Article

Pharmaceuticals and Personal Care Products in Archived US Biosolids From the 2001 EPA National Sewage Sludge Survey

Center for Environmental Biotechnology, The Biodesign Institute at Arizona State University, 1001 S. McAllister Avenue, Tempe, AZ 85287-5701, USA.
Water Research (Impact Factor: 5.53). 01/2010; 44(2):658-68. DOI: 10.1016/j.watres.2009.12.032
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

In response to the U.S. National Academies' call for a better assessment of chemical pollutants contained in the approximately 7 million dry tons of digested municipal sludge produced annually in the United States, the mean concentration of 72 pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCP) were determined in 110 biosolids samples collected by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in its 2001 National Sewage Sludge Survey. Composite samples of archived biosolids, collected at 94 U.S. wastewater treatment plants from 32 states and the District of Columbia, were analyzed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry using EPA Method 1694. Thirty-eight (54%) of the 72 analytes were detected in at least one composite sample at concentrations ranging from 0.002 to 48 mg kg(-1) dry weight. Triclocarban and triclosan were the most abundant analytes with mean concentrations of 36 +/- 8 and 12.6 +/- 3.8 mg kg(-1) (n = 5), respectively, accounting for 65% of the total PPCP mass found. The loading to U.S. soils from nationwide biosolids recycling was estimated at 210-250 metric tons per year for the sum of the 72 PPCPs investigated. The results of this nationwide reconnaissance of PPCPs in archived U.S. biosolids mirror in contaminant occurrences, frequencies and concentrations, those reported by the U.S. EPA for samples collected in 2006/2007. This demonstrates that PPCP releases in U.S. biosolids have been ongoing for many years and the most abundant PPCPs appear to show limited fluctuations in mass over time when assessed on a nationwide basis. The here demonstrated use of five mega composite samples holds promise for conducting cost-effective, routine monitoring on a regional and national basis.

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    • "(Halden and Paull, 2005; Yueh et al., 2014; Kwon and Xia, 2012) Due to their widespread use, triclosan and triclocarban are frequently detected in biosolids, often in the mg kg À1 range. (United States Environmental Protection Agency, 2009; McClellan and Halden, 2010; Heidler et al., 2006; Cha and Cupples, 2009) Research shows that triclosan and triclocarban may induce developmental, carcinogenic or other chronic toxicities to human and other nontarget organisms. (Udoji et al., 2010; Dinwiddie et al., 2014; Chung et al., 2011; Anger et al., 2013; Buth et al., 2010) To date, a number of studies have considered degradation or persistence of triclosan and triclocarban in soil with or without biosolid amendment . "
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    • "This may be due to the qnr genes themselves, or alternatively to additional genes that are carried on mobile genetic elements that also harbor the qnr genes. The acquisition of plasmids carrying qnr genes increases the MIC of ciprofloxacin for wild-type E. coli J53 from 0.016 to 0.25 μg/ml (Robicsek et al., 2006) and therefore, it may be assumed that qnr confers a selective advantage to bacteria residing in the sludge, where ciprofloxacin concentrations of up to 0.05 μg/mg have been detected (Golet et al., 2002; McClellan and Halden, 2010). We discovered that although the activated sludge process did not appear to select for a specific resistance, there appeared to be an increase in the degree of multi-resistance of the sludge IC isolates relative to the raw sewage isolates. "
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    • "The environmental impact of residual pharmaceuticals and personal-care products (PPCPs) has become public concern due to their widespread occurrence in the environment (Gobel et al., 2005; McClellan & Halden, 2010; Vasiliadou et al., 2013). Among these emerging contaminants, antibiotics are extensively used not only in human and veterinary medicine but also as growth promoting agents in the modern farming and aquaculture industry (Garcia-Galan et al., 2011; Zhou et al., 2014). "
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