Anal stenosis occurs most commonly following a surgical procedure, such as hemorrhoidectomy, excision and fulguration of anorectal warts, endorectal flaps, or following proctectomy, particularly in the setting of mucosectomy. Patients who experience anal stenosis describe constipation, bleeding, pain, and incomplete evacuation. Although often described as a debilitating and difficult problem, several good treatment options are available. In addition to simple dietary and medication changes, surgical procedures, such as lateral internal sphincterotomy or transfers of healthy tissue are other potentially good options. Flap procedures are excellent choices, depending on the location of the stenosis and the amount of viable tissue needed. This article presents the definition, pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment of anal stenosis, and methods to prevent it.
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