Brief Report: Repetitive Behaviours in Greek Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder

Offord Centre for Child Studies & Department of Psychiatry and Behavioural Neurosciences, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, Canada.
Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders (Impact Factor: 3.06). 07/2010; 40(7):903-6. DOI: 10.1007/s10803-009-0927-9
Source: PubMed


The main objective of this study was to examine the factor structure of restricted repetitive behaviours (RRBs) in a sample of 205 Greek individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), using the Repetitive Behavior Scale-Revised (RBS-R). Results show that the structure of RRBs in this Greek sample can be described using a 2-factor solution. The current study provides further, cross-cultural support for the distinction between a "high-order" factor reflecting compulsions, rituals, sameness, and restricted behaviours (CRSRB) and a "low-order" factor reflecting stereotyped movements and self-injurious behaviours (SSIB). These factors are most likely located at the top of the RRB structural hierarchy and represent general, independent constructs of ASD behaviours that can be identified not only across studies but also across cultures.

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    • "Some factor analysis studies of RRBs in ASD have included adults in their samples (e.g., Cuccaro et al. 2003; Georgiades et al. 2010; Lam et al. 2008; Papageorgiou et al. 2008; Shao et al. 2003). However, conclusions from these studies about RRBs in adults are limited; either because the samples span a limited age range, or because the adult samples were not separated from the child samples in the analysis. "
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    ABSTRACT: In two studies we developed and tested a new self-report measure of restricted and repetitive behaviours (RRB) suitable for adults. In Study 1, The Repetitive Behaviours Questionnaire-2 for adults (RBQ-2A) was completed by a sample of 163 neurotypical adults. Principal components analysis revealed two components: Repetitive Motor Behaviours and Insistence on Sameness. In Study 2, the mean RBQ-2A scores of a group of adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD; N = 29) were compared to an adult neurotypical group (N = 37). The ASD sample had significantly higher total and subscale scores. These results indicate that the RBQ-2A has utility as a self-report questionnaire measure of RRBs suitable for adults, with potential clinical application.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2015 · Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
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    • "For the RBS-R we calculated two scores (higher-order vs. lower-order repetitive behaviors) in an effort to decrease the number of variables analyzed. This is based on previous factor analysis of the RBS-R that produced these two factors: higher order (ritualistic, sameness, compulsive and restricted subscales) and lower order (stereotypy and self-injury) [32]. This construct has also been supported by a factor analysis of the YBOCS in autism [33]. "
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    ABSTRACT: There are no effective medications for the treatment of social cognition/function deficits in autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and adult intervention literature in this area is sparse. Emerging data from animal models and genetic association studies as well as early, single-dose intervention studies suggest that the oxytocin system may be a potential therapeutic target for social cognition/function deficits in ASD. The primary aim of this study was to examine the safety/therapeutic effects of intranasal oxytocin versus placebo in adults with ASD, with respect to the two core symptom domains of social cognition/functioning and repetitive behaviors. This was a pilot, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel design trial of intranasal oxytocin versus placebo in 19 adults with ASD (16 males; 33.20 ± 13.29 years). Subjects were randomized to 24 IU intranasal oxytocin or placebo in the morning and afternoon for 6 weeks. Measures of social function/cognition (the Diagnostic Analysis of Nonverbal Accuracy) and repetitive behaviors (Repetitive Behavior Scale Revised) were administered. Secondary measures included the Social Responsiveness Scale, Reading-the-Mind-in-the-Eyes Test and the Yale Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale – compulsion subscale and quality of life (World Health Organization Quality of Life Questionnaire – emotional/social subscales). Full-information maximum-likelihood parameter estimates were obtained and tested using mixed-effects regression analyses. Although no significant changes were detected in the primary outcome measures after correcting for baseline differences, results suggested improvements after 6 weeks in measures of social cognition (Reading-the-Mind-in-the-Eyes Test, p = 0.002, d = 1.2), and quality of life (World Health Organization Quality of Life Questionnaire – emotion, p = 0.031, d = 0.84), both secondary measures. Oxytocin was well tolerated and no serious adverse effects were reported. This pilot study suggests that there is therapeutic potential to daily administration of intranasal oxytocin in adults with ASD and that larger and longer studies are warranted. Trial registration
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2012 · Molecular Autism
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    ABSTRACT: The authors carried out a factor analysis of the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale checklist at the category level in order to reduce the number of variables in this domain and ultimately identify possible endophenotypes; 181 children with autism were enrolled. The authors estimated a tetrachoric correlation matrix among the dichotomous symptom categories and then used exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses to identify a clinically meaningful factor structure for this correlation matrix. Their analysis supported a four-factor solution: obsessions, higher-order repetitive behaviors, lower-order repetitive behaviors, and hoarding. These findings are another step in the effort to identify genetically and biologically distinct groups within this population.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2011 · The Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
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