean area. The authors propose a syntaxonomy to group them, where we describe the new subassociation loniceretosum xylostei within the Hyperico androsamei-Alnetum, and the new association Humulo lupuli-Alnetum glutinosae. -from Authors
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Current hydrogeological research in NE Brazil aims to better understand factors controlling storage and percolation of ground water in crystalline terrains, due to the fact that a large proportion (about 60%) of this region is formed by igneous and metamorphic rocks. As part of this effort, we present an integrated geophysical geological study of a fractured bedrock aquifer located in the Caiçara farm, near Equador city, Rio Grande do Norte State, NE Brazil. Pumped wells in this site present very different yields, in spite of short distance of only 20 m. The main lithologies of the site are quartzite and micaschist. Combined interpretation of geophysical images (Resistivity and Ground Penetrating Radar---GPR) and field structural geologic data revealed that the fractured bedrock aquifer is composed of three sets of discontinuities: SW-dipping subhorizontal joints, parallel to the ductile fabric of the country rocks which are probably release joints; NE-dipping subhorizontal fractures, oblique to ductile trend; and subvertical fractures which are orthogonally distributed along N S and E W directions. Important subvertical fracture zones occur at a regular spacing of about tens of meters. Fractures in the E W direction are relatively open, as compared to fractures in the N S direction. Probably, E W fractures were opened by the current neotectonic stress regime in NE Brazil, which is controlled by E W compression and N S extension. It was possible to rank the hydrogeologic potentiality of water well siting as a function of fracture density and proximity to recharge zones, in this way explaining why wells could present very different yield results on the site. The most favorable places for well siting are intersections of subvertical fracture zones located near drainage because highly fractured zones could be, in this way, connected with recharge zones mainly in alluvial deposits. On the other hand, the least favorable places for well siting lie outside subvertical fractures and far from recharge zones. Intermediate hydrogeological potentialities occur in two cases: at a point near the recharge zone but where there is a low density of fractures, or at point far from the recharge zone but where there is a high density of fractures.
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A check-list of the higher syntaxa (from class to suballiance) of vascular plant communities recognized in Spain and continental Portugal (Iberian Peninsula, Balearic and Canary Islands) is presented. Classes are arranged in nine major and eighteen secondary ecological groups, according to a modification of the classic Braun-Blanquetís criterion of phytosociological progression. 72 classes, 132 orders, 370 alliances and 88 suballiances have been accepted for the territory studied. Structure, dynamics and environmental factors, along with floristic composition, were the main criteria used to separate the higher ranks (classes and orders), while edaphic and biogeographical criteria were much more prominent for lower ranks (alliances and suballiances). All names were checked for nomenclatural accuracy, and lists of synonyms and references concerning the names are given. The following new valid syntaxa names are proposed: Agropyro pectinati-Lygeion sparti, Arbuto unedonis-Laurion nobilis, Astragalenion massiliensis, Brassicion oleraceae, Bromo erecti-Teucrion pyrenaicae, Daboecion cantabricae, Erico mackaianae-Sphagnion papillosi, Geranio purpurei-Cardaminenea hirsutae, Halodulo wrightii-Thalassietea testudinum, Helichrysion picardi, Launaeion cervicornis, Lemno minoris-Hydrocharition morsus-ranae, Minuartio-Festucion curvifoliae, Nicotiano glaucae-Ricinion communis, Onobrychidenion hispanicae, Pinion uncinatae, Ridolfion segeti, Rielletalia helichophyllae, Rielletea helicophyllae, Riellion helicophyllae, Roemerion hybridae, Salicion canariensis, Saturejo-Coridothymenion, Selaginello denticulatae-Anogrammion leptophyllae, Sideritenion bourgaeanae, Stauracanthion boivinii, Suaedion verae, Vaccinio microphylli-Juniperetalia nanae, Valeriano longiflorae-Petrocoptidenion crassifoliae.
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The epiphytic bryoflora of Prunus lusitanica woods from 7 localities in the Iberian Peninsula have been studied. Forty bryophyte species have been found (30 mosses and 10 hepatics). Despite the higher moss richness, the communities are generally dominated by the liverworts Metzgeria furcata or Frullania dilatata. Furthermore, from a biogeographical point of view, these epiphytic communities are quantitative and qualitative characterised by the Oceanic element, even those growing in the Mediterranean region under continental conditions. The Mediterranean forests are very alike in their epiphytic communities and rather different from those situated in the North West of the Iberian Peninsula, within the Eurosiberian region
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Aim  To assess the importance of climate and human pressure as factors limiting the past, present and future distribution of Prunus lusitanica L. (the Portuguese laurel), a relict of Europe’s ancient subtropical laurel-forest flora.Location  The Iberian Peninsula.Methods  A census was taken of the current populations of P. lusitanica in the Iberian Peninsula and the threats they face. The potential distribution of the species was modelled under current climatic conditions and under simulations of the climate for the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), the mid-Holocene and the year 2080.Results  The present total population of 31,000 individuals is largely distributed as small, fragmented subpopulations, often threatened by agriculture or forestry. The species’ current range is much smaller than its potentially suitable range. During the LGM, P. lusitanica would have been constrained to a limited number of sites along the Atlantic coast. In the mid-Holocene, its potential range was much wider than during the LGM and similar to that of the present day. Under the 2080 climate scenario its potential range is reduced by almost 40% compared to that of the present. This reduction includes the loss of territories currently home to three-quarters of its Iberian population.Main conclusions  Drastic climatic changes and the existence of refugia are usually invoked to explain the rarity and fragmented distribution – yet persistence – of a subtropical flora in southern Europe. The availability of climatically suitable habitats is, however, not necessarily the main factor limiting its distribution. Human impact would appear to have been – and continues to be – of fundamental importance in the current population sizes and potential range of P. lusitanica in the Iberian Peninsula.
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This paper reports on the characterization of hydraulic properties of regional rock aquifers carried out within a groundwater resources assessment project in the St. Lawrence Lowlands of south-western Quebec. To understand the aquifer behavior at both the fracture level and at field scale, hydraulic investigations were carried out using various aquifer tests. The groundwater flow at the local scale is controlled mostly by the fracture system. Results of the constant-head injection tests show a weak decreasing trend of hydraulic conductivity with depth indicating that a major part of the groundwater flow occurs in the first meters of the rock sequence. At the regional scale, the equivalent porous media approach is applicable. The hydraulic conductivity measurements were correlated to the scale of the aquifer tests expressed with the investigated aquifer volume. A simple interpolation procedure for the hydraulic conductivity field was developed based on the distance between field measurements and the tested aquifer volumes. The regional distribution of the hydraulic conductivity for the major fractured aquifer units indicates that dolostone is the most permeable whereas sandstone and crystalline rocks are the least permeable units.
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En este trabajo damos a conocer algunas de las comunidades vegetales más características del Macizo de Rocigalgo (Montes de Toledo). Asimismo, denunciamos la asociación Osmundo-Fraxinetum angustifoliae que proponemos como nueva.
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Phytogeography and vegetation of the Aljibico sector (Cadiz-Malaga, Spain). In this study, the flora and vegetation of the southern Iberian Peninsula (Cadiz and Malaga provinces, Andalusia, Spain) are analized for delimitating and dividing the phytogeographical unit of the Aljibe mountains. This unit includes most of the Gaditanian Peninsula. It is characterized in its physical conditions by the geomorphologic «flysch» of the Campo de Gibraltar and the siliceous base of the Serranía de Ronda, and in its climatic aspect by an atlantic temperature regime and by a mediterranean precipitation regime. As a result, the Aljibico sector is delimited as follows: towards the West by the dune systems of the Cadiz Gulf (Onubense sector), towards the South by he Gibraltar Strait and the Tingitanian Peninsula, towards the East by the Alboran Sea and the Guadalhorce Valley (Malacitano-Axarquiense sector) and towards the North by the Serranía deRonda (Bermejense and Rondeño sectors towards NE) and the Guadalquivir Valley (Hispalense sector towards NW).Based on the chorology of the flora and the vegetation and upon the abiotic conditions, four subsectors are considered: Aljibico, the central part with siliceous sandstones, humid-hyperhumid ombroclimate and some continental characteristics; Algecireño, the southern area with similar geology and ombroclimate but with an oceanic precipitation regime and frequent orographic fogs; Marbellí, the eastern area with saltes and micaschists and a subhumid-humid ombroclimate; and Sidonense, the western area with a heterogeneous geology of sandstones, limestones, vertic argils, sands, a dry-subhumid ombroclimate and a thermic continental regime. The Aljibico sector is included in the Tingitano-Onubo-Algarviense province. This province reaches from Aveiro (Portugal) to Bajo Loukkos (Morocco). It is also part of the IberomarroquiAtlantica superprovince that connects the Eurosiberian and the Macaronesian areas through the Mediterranean region. The vegetation series considered in the Aljibico sector are the following: Myrto-Querceto suberis S, Teucrio-Qtterceto suberis S, Rusco-Querceto canctriensis S, Cytiso-Querceto pyrenaicae S, Tamo-Oleeto sylvestris S. Clematido-Ceratonieto siliquae S, Arisaro-Alneto glutinosae S, Frangulo-Rhododendreto baetici S, Ficario-Fraxineto angustifoliae S, Genisto-Ericeto ciliaris S, Crataego-Populeto albae S, Polygono-Tamariceto africanae S, Agrostio-Tamariceto canariensis S and Rubo-Nerieto oleandri S. Likewise has plenty of rupiculous, dunes and aquatic plant communities, while the swamp communities are very limited. Tamo-Oleetum sylvestris (oleetosum and fraxinetosum angusttfoliae) and Polygono-Tamaricetum africanae aretosum italici are lectotypified. As new syntaxa, Crataego-Populetum albae. Rusco-Querceturn canariensis quercetosum broteroi, Asparago-Calicotometum villosae juniperetosum turbinatae, EquisetoSaliceturn pedicellatate salicetosum albae and Asperulo-Ulicetunt scabri anthyllidetosum cytisoidis are proposed. Furthermore, nine dominance communities are described here. They are characterized by the following species: Juniperus oxycedrus, Quema lusitanica-Ilex aquifolium, Dianthus lusitanus, Potamogeton nodosus, Potamogeton pectinatus, Myriophyllum alterniflorum, Callitriche stagnalis, Callitriche regis-jubae and Ranunculus tripartitus. Cytiso-Querceto pyrenaicae S is a new record for Europe. Crataego-Populeto albae S is proposed as a new series of vegetation. The suborder status for Tin guarrenalia siculae is proposed. The alliance Campanulion velutinae is included in this suborder.
Índice Prefacio. Breve historia de la pteridología. Las plantas vasculares: su origen y diversificación. Biología de los pteridófitos. La microevolución de los pteridófitos. Los pteridófitos en Biogeografía. Los helechos como plantas medicinales. Los helechos en jardinería. Los helechos en la conservación de la Naturaleza. Flora pteridofítica de la Península Ibérica e Islas Baleares. Sinopsis de clasificación de los pteridófitos ibéricos. Subdivisión Lycophytina. Subdivisión Sphenophytina. Subdivisión Psilophytina. Subdivisión Filicophytina. Bibliografía. Índice de especies. Descripción principal A través de las páginas de esta guía, el lector podrá ir descubriendo un interesante grupo vegetal. Los helechos fueron los primeros colonizadores de los continentes, dominando la flora terrestre durante varios millones de años. En la actualidad, tan sólo viven unas 12.000 especies, estando muchas de ellas amenazadas de extinción por la fragilidad de los ecosistemas en que habitan. Este libro comienza con una extensa introducción, en la que se exponen con amplitud de detalles aspectos históricos, biológicos, biogeográficos y de conservación de la división Pteridophyta. La segunda parte es una flora analítica de los helechos de la Península Ibérica y Baleares, en la que, además de las descripciones pormenorizadas de cada una de las especies, se dan detalles de la ecología, distribución, cultivo ornamental, utilización farmacológica, etcétera, todo ello acompañado, para su mejor conocimiento, por fotografías, ilustraciones y mapas.
La Península Ibérica alberga una de las floras más ricas de Europa en la que se reconoce un amplio espectro de elementos florísticos. Entre ellos sobresale el elemento Paleotropical pues sus integrantes constituyen la huella de una vegetación primitiva extinta con notables relaciones con las actuales laurisilvas subtropicales. El loro (Prunus lusitanica) se incluye en este conjunto de plantas y se considera un superviviente de los bosques de niebla lauroides que poblaron las montañas en la cuenca mediterránea durante el Terciario. Es, por tanto, una planta singular en el seno de la flora ibérica y su carácter relictual le otorga una gran importancia paleofitogeográfica. Son muchos los interrogantes que suscita la presencia del loro en la Península Ibérica. De hecho, es prácticamente infinita la serie de cuestiones que se pueden abordar para conocer la biología de la especie y tratar de explicar su persistencia y evaluar viabilidad: etapas fundamentales de su ciclo vital, fenología, reproducción, variabilidad genética, dispersión, preferencias de hábitat, etc. En la presente memoria doctoral se muestran y discuten parte de los resultados obtenidos sobre la variabilidad florística, demografía y ciclo vital de Prunus lusitanica L (loro). En el primer capítulo se describe brevemente y de manera sencilla el hábitat de las loreras. Posteriormente, se analiza su estructura y composición florística y se realiza una interpretación geobotánica. En el segundo capítulo se presenta el tamaño y la estructura demográfica de las poblaciones ibéricas del loro. Además, se resumen las amenazas más comunes y se evalúa el régimen de protección de la especie. En el tercero, se estudia la relevancia de algunos factores intrínsecos y extrínsecos en la fecundidad del loro. Finalmente, en el cuarto capítulo se explora la importancia de las aves en la dispersión y germinación de las semillas y en el vigor de las plántulas del loro.
A study was made of the springs in the upper part of the Dílar valley (more than 2.200 m above sea leve), at the heart of the metapelitics domain of the Sierra Nevada (south of Spain; Granada). The relief of the terrain at this altitude, as well as the alteration and deposit layers, reflect periglacial effects and the vestiges of glacial action. In such circumstances, meltwater normally infiltrates, producing springs of varying types and hydrodynamic behaviour patterns. Four basic genetic types are described. It is important to determine the behaviour of these springs, as they exercise a decisive influence on the natural regime (and, especially, on the recession) of the highest rivers of the Sierra Nevada, (National Park). Discharge and water temperature records reveal that these are impulsive water sources with little memory effect and rapid depletion. We discuss the correlations obtained between discharge-temperature, temperature-altitude and depletion coefficient-altitude. Finally, we stress the benefits to be gained from a longer term follow up of discharge and water temperature records, to provide data for the correct interpretation of the climatic changes foreseen for this fragile alpine region in Andalusia.
Bivariate and trivariate functions for interpolation from scattered data are derived. They are constructed by explicit minimization of a general smoothness functional, and they include a tension parameter that controls the character of the interpolation function (e.g., for bivariate case the surface can be tuned from a membrane to a thin steel plate), Tension can be applied also in a chosen direction, for modeling of phenomena with a simple type of anisotropy. The functions have regular derivatives of all orders everywhere. This makes them suitable for analysis of surface geometry and for direct application in models where derivatives are necessary. For processing of large datasets (thousands of data points), which are now common in geosciences, a segmentation algorithm with a flexible size of overlapping neighborhood is presented. Simple examples demonstrating flexibility and accuracy of the functions are presented.
Various pollen sequences from lacustrine deposits close to Lago de Sanabria (NW Iberia) have for several decades been a key source of information for palaeoenvironmental reconstructions of SW Europe, though their interpretation has been the subject of some controversy. Here we present two new pollen sequences obtained from this area, and a new palaeoenvironmental reconstruction of the region. The available pollen data reach back to before 18,000b.p., a period of very harsh climate with seasonal (non continuous) sedimentation and a landscape characterised by herbaceous formations dominated by Gramineae and Artemisia, and scrub formations dominated by Ericaceae and Cistaceae. Subsequently sedimentation became continuous, and various regional forest expansions are apparent. At a local level, the first forest expansion began about 12,000b.p., when Betula pollen reached 70% followed by peaks in Pinus sylvestris-type (>80%) and Quercus robur-type (40%). The Younger Dryas saw a retreat of woodland formations in the area around the lake, with broadleaved deciduous woodland (largely oak) retreating at mid and low altitudes, but with pine woodland persisting in more sheltered sites. The climatic improvement in the Early Holocene favoured re-expansion of woodland, dominated by Pinus sylvestris-type at higher and Quercus robur and Q. pyrenaica at lower altitudes, until anthropogenic deforestation commenced around 4,000b.p. The disappearance of natural pine woodlands in this region is probably largely attributable to human interference.
The Tertiary vegetation of Europe evolved from paratropical to warm-temperate and temperate forms in response to a progressive, non-linear, climatic cooling. Its vegetational forms are composed mainly of two separate ecological units: the evergreen, laurophyll paleotropical geoflora and the deciduous, broad-leaved Arctotertiary geoflora. The development of the Tertiary climate and its interaction with the vegetation are convincingly indicated by the geoflora''s migration; the changes in its composition; and the development of the Tertiary forest, swamp, and aquatic plant communities. The paleotropical geoflora is characterized in the upper Cretaceous to the upper Miocene by paratropical rain forest, subtropical rain and laurel forests, temperate laurel forests and edaphically-mediated formation of laurel-conifer forests. The Arctotertiary geoflora advanced into Europe in waves since the Paleocene and formed the basis for the Tertiary mixed mesophytic forests. These can be divided into warm-temperate rain forests, oak-hornbeamchestnut or mixed beech-oak-hornbeam forests, and edaphic formations such as bottomland and swamp forests. Beginning in the lower Cretaceous, the hydrophytic vegetation developed independently of the forest vegetation and formed very diverse herbaceous fresh water, swamp, salt water, and coastal formations. Considerable differences in composition allow to separate floral regions and provinces in Eurosiberia. Instead of three ill-defined floral regions in the Paleocene, there are four well-defined floral regions in the Pliocene. A Mediterranean region cannot be recognized, although Mediterranean (eumesogeic) floral elements appear in the Eocene/Oligocene and thereafter. The Mediterranean sclerophyll forests probably arose after the destruction of the laurophyll forests during the Pleistocene.
The vegetation of the Mediterranean Basin was originally composed of evergreen forests; during the Pleistocene deciduous forests expanded, chiefly in the mountains. In historical time the forest belt was strongly reduced by human activity and substituted by anthropogenous vegetation types (macchia, garigue, weed-communities). The frequency of polyploids in the present vegetation types support this interpretation. Reciprocal relationships between the vegetational system and social system are discussed and a terminology is proposed. During ancient times and the middle ages a reciprocal control of vegetation and human activity was possible (cyclic system), stabilizing the vegetation in a steady state; the technological impact modified these conditions in a linear sense, and now the vegetation is menaced by irreversible changes.Die Vegetation der Mittelmeerlnder bestand ursprnglich aus immergrnen Hartlaubwldern; whrend des Pleistozns breiteten sich sommergrne Laubwlder aus, besonders in den gebirgigen Teilen. Die dichtere menschliche Besiedlung nach der Steinzeit bewirkte eine Einschrnkung des Waldgrtels der zum Grossteil durch anthropogene Vegetationstypen (Macchie, Garigue, Unkrautgemeinschaften) ersetzt wurde. Die Spuren dieses Prozesses spiegeln sich in den Polyploidieverhltnissen. Bis zu diesem Punkt entwickelte sich das vegetationelle System autonom. Mit dem Auftreten des Menschen beginnt eine rege Dialektik zwischen dem vegetationellen und dem sozialen System. Einige Gesetzmssigkeiten werden dargestellt und eine geeignete Terminologie wird vorgeschlagen. Whrend des Altertums und des Mittelalters war eine gegenscitige Kontrolle zwischen Vegetation und menschliche Einwirkung mglich (zyklisches System), und die Vegetation wurde dadurch in einem Zustand von Fliessgleichgewicht stabilisiert; durch die Technologie wurden diese Verhltnisse verndert und es entstand ein lineares System, sodass nun die Vegetation unter der Drohung einer irreversiblen Aenderung steht.
Se realiza un estudio de los pinares de Pinus sylvestris L. en el Sistema Central español, comenzando por una revisión bibliográfica del tratamiento geobotánico que han recibido a lo largo de la historia. Asimismo se aportan datos paleobiogeográficos e históricos a fin de resolver su condición de naturales o artificiales. Sobre la base de un muestreo e inventariado de estas formaciones se lleva a cabo una tipología de las mismas para el Sistema Central y se aporta un catálogo florístico de c. 600 taxones
Se consideran algunos de los principales acontecimientos paleoambientales que han tenido influencia en la configuración de los paisajes vegetales holocenos en la península Ibérica. Se destaca el posible papel del género Juniperus en los ambientes mesetarios durante las fases microtermas pleistocenas, la función de los refugios y la importancia de la regeneración vegetativa. Por último se atienden aspectos relativos a las vicisitudes cuaternarias de las geofloras paleotropical y artoterciaria.
Mapa 732 Prunus lusitanica L. Pp 181-183
  • N Llorente
BORDA, N. & LLORENTE, J. J. 1996. Mapa 732 Prunus lusitanica L. Pp 181-183. En: J. Fernández Casas (ed.) Asientos para un Atlas Corológico de la Flora Occidental, 24. Fontqueria 44.
  • T G Heywood
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  • D M Valentine
  • D H Walters
  • S M Webb
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A vegetaçao natural de Casal do Rei
  • Reis De
  • Lima Duarte
  • M C Da Silva Alves
REIS DE LIMA DUARTE, M. C. & DA SILVA ALVES, J. M. 1989. A vegetaçao natural de Casal do Rei, Parque Natural da Serra Da Estrela. Serviço Nacional de Parques, Reservas e Conservaçao da Natureza, Lisboa.
Datos para el conocimiento de las floras miocénicas de Cataluña
  • A Sanz De Siria
SANZ DE SIRIA, A. 1987. Datos para el conocimiento de las floras miocénicas de Cataluña. Paleontologia i Evolució 21:295-303.
  • T G Tutin
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  • D H Valentine
  • S M Walters
  • D A Webb
TUTIN, T. G., HEYWOOD, V. H., BURGES, N. A., MOORE, D. M., VALENTINE, D. H., WALTERS, S. M. & WEBB, D. A. 1976. Flora Europaea IV. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
A importância da serra do Açor para a conservaçao do azereiro
  • P Silveira
SILVEIRA, P. 1997. A importância da serra do Açor para a conservaçao do azereiro. Anuário da Sociedade Broteriana 63:37-41.
Espacio Natural de Goubela
  • F Pérez Caramés
PÉREZ CARAMÉS, F. 1989. Espacio Natural de Goubela. Estudios Bercianos 11:20-28.
Acerca del área del laurel-cerezo
  • S Rivas Goday
  • S A Calatayud
RIVAS GODAY, S. & CALATAYUD, S. A. 1945. Acerca del área del laurel-cerezo. Anales Instituto José Celestino Mutis de Farmacognosia 4:83-103.
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  • C Gómez Campo
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  • M Monserrat
  • J M Morales
  • R Muñoz Garmendia
  • F Nieto Feliner
  • G Rico
  • E Talavera
  • S Villar
  • Muñoz Garmendia
  • F Navarro
MUÑOZ GARMENDIA, F. & NAVARRO, C. 1998. Flora Iberica VI. Real Jardín Botánico, C.S.I.C., Madrid.
Potencialidad y conservación del elemento Paleotropical lauroide en la Península Ibérica. Predicciones mediante redes neuronales artificiales en el entorno de un sistema de información geográfica
  • M Benito Garzón
BENITO GARZÓN, M. 2002. Potencialidad y conservación del elemento Paleotropical lauroide en la Península Ibérica. Predicciones mediante redes neuronales artificiales en el entorno de un sistema de información geográfica. Trabajo de Investigación Tutelado (D.E.A). Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Madrid. ( inv/Mclim/publications.html)