Pharmaceuticals and Personal Care Products in Archived US Biosolids From the 2001 EPA National Sewage Sludge Survey

Center for Environmental Biotechnology, The Biodesign Institute at Arizona State University, 1001 S. McAllister Avenue, Tempe, AZ 85287-5701, USA.
Water Research (Impact Factor: 5.53). 01/2010; 44(2):658-68. DOI: 10.1016/j.watres.2009.12.032
Source: PubMed


In response to the U.S. National Academies' call for a better assessment of chemical pollutants contained in the approximately 7 million dry tons of digested municipal sludge produced annually in the United States, the mean concentration of 72 pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCP) were determined in 110 biosolids samples collected by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in its 2001 National Sewage Sludge Survey. Composite samples of archived biosolids, collected at 94 U.S. wastewater treatment plants from 32 states and the District of Columbia, were analyzed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry using EPA Method 1694. Thirty-eight (54%) of the 72 analytes were detected in at least one composite sample at concentrations ranging from 0.002 to 48 mg kg(-1) dry weight. Triclocarban and triclosan were the most abundant analytes with mean concentrations of 36 +/- 8 and 12.6 +/- 3.8 mg kg(-1) (n = 5), respectively, accounting for 65% of the total PPCP mass found. The loading to U.S. soils from nationwide biosolids recycling was estimated at 210-250 metric tons per year for the sum of the 72 PPCPs investigated. The results of this nationwide reconnaissance of PPCPs in archived U.S. biosolids mirror in contaminant occurrences, frequencies and concentrations, those reported by the U.S. EPA for samples collected in 2006/2007. This demonstrates that PPCP releases in U.S. biosolids have been ongoing for many years and the most abundant PPCPs appear to show limited fluctuations in mass over time when assessed on a nationwide basis. The here demonstrated use of five mega composite samples holds promise for conducting cost-effective, routine monitoring on a regional and national basis.

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    • "(Halden and Paull, 2005; Yueh et al., 2014; Kwon and Xia, 2012) Due to their widespread use, triclosan and triclocarban are frequently detected in biosolids, often in the mg kg À1 range. (United States Environmental Protection Agency, 2009; McClellan and Halden, 2010; Heidler et al., 2006; Cha and Cupples, 2009) Research shows that triclosan and triclocarban may induce developmental, carcinogenic or other chronic toxicities to human and other nontarget organisms. (Udoji et al., 2010; Dinwiddie et al., 2014; Chung et al., 2011; Anger et al., 2013; Buth et al., 2010) To date, a number of studies have considered degradation or persistence of triclosan and triclocarban in soil with or without biosolid amendment . "
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    ABSTRACT: Biosolids are extensively used in agriculture as fertilizers while offering a practical solution for waste disposal. Many pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs), such as triclosan and triclocarban, are enriched in biosolids. Biosolid amendment changes soil physicochemical properties, which may in turn alter the persistence of PPCPs and hence the risk for secondary contamination such as plant uptake. To delineate the effect of biosolids on PPCPs persistence, triclosan and triclocarban were used as model compounds in this study and their sorption (Kd) and persistence (t1/2) were determined in different soils before and after biosolid amendment. Biosolids consistently increased sorption of triclosan and triclocarban in soil. The Kd of triclosan increased by 3.9-21 times following amendment of a sandy loam soil with biosolids at 2-10%. The persistence of both compounds was prolonged, with t1/2 of triclosan increasing from 10 d in the unamended soil to 63 d after biosolid amendment at 10%. The relationship between t1/2 and Kd was further examined through a meta-analysis using data from this study and all relevant published studies. A significant linear relationship between t1/2 and Kd was observed for triclosan (r(2) = 0.69, p < 0.01) and triclocarban (r(2) = 0.38, p < 0.05) in biosolid-amended soils. On the average, when biosolid amendment increased by 1%, t1/2 of triclosan was prolonged by 7.5 d, while t1/2 of triclocarban was extended by 4.7 d. Therefore, biosolid amendment greatly enhances persistence of triclosan and triclocarban, likely due to enhanced sorption or decreased chemical bioavailability. This finding highlights the importance to consider the effect of biosolids when evaluating the environmental risks of these and other biosolid-borne PPCPs.
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    • "This may be due to the qnr genes themselves, or alternatively to additional genes that are carried on mobile genetic elements that also harbor the qnr genes. The acquisition of plasmids carrying qnr genes increases the MIC of ciprofloxacin for wild-type E. coli J53 from 0.016 to 0.25 μg/ml (Robicsek et al., 2006) and therefore, it may be assumed that qnr confers a selective advantage to bacteria residing in the sludge, where ciprofloxacin concentrations of up to 0.05 μg/mg have been detected (Golet et al., 2002; McClellan and Halden, 2010). We discovered that although the activated sludge process did not appear to select for a specific resistance, there appeared to be an increase in the degree of multi-resistance of the sludge IC isolates relative to the raw sewage isolates. "
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    • "The environmental impact of residual pharmaceuticals and personal-care products (PPCPs) has become public concern due to their widespread occurrence in the environment (Gobel et al., 2005; McClellan & Halden, 2010; Vasiliadou et al., 2013). Among these emerging contaminants, antibiotics are extensively used not only in human and veterinary medicine but also as growth promoting agents in the modern farming and aquaculture industry (Garcia-Galan et al., 2011; Zhou et al., 2014). "
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    ABSTRACT: This article examined the biological removal of high concentrated sulfamethazine (SMZ) antibiotics by the acclimatized activated sludge in lab-scale SBRs system. The removal of SMZ was characterized by a quick adsorption and a slow process of biodegradation. The adsorption capacity of activated sludge for SMZ was 44 and 47 µg SMZ/g SS, respectively, with the initial SMZ concentrations of 1 and 2 mg/L. The adsorption process fitted pseudo-second-order kinetic model. In a series of batch studies, with the increase of initial SMZ concentration that were 1, 2, 3, 5, 7 and 9 mg/L, 56.0%, 51.3%, 42.2%, 29.5%, 25.0% and 20.8% of influent SMZ were biodegraded within 24 h of biological reaction, respectively. The Monod equation applied to simulate SMZ biodegradation had a good coefficient of determination ( R 2 > 0.99). Furthermore, the results of HPLC demonstrated that the SMZ was not completely removed by the acclimatized activated sludge. From the analysis of LC-MS, 4 intermediates of SMZ biodegradation were identified: Sulfanilic Acid, 4-amino-N-(4,6-dimethyl-2 pyrimidin) benzene sulfonamide, N-(4,6-dimethyl-2-pyrimidin)-4-N-(benzene sulfonamide) benzene sulfonamide, N-(4,6-dimethyl-2-pyrimidin)-4-N-(4,6-dimethyl pyrimidine) benzene sulfonamide, and N-(4,6-dimethyl-2-pyrimidin)-4-N-(3-dimethyl-4-N sodium benzene sulfonamide) benzene sulfonamide.
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