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Customer Relationship Management (CRM) systems, intermediation and disintermediation: The case of INSG

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Abstract

Full-text of this article is not available in this e-prints service. This article was originally published following peer-review in International Journal of Information Management, published by and copyright Pergamon. Whilst our knowledge of Customer Relationship Management (CRM) systems continues to evolve, there is still much to learn. This paper offers some relatively rare insights on the use of CRM systems and the strategic impact on the processes of intermediation and disintermediation in order to improve customer service. This research was conducted from April 2007 to 2008 using an interpretative case study approach. The case involved working with a leading international insurance company (given the pseudonym of INSG) and some of their intermediary customer service agents. The research highlights some design characteristics and philosophical insights regarding CRM system approaches and also offers some useful practical insights on the impact of CRM in changes to the deployment of some intermediaries, leading to a process of disintermediation, in order to improve customer service. In summary, some theoretical and practical implications are highlighted and discussed.

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... Campbell (Campbell, 2003) follows (Li and Calantone, 1998) and conceptualizes four components for integrating customer knowledge in company: (1) a customer information process, (2) marketing interface, (3) senior involvement and (4) employee evaluation and reward system. Compared with Stauss (Stauss, 2002) Campbell's (Campbell, 2003) approach which is applied in five large Canadian firms is enabled with a customer relationship management system (CRM) so that in contrast to Stauss Campbell does involve technical aspects but nevertheless this approach is faced with the following limitations:  In practice CRM systems have been widely used and implemented by firms for targeted advertising and customer-centric acitivities such as customer service (Hsieh, 2009), (Bull, 2010) to primarily manage knowledge about the customer and that knowledge for the customer is provided. This is, indeed, customer data and information, not customer knowledge. ...
... This is, indeed, customer data and information, not customer knowledge.  In addition CRM sytems are faced with a relatively high level of rigor in terms of information and are not hindered by recording of too much superfluous or redundant information (Bull, 2010).  Based on an empirical study Rigby (Rigby, Reicheld and Schefter, 2002) demonstrated that nearly 55 % of the CRM projects fail because the biggest challenges and critical success factor is not considered or implemented sufficient that is the ability to access all relevant customer knowledge categories (Ernst, 2001). ...
... Social media marketing creates brand and product awareness, thereby affecting the sales of the travel industry. According to Christopher (2010), it provides an ideal platform for users who are interested in sharing their traveling experiences. This ensures that businesses operating in the traveling industry are always in the news. ...
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... In order to realize customers' digital transformation, not only technical excellence, but also co-created through close partnership with people in each industry are required ( Garrido-Moreno & Padilla-Meléndez, 2011;Takeuchi, 2016). Since all the data related to the business customers are usually stored and organized in Customer Relationship Management (CRM) (Bull, 2010;Reychav & Weisberg, 2009). ...
... In order to realize customers' digital transformation, not only technical excellence, but also co-created through close partnership with people in each industry are required ( Garrido-Moreno & Padilla-Meléndez, 2011;Takeuchi, 2016). Since all the data related to the business customers are usually stored and organized in Customer Relationship Management (CRM) (Bull, 2010;Reychav & Weisberg, 2009). ...
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Cross-Company Churn Prediction (CCCP) is a domain of research where one company (target) is lacking enough data and can use data from another company (source) to predict customer churn successfully. To support CCCP, the cross-company data is usually transformed to a set of similar normal distribution of target company data prior to building a CCCP model. However, it is still unclear which data transformation method is most effective in CCCP. Also, the impact of data transformation methods on CCCP model performance using different classifiers have not been comprehensively explored in the telecommunication sector. In this study, we devised a model for CCCP using data transformation methods (i.e., log, z-score, rank and box-cox) and presented not only an extensive comparison to validate the impact of these transformation methods in CCCP, but also evaluated the performance of underlying baseline classifiers (i.e., Naive Bayes (NB), K-Nearest Neighbour (KNN), Gradient Boosted Tree (GBT), Single Rule Induction (SRI) and Deep learner Neural net (DP)) for customer churn prediction in telecommunication sector using the above mentioned data transformation methods. We performed experiments on publicly available datasets related to the telecommunication sector. The results demonstrated that most of the data transformation methods (e.g., log, rank, and boxcox) improve the performance of CCCP significantly. However, the Z-Score data transformation method could not achieve better results as compared to the rest of the data transformation methods in this study. Moreover, it is also investigated that the CCCP model based on NB outperform on transformed data and DP, KNN and GBT performed on the average, while SRI classifier did not show significant results in term of the commonly used evaluation measures (i.e., probability of detection, probability of false alarm, area under the curve and g-mean).
... Organizations can add value to customer relationship by making the best use of customer service personnel. Sin et al. (2005); Mendoza et al. (2007); Bull (2010); Lin, Chen, and Chiu (2010); Shang and Lin (2010); Garrido et al. (2010Rigo, G. E., Pedron, C. D., Caldeira, M., Araújo, C. C. S., JISTEM, Brazil Vol. 13, No. 1, Jan/Abr., 2016 pp. 45-60 www.jistem.fea.usp.br ...
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More and more organisations, from private to public sectors, are pursuing higher levels of customer satisfaction, loyalty and retention. With this intent, higher education institutions (HEI) have adopted CRM – Customer Relationship Management. In order to analyse some of the interesting aspects of this phenomenon n, we conducted an action research in a European Institute. The main research question we answered is “how to adopt a CRM strategy in a Higher Education Institution?” Some of the main findings of this study are (1) even though HEI’s main customer is the student, there are others stakeholders that a CRM project must consider; (2) universities can use their internal resources to implement a CRM project successfully; and (3) using Agile software methodology is an effective way to define clearer, more objective and more assertive technical requirements which result in a CRM software that meet send user’s expectations and organizational strategic goals. These findings can help other HEIs
... Organizations can add value to customer relationship by making the best use of customer service personnel. Sin et al. (2005); Mendoza et al. (2007); Bull (2010); Lin, Chen, and Chiu (2010); Shang and Lin (2010); Garrido et al. (2010Rigo, G. E., Pedron, C. D., Caldeira, M., Araújo, C. C. S., JISTEM, Brazil Vol. 13, No. 1, Jan/Abr., 2016 pp. 45-60 www.jistem.fea.usp.br ...
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More and more organisations, from private to public sectors, are pursuing higher levels of customer satisfaction, loyalty and retention. With this intent, higher education institutions (HEI) have adopted CRM – Customer Relationship Management. In order to analyse some of the interesting aspects of this phenomenon n, we conducted an action research in a European Institute. The main research question we answered is “how to adopt a CRM strategy in a Higher Education Institution?” Some of the main findings of this study are (1) even though HEI's main customer is the student, there are others stakeholders that a CRM project must consider; (2) universities can use their internal resources to implement a CRM project successfully; and (3) using Agile software methodology is an effective way to define clearer, more objective and more assertive technical requirements which result in a CRM software that meet send user's expectations and organizational strategic goals. These findings can help other HEIs planning to adopt CRM as a strategic tool to improve their relationship with the stakeholders´ community and expand their student body.
... Yeh et al. and Chien and Tsaur examine the impact of ERP systems on service quality improvement (Yeh et al., 2007; Tsien and Tsaur, 2007). Bull describes how data obtained from a company's CRM system can be applied to assess the service quality of its intermediaries and even select the most qualitative companies among them as business partners to foster customer service improvements (Bull, 2009). Jøsang et al. emphasize the importance of trust in service provision systems by analyzing the manner in which architectures of service systems are affected by the goal of ensuring the quality of services and thereby sustaining the trust established between customers and service providers their reputation (Jøsang and Ismail, 2007). ...
Chapter
names used in this set are for identification purposes only. Inclusion of the names of the products or companies does not indicate a claim of ownership by IGI Global of the trademark or registered trademark. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data British Cataloguing in Publication Data A Cataloguing in Publication record for this book is available from the British Library.
... Therefore, the effective management of information is critical to the concept of CRM for; @BULLET product tailoring and service innovation (websites tailored to customer needs, taste experience and the development of mass customisation) @BULLET providing a single and consolidated view of the customer @BULLET calculating the lifetime value of the customer @BULLET designing and developing personalised transactions @BULLET communicating with customers using multiple channels @BULLET cross-selling/up-selling various products to customers. Strategic CRM, operational CRM and analytical CRM are the three basic types of CRM proposed in literature (Kotler, 2002; Bull, 2010; Adebanjo, 2008; Bhatnagar and Ranjan, 2010; Faase et al. 2011). Strategic CRM is focused on developing a customer-centric business culture that is dedicated towards winning and keeping the customers by creating and delivering value better than competitors. ...
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This paper presents advancement to modified active learning-based approach in an eclectic framework for extracting if-then rules from support vector machine (SVM) for customer relationship management (CRM) purposes. The proposed approach comprises of three major phases: 1) feature selection using SVM-RFE (recursive feature elimination); 2) active learning for synthetic data generation; 3) rule generation using decision tree (DT) and Naive Bayes tree (NBTree). Finance problems solved in this study are churn prediction in bank credit cards customers and fraud detection in insurance. Based on sensitivity measure, the empirical results suggest that the proposed modified active learning-based rule extraction approach yielded best sensitivity and length and number of rules is reduced resulting in improved comprehensibility. Feature selection leads to the most important attributes of the customers and extracted rules serves as early warning system to the management to enforce better CRM practices and detect/avoid possible frauds.
... The purpose of this section is to highlight the several results of CRM systems implementation, and is based on a literature review. Among the several results, mentioned in literature (Ahn et al., 2003; Alshawi et al., 2010; Becker, Greve, & Albers, 2009; Bose, 2002; Bull, 2010; Q. Chen & H.-M. Chen, 2004; Coltman et al., 2011; Ernst et al., 2010; GarridoMoreno & Padilla-Meléndez, 2011; Krasnikov, Jayachandran, & Kumar, 2009; Osarenkhoe & Bennani, 2007; Paguio, 2010; Payne & Frow, 2006; Peelen, van Montfort, Beltman, & Klerkx, 2009; Shamsuddoha et al., 2010; Smith, 2011) as being the most significant we summarize the main results as: − To increase the companies' knowledge with respect to its customers, in order to better understanding their needs and expectancies, to keep a customized relationship, aiming at new customers acquisition, improve customers' loyalty and their retention, and a fast response to their requests; − To develop and offer customized products and services differentiated from products and services offered by the concurrence; − To establish a close and fluid communication channel with actual and potential customers; − To reduce the cost of sale and of after-sales service, increasing the effectiveness of a vendor in its role of acquiring new customers; − To better align the company with the market; − To contribute to improve internal processes within the organization: improved decision making process, sales efficiency; increased productivity and improved IT architecture; − To aggregate value for the client, rationalizing the internal processes of new product development, allowing the company to know the needs not addressed and the characteristics of the product desired by segments of customers, and administration of the flow of demands, reducing customer's buying time and psychical and physical effort, optimizing after-sales service through the offer of specialized quality services. ...
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There are several motivations for CRM systems adoption, some of them aligned with the results of CRM adoption. This paper presents the main findings of a study undertaken among a sample of Portuguese large enterprises, identifying and discussing the main motivations and results of the adoption of CRM systems. It was possible to conclude that the main results of CRM adoption reflect the main motivations as, for instance, improvement of quality of information or process improvement. The findings of this study allow the academic and professional community to better understand the main motivations of large companies for adopting CRM systems, as well as their obtained results, and also allow CRM systems vendors and consultants to better address the needs of their potential clients.
... The focus of these studies differs completely as research on the users only considers how the IS complies with their needs (He and King, 2008), while research on the developers only considers the coordination of the IS development (Kotlarsky et al., 2008) and the social factors involved (Oshri et al., 2007). The exception to this is provided by Bull (2010), who maintains a more product-specific view by focusing on the fundamental characteristics required of the IS. A topic discussed by multiple authors is the alignment between the IS and the organisation (parts of it) before the actual implementation (Mehta and Hirschheim, 2007; Sen and Sinha, 2011; Tallon, 2008). ...
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E-HRM research with an international perspective is scarce. One of the ways to deal with this lack of international e-HRM research is to 'borrow' from one of its more mature support disciplines, information systems (IS) research. The study presented in this article started from the assumption that the IS literature has a rich history of research with an international focus. For that reason we carried out a literature review in order to find all articles on IS in multinational corporations (MNCs) published since 2006. A final set of 53 articles was read and categorised, resulting in a general analytical framework. We used this framework to review the international e-HRM literature. This confirmed the 'richness' of research on IS in MNCs and showed that e-HRM in MNC research has almost only focused on the post-implementation issues. We conclude that the E-HRM in MNC literature can learn from the IS field, but additional research in this specific field is definitely required.
... However, according to AMR Research and Gartner, in 2008, the specific market for CRM information systems (IS) alone was estimated to be US$13 billion. The research associated with CRM continues to evolve and focuses on a range of topics, such as strategic objectives and the development of strategic frameworks (Bull 2003, 2010, Newell 2000, Zablah et al. 2004), project implementation, the assessment of risk (Parr & Shanks 2000) and reviews of classifications and academic approaches (Das 2009, Kevork & Vrechopoulos 2009). Despite some relatively rare examples (Adam & Light 2004, Wagner & Newell 2004, Polomino Murcia & Whitley 2007, Adam & Bull 2008), there remain relatively few studies that assess the ethical or the cultural issues associated with the diverse aspects of CRM. ...
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This paper focuses much-needed attention on the ethical nature of customer relationship management (CRM) strategies in organisations. The research uses an in-depth case study to reflect on the design, implementation and use of ‘best practice’ associated with CRM. We argue that conventional CRM philosophy is based on a fairly narrow construct that fails to consider ethical issues appropriately. We highlight why ethical considerations are important when organisations use CRM and how a more holistic approach incorporating some of Alasdair MacIntyre's ideas on virtue ethics could be relevant.
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Vera s/n Ed 8G -1º y 4º planta Acc D (Ciudad Politécnica de la Innovación). beaanna.etsii.upv.es, aboza@cigip.upv.es Palabras clave: Sistemas de Información (SI), B2B, CRM, EDI, RFID, plataformas de comunicación y servicio web. 1. Introducción Un nuevo comportamiento por parte de las organizaciones surge con la creciente colaboración entre empresas pertenecientes a una misma Red de Suministro (RdS). Las Tecnologías de Información (TI) y Sistemas de Información (SI) dan soporte a dicha colaboración, favoreciendo el flujo de información entre diferentes entidades de la RdS sin que éstas modifiquen sus propias soluciones tecnológicas, debido a la existencia de plataformas que permiten vincular SI de diferentes nodos de la RdS. Un Sistema de Información es un conjunto de recursos humanos, materiales, financieros, tecnológicos, normativos y metodológicos, organizado para brindar, a quienes operan y a quienes adoptan decisiones en una organización, la información que requieren (Saroka, 2002). Según Checkland y Holwell (1998) el objetivo básico de un SI es proporcionar de forma adecuada datos e información a la organización, mediante el uso de TI, siendo esta información relevante para las actividades dinámicas tanto de la organización como de sus miembros. Los sistemas de información se pueden clasificar en Sistema de Información de Apoyo a las Operaciones y Sistema de Información de Apoyo Gerencial (O'brien, 2001). Se habla de SI de Apoyo a las Operaciones cuando el SI registra las transacciones del nivel operativo mientras que el SI de Apoyo Gerencial se emplea para tomar decisiones. A pesar de hacer esta distinción, los dos tipos de SI, no deben de tratarse de forma excluyente, ya que siempre existirá flujo de información y datos desde el SI operacional hacia el SI gerencial. La clave del apoyo a las operaciones, son los procesos de comunicación e información y sus tecnologías asociadas. De esta forma, los SI de Apoyo a las Operaciones respaldan la sincronización de operaciones, estandarización de medidas y lenguajes, reforzando temas tan decisivos como la sincronización de procesos entre los socios de la RdS. Estos SI constituyen un papel clave para abordar la interoperabilidad. Por lo que la utilización de éstos SI va a permitir realizar procesos interoperables más eficientes, tanto en un contexto interno como externo de la organización apoyando la interoperabilidad y sincronización de operaciones.
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From the Book:We entered the Interactive Age in 1995. That was the year that personal computers outsold TV sets for the first time. The same year, the number of e-mail messages exceeded the number of regular stamped letters. By 1998, the Web was headed inexorably toward normalization, as those hopping onto the Internet for the first time included a growing percentage of people who hadn't been to college. The year 2001 has been designated as the year one in six world citizens will be online, many of them wirelessly. In five years, we will all be spending more waking hours online than offline. When I met Don Peppers in January 1990, we knew that communication was being miniaturized and that technology was giving us newfound powers. Over the next three years, we devoted nearly all of our attention to figuring out what that would mean for business. Our first book, The One to One Future: Building Relationships One Customer at a Time, appeared in 1993, before widespread use of the Web. Back then, we proposed that as the Industrial Age inevitably yielded to the Age of Information and Interactivity, strategies of successful companies would likewise have to change. Thus an enterprise would plan strategies designed to win share of customer rather than market share and to measure its success on retention, customer equity, and returns on data assets rather than just on ROI and market share. Companies would learn to measure each customer's profitability and put customer managers in charge of portfolios of customers. More and more, the enterprise would bring products to customers, not just customers to products. The resulting 1to1 enterprise would engage in a Learning Relationship with individual customersthat worked like this. I know who you are. I remember you. I get you to talk to me. And then, because I know something about you my competitors don't know, I can do something for you my competitors can't do-not for any price. This means the customer actually adds the value to what you can do for her and will find it easier and less costly to do more business with you than to start over somewhere else. You will help her create her own barrier to exit. You will no longer buy her loyaltyyou will sell it to her. In working with blue-chip clients worldwide, we have learned a great deal about the strategies an enterprise will follow in progressing toward 1 to 1 The first requirement is to identify customers-to tag them so that each one can be identified through any channel, across transactions and interactions over time. Once an individual customer can be seen as one complete customer across the enterprise, the enterprise can differentiate customers by both the different values that customers have to the firm and the unique needs that each valuable customer has from the firm. To learn enough to differentiate customers, the enterprise will interact with customers and keep track of these individual dialogs, learning a bit more with every interaction, at every touchpoint. Finally, the enterprise will embark upon the hardest strategy: customization, or treating different customers differently, often by automating the personalization process in a way that increases customer loyalty even as it almost inevitably reduces the cost of operations. These steps are tough. Those companies that can achieve the first three-identify, differentiate, and interact-can claim to have achieved CRM and database marketing. The enterprises that go one step further, which learn to use feedback from each customer to customize for each one individually, will be engaged in active ltol Learning Relationships. Six short years and three books later, now everybody wants to "do CRM." Consulting companies, software enablers, client businesses, large and small, public and private, business to consumer and business to business-all want to get under the CRM umbrella. The irony is that Customer Relationship Management is often none of those three: Often it's not about the customer; it's about the sales force. It's not about relationships; it's about data mining. And it's not about management; it's promotion marketing. Fred. Newell, in his first book, The New Rules of Marketing (1997), began the process of offering practical advice to companies trying to make the transition to CRM and 1 to 1. Here he continues, in even more depth, by offering real help that turns data into strategies, and customers into equity. Most managers and companies have heard the wakeup call, and they believe that customer centricity is the key to success in the future. The hard part now is becoming fluent in alternative thinking, strategies, and tactics-breaking away from the responses and policies that our parents and grandparents taught us for the past 100 years. Fred. Newell, in his practical style, tells you how in simple, straightforward language and then punches the point with one realworld case study after another. I can already envision many readers using the case studies to make the argument for funding their Ito l pilot programs and CRM initiatives. The new chief relationship officers, customer portfolio managers, CRM consultants, business-oriented IT and CIO leadersand ltol pioneers-are dedicated to turning customers in valuable assets. The question now is how to get CRM done. This book will tell you how.
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Enterprise resource planning (ERP) software is a dominant approach for dealing with legacy information system problems. In order to avoid invalidating maintenance and development support from the ERP vendor, most organizations reengineer their business processes in line with those implicit within the software. Regardless, some customization is typically required. This paper presents two case studies of ERP projects where customizations have been performed. The case analysis suggests that while customizations can give true organizational benefits, careful consideration is required to determine whether a customization is viable given its potential impact upon future maintenance. Copyright © 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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Prompted, in part, by the highly publicized failure of customer relationship management (CRM) initiatives, academic research on CRM has begun to flourish. While numerous studies have yielded important insights, the extant CRM literature appears to be inconsistent and is highly fragmented due, primarily, to the lack of a common conceptualization. Thus, to help advance a cohesive body of knowledge on this topic of growing interest and importance, this paper attempts to provide a clear and accurate delineation of CRM's domain. Following the review and analysis of process, strategy, philosophy, capability, and technology-based CRM perspectives, the authors propose that the phenomenon is best conceptualized as an ongoing process that involves the development and leveraging of market intelligence for the purpose of building and maintaining a profit-maximizing portfolio of customer relationships. Based on the proposed conceptualization, a detailed description of the CRM process is provided, along with a comprehensive framework intended to aid marketers in their quest to achieve CRM success.
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Information systems are strategic to the extent that they support a firm's business strategy. Cisco Systems has used the Internet and its own information systems to support its strategy in several ways: (1) to create a business ecology around its technology standards; (2) to coordinate a virtual organization that allows it to concentrate on product innovation while outsourcing other functions; (3) to showcase its own use of the Internet as a marketing tool. Cisco's strategy and execution enabled it to dominate key networking standards and sustain high growth rates throughout the 1990s. In late 2000, however, Cisco's market collapsed and the company was left with billions of dollars in unsold inventory, calling into question the ability of its information systems to help it anticipate and respond effectively to a decline in demand.
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This article is about ongoing efforts to come to grips with the question: Does relationship marketing pay? The question is discussed under the umbrella concept return on relationships. Much of what is being done in relationship marketing and customer relationship management has a bearing on both business-to-business and business-to-consumer marketing, and on manufacturing as well as services. Although there is a shortage of empirical research and proven practice, the article aims to show current efforts to generate knowledge of return on relationships, with particular emphasis on business-to-business environments. The article ends with action strategies to improve return on relationships, and a summary of conclusions.
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There has been an increase in recent years in the number of in-depth case studies which focus on human actions and interpretations surrounding the development and use of computer-based information systems (IS). This paper addresses philosophical and theoretical issues concerning the nature of such interpretive case studies, and methodological issues on the conduct and reporting of this type of research. The paper aims to provide a useful reference point for researchers who wish to work in the interpretive tradition, and more generally to encourage careful work on the conceptualisation and execution of case studies in the information systems field.
The CRM handbook: A business guide to Customer Relationship Man-agement
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