Introduction The ability to effectively process and regulate emotional information is a crucial social skill that undergoes important developmental changes from childhood through adolescence and adulthood. Clinical studies indicate that individuals diagnosed with psychiatric disorders, in particular anxiety and mood disorders, exhibit abnormalities in emotion processing and regulation (Phillips, Ladouceur, & Drevets, 2008). Evidence from epidemiological, genetic, and neuroimaging studies suggests that abnormalities in neural connectivity within and between regions of the brain implicated in emotion processing and regulation may play an important role in the neuropathophysiology of these disorders (Almeida & Phillips, 2012; Hajek, Carrey, & Alda, 2005; Leibenluft, Charney, & Pine, 2003; Merikangas et al., 2011; Phillips et al., 2008; Versace et al., 2015). Collectively, these neural connections, or networks, constitute the Brain’s "connectome" (Hagmann, 2005; Sporns, Tononi, & Kötter, 2005). It is possible that altered development of these neural networks might contribute to the developmental trajectories of these disorders in vulnerable youth or youth at familial risk for these disorders. In this chapter, we will focus particularly on bipolar disorder (BD), a serious and recurrent neuropsychiatric illness that affects 2-5 percent of the population (Merikangas et al., 2007) and ranks as one of the top ten leading causes of disability in the world (WHO, 2001). One of the chief clinical features of BD is the difficulty in regulating a range of emotions. In particular, BD is characterized by a pervasive mood disturbance that involves rapid fluctuations and changes in the valence and intensity of emotional states ranging from episodes of sadness, irritability, and anger to episodes of extreme happiness, elation, increased activity, and risky behavior. he emergence of BD in children and adolescents is of particular concern because early onset of BD has been associated with severe presentation and course, including high rates of hospitalization, psychosis, suicidal behavior, substance abuse, and other psychosocial problems (Birmaher et al., 2006; Geller et al., 2002; Perlis et al., 2004). Moreover, evidence from adoption, twin, high-risk, and family studies indicate that BD is highly heritable (Birmaher et al., 2009; DelBello & Geller, 2001; Goodwin & Jamison, 2007; Tsai, Lee, & CC, 1999; Tsuang & Faraone, 1990).