Article

Do Parents and Best Friends Influence the Normative Increase in Adolescents' Alcohol Use at Home and Outside the Home?*

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  • Trimbos Institute / Utrecht University
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Abstract

The present study explored the possible impact of parental supervision of adolescents' alcohol use and drinking with parents on concurrent and prospective associations between adolescents' drinking at home and drinking outside the home. The impact of drinking with their best friend, parental drinking behaviors, and sibling influence on adolescent alcohol use were also examined, as well as whether drinking at home and outside the home predicted problem drinking. We used three waves of longitudinal full-family data (fathers, mothers, and two adolescent siblings; N = 428). Bi-directional effects between drinking at home and drinking outside the home were found for both adolescents, with drinking in one setting predicting drinking in another setting over time. Both drinking at home and drinking outside the home predicted subsequent problem drinking. These associations did not differ as a function of adolescents drinking with parents or their best friend or of parental supervision of adolescents' alcohol use. Only adolescents' gender seemed to moderate these effects but solely in midadolescence. For 15-year-old boys (but not for girls), at-home drinking predicted outside-the-home drinking 1 year later. Taken together, adolescents' alcohol use increases over time, regardless of setting or with whom they drink. According to these results, prevention workers should focus on making parents more aware of their role in delaying the age at drinking onset.

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... Ten studies focused on these dimensions of parental allowance/supervision and measured alcohol use and various alcohol-related outcomes. Four of the studies implied that the parent was present (Jackson, 1997;Jackson et al., 1999;Komro et al., 2007;Livingston et al., 2010); the rest specifi cally addressed parental supervised or unsupervised alcohol use (Gilligan et al., 2012;Lundborg, 2007;McMorris et al., 2011;Shortt et al., 2007;Van der Vorst et al., 2010;Yu, 2003). In addition to supervised use, Van der Vorst et al. (2010) also measured drinking in the home versus drinking outside of the home. ...
... Four of the studies implied that the parent was present (Jackson, 1997;Jackson et al., 1999;Komro et al., 2007;Livingston et al., 2010); the rest specifi cally addressed parental supervised or unsupervised alcohol use (Gilligan et al., 2012;Lundborg, 2007;McMorris et al., 2011;Shortt et al., 2007;Van der Vorst et al., 2010;Yu, 2003). In addition to supervised use, Van der Vorst et al. (2010) also measured drinking in the home versus drinking outside of the home. Two studies measured only the adolescent point of view regarding their parent's rules about drinking at home, either supervised or unsupervised (Jackson et al., 1999;McMorris et al., 2011). ...
... Two studies measured only the adolescent point of view regarding their parent's rules about drinking at home, either supervised or unsupervised (Jackson et al., 1999;McMorris et al., 2011). Five studies measured the point of view of parents only or of both the parent and the adolescent Livingston et al., 2010;Shortt et al., 2007;Van der Vorst et al., 2010;Yu, 2003). Despite differences across studies in the measurement tools used, geographic region, or the age of the samples, all of the longitudinal studies observed that parental allowance of drinking at home was related to a higher likelihood of drinking during adolescence (Jackson et al., 1999;Komro et al., 2007;Shortt et al., 2007), heavy episodic drinking Livingston et al., 2010), or the frequency of alcohol-related problems (McMorris et al., 2011;Van der Vorst et al., 2010). ...
Article
Objective: There have been conflicting findings in the literature concerning the risks to adolescents when parents provide them with alcohol. Studies have examined various ways in which parents directly affect adolescent alcohol consumption through provision (e.g., parental offers, parental allowance/supervision, parental presence while drinking, and parental supply). This review synthesizes findings on the direct ways parental provision can influence a child's alcohol consumption and related problems in an effort to provide parents with science-based guidance. We describe potential mechanisms of the relationship between these parental influences and adolescent problems, suggest future directions for research, and discuss implications for parents. Method: Twenty-two studies (a mix of cross-sectional and longitudinal) that empirically examined the association between parental provision and adolescent drinking outcomes were reviewed. Results: Parental provision was generally associated with increased adolescent alcohol use and, in some instances, increased heavy episodic drinking as well as higher rates of alcohol-related problems. Data in support of the view that parental provision serves as a protective factor in the face of other risk factors were equivocal. Conclusions: The nature and extent of the risks associated with parental provision, and the potential mechanisms underlying this association, are complex issues. Although more rigorous studies with longitudinal designs are needed, parents should be aware of potential risks associated with providing adolescents with alcohol and a place to drink. It is recommended that parents discourage drinking until adolescents reach legal age.
... Such a possibility is consistent with a Dutch cohort study of adolescents, where it was found that drinking in the home was not protective against later "problem" drinking [29], and specifically that drinking with parents was also not protectiveit did not matter with whom the adolescents were drinking, as all consumption increased odds of later problem drinking [29]. In that study, among mid-adolescent boys, drinking with parents also increased the odds of later drinking outside the home, which additionally increased risks of "problem" drinking [29]. ...
... Such a possibility is consistent with a Dutch cohort study of adolescents, where it was found that drinking in the home was not protective against later "problem" drinking [29], and specifically that drinking with parents was also not protectiveit did not matter with whom the adolescents were drinking, as all consumption increased odds of later problem drinking [29]. In that study, among mid-adolescent boys, drinking with parents also increased the odds of later drinking outside the home, which additionally increased risks of "problem" drinking [29]. ...
... Such a possibility is consistent with a Dutch cohort study of adolescents, where it was found that drinking in the home was not protective against later "problem" drinking [29], and specifically that drinking with parents was also not protectiveit did not matter with whom the adolescents were drinking, as all consumption increased odds of later problem drinking [29]. In that study, among mid-adolescent boys, drinking with parents also increased the odds of later drinking outside the home, which additionally increased risks of "problem" drinking [29]. This possibility would suggest that delaying the onset of drinking in general might be preferable as a strategy to reduce later risky alcohol use, rather than using a strategy where parents introduce their teenage children to alcohol [29]. ...
Article
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Background: There are limited longitudinal data on the associations between different social contexts of alcohol use and risky adolescent drinking. Methods: Australian prospective longitudinal cohort of 1943 adolescents with 6 assessment waves at ages 14-17 years. Drinkers were asked where and how frequently they drank. Contexts were: at home with family, at home alone, at a party with friends, in a park/car, or at a bar/nightclub. The outcomes were prevalence and incidence of risky drinking (≥5 standard drinks (10g alcohol) on a day, past week) and very risky drinking (>20 standard drinks for males and >11 for females) in early (waves 1-2) and late (waves 3-6) adolescence. Results: Forty-four percent (95 % CI: 41-46 %) reported past-week risky drinking on at least one wave during adolescence (waves 1-6). Drinking at a party was the most common repeated drinking context in early adolescence (28 %, 95 % CI 26-30 %); 15 % reported drinking repeatedly (3+ times) with their family in early adolescence (95 % CI: 14-17 %). For all contexts (including drinking with family), drinking 3+ times in a given context was associated with increased the risk of risky drinking in later adolescence. These effects remained apparent after adjustment for potential confounders (e.g. for drinking with family, adjusted RR 1.9; 95 % CI: 1.5-2.4). Similar patterns were observed for very risky drinking. Conclusions: Our results suggest that consumption with family does not protect against risky drinking. Furthermore, parents who wish to minimise high risk drinking by their adolescent children might also limit their children's opportunities to consume alcohol in unsupervised settings.
... It is important to focus on early alcohol use, as it is associated with higher levels of drinking later in adolescence (Colder, Shyhalla, & Frndak, 2018;DeWit, Adlaf, Offord, & Ogborne, 2014;Gruber, DiClemente, Anderson, & Lodico, 1996;Hingson, Heeren, Jamanka, & Howland, 2000;Pitkänen, Lyyra, & Pulkkinen, 2005). Early alcohol use often occurs within the family and is influenced by family-related factors (Mayer, Forster, Murray, & Wagenaar, 1998;Rossow, Keating, Felix, & Mccambridge, 2016;Van der Vorst, Engels, & Burk, 2010), such as parental alcohol use (Koning, Engels, Verdurmen, & Vollebergh, 2010), availability of alcohol in home (Komro, Maldonado-Molina, Tobler, Bonds, & Muller, 2007), and alcohol-specific socialization (e.g., rules about alcohol use (Handley & Chassin, 2013)). Although parental alcohol use has been found to be associated with alcohol use in early adolescence (Pedersen & Skrondal, 1998), other factors related to the nature of parental alcohol use might explain this link. ...
... The social learning theory posits that learning new behaviours occurs through modelling and imitation (Bandura & McClelland, 1977). When preteens see their parents drinking more frequently, they might perceive drinking as being the norm (Kam, Basinger, & Abendschein, 2017), which in turn increases the likelihood of alcohol initiation and progression into risky drinking habits (Dalton et al., 2005;Kam et al., 2017;Van der Vorst et al., 2010). For instance, when parents use alcohol with their colleagues after work, i.e., outside of their children's vision, this should have little to no effect in terms of normative perception and modelling. ...
... This is the first study to underline the importance of preteen exposure to alcohol use in the parent-preteen alcohol use link, future studies (preferably longitudinal) should investigate aspects that may be accountable for the parent-preteen alcohol use link. For instance, such studies should control for behaviours and cognitions that reflect parental alcohol use behaviour, e.g., norms and alcohol-related attitudes (Brody, Ge, Katz, & Arias, 2000;Kam et al., 2017;Van der Vorst et al., 2010), which may influence the degree to which parents use alcohol in the presence of their children. Moreover, since current study include light to moderate drinking parents, future work should examine whether alcohol use exposure among problematic drinking or addicted parents associates with preteens' alcohol-related cognitions, and behaviours (Rossow et al., 2016). ...
Article
Objective: The aim of the present study was to test the link between exposure to parental alcohol use (i.e., preteens seeing their parents drinking) and preteen's alcohol use. Specifically, this study aimed to (a) replicate the association between parental alcohol use and preteen alcohol use and (b) test whether alcohol use exposure mediated this association. Method: Families were recruited from five regions in the Netherlands from 104 schools that agreed to participate. Preteens (N = 755, Mage = 11.27, SD = 0.56, 45.8% boys) and their mothers (N = 755) participated in the study. Preteens reported lifetime alcohol use and parental alcohol use exposure. Mothers reported on alcohol use for both parents. Structural Equation Modelling was used to assess direct and mediated paths between parental alcohol use, preteen's exposure to alcohol use and preteen alcohol use in one model. Results: Unexpectedly, father's alcohol use was negatively associated (β = -0.121, p = .012) and mother's alcohol use was not associated (β = 0.056, p = .215) with preteen's alcohol use. A positive indirect effect emerged through alcohol use exposure, showing that exposure to father's alcohol use mediated the association between parent's and preteen's alcohol use (β = 0.064, p = .001). This effect was absent for mother's alcohol use (β = 0.026, p = .264). Gender differences were non-significant. Conclusions: Parental alcohol exposure positively mediated the association of parental alcohol use with preteen's alcohol use. These effects were found for both boys and girls and were most robust for father's drinking. The findings might provide clues for preventive action, for example, by emphasizing that exposure should be restricted to prevent preteen's alcohol use.
... Ignoring the crosssectional studiesof little assistance in understanding the impact of parental supplyseven cohorts showed associations between parental supply and drinking (Kaynak et al. 2014). Yet, assessments were limited to one (Shortt et al. 2007;Livingston et al. 2010) or two follow-up occasions (Jackson et al. 1999;Komro et al. 2007;Van Der |Vorst et al. 2010;Danielsson et al. 2011;McMorris et al. 2011), in quite late adolescence (18-19 years of age; Livingston et al. 2010) or in early adolescence [10-12 (Jackson et al. 1999), 12-13 (Shortt et al. 2007) or 12-14 years of age McMorris et al. 2011)], hampering conclusions about both the development and the sequelae of parental supply. One study did span 13-15 years of age (Jackson et al. 1999), and a key study assessed 13-16 years of age (Van Der Vorst et al. 2010). ...
... Yet, assessments were limited to one (Shortt et al. 2007;Livingston et al. 2010) or two follow-up occasions (Jackson et al. 1999;Komro et al. 2007;Van Der |Vorst et al. 2010;Danielsson et al. 2011;McMorris et al. 2011), in quite late adolescence (18-19 years of age; Livingston et al. 2010) or in early adolescence [10-12 (Jackson et al. 1999), 12-13 (Shortt et al. 2007) or 12-14 years of age McMorris et al. 2011)], hampering conclusions about both the development and the sequelae of parental supply. One study did span 13-15 years of age (Jackson et al. 1999), and a key study assessed 13-16 years of age (Van Der Vorst et al. 2010). Yet, these two studies left unmeasured known predictors of adolescent drinking and potential confounders, including: parental/familial alcohol problems (Jackson et al. 1999;Van Der Vorst et al. 2010), parental drinking (Jackson et al. 1999), child externalizing and other substance use (Van Der Vorst et al. 2010) and child age (Jackson et al. 1999;Van Der Vorst et al. 2010). ...
... One study did span 13-15 years of age (Jackson et al. 1999), and a key study assessed 13-16 years of age (Van Der Vorst et al. 2010). Yet, these two studies left unmeasured known predictors of adolescent drinking and potential confounders, including: parental/familial alcohol problems (Jackson et al. 1999;Van Der Vorst et al. 2010), parental drinking (Jackson et al. 1999), child externalizing and other substance use (Van Der Vorst et al. 2010) and child age (Jackson et al. 1999;Van Der Vorst et al. 2010). Incomplete control for demographics and risk factors was noted in all seven cohorts (Kaynak et al. 2014). ...
Article
Background Parents are a major supplier of alcohol to adolescents, yet there is limited research examining the impact of this on adolescent alcohol use. This study investigates associations between parental supply of alcohol, supply from other sources, and adolescent drinking, adjusting for child, parent, family and peer variables. Method A cohort of 1927 adolescents was surveyed annually from 2010 to 2014. Measures include: consumption of whole drinks; binge drinking (>4 standard drinks on any occasion); parental supply of alcohol; supply from other sources; child, parent, family and peer covariates. Results After adjustment, adolescents supplied alcohol by parents had higher odds of drinking whole beverages [odds ratio (OR) 1.80, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.33–2.45] than those not supplied by parents. However, parental supply was not associated with bingeing, and those supplied alcohol by parents typically consumed fewer drinks per occasion (incidence rate ratio 0.86, 95% CI 0.77–0.96) than adolescents supplied only from other sources. Adolescents obtaining alcohol from non-parental sources had increased odds of drinking whole beverages (OR 2.53, 95% CI 1.86–3.45) and bingeing (OR 3.51, 95% CI 2.53–4.87). Conclusions Parental supply of alcohol to adolescents was associated with increased risk of drinking, but not bingeing. These parentally-supplied children also consumed fewer drinks on a typical drinking occasion. Adolescents supplied alcohol from non-parental sources had greater odds of drinking and bingeing. Further follow-up is necessary to determine whether these patterns continue, and to examine alcohol-related harm trajectories. Parents should be advised that supply of alcohol may increase children's drinking.
... Of these seven studies, suitable summary statistics were available from six studies for meta-analysis. The remaining one article [32] used analytic methods that do not produce effect estimates that can be converted to ORs. ...
... Table 3 provides quality scores for the studies, assessing risk of bias. Three studies were of good quality [27,33,36], one was of fair quality [38], and three were of poor quality [32,35,37]. A causal inference is constrained by risk of bias in some studies, the main concerns being measurement of the exposure (a lack of distinction between sips and whole drinks) [27,32,33,36,37], the lack of adjustment for key potential confounders (e.g., parent drinking, and parent rules about alcohol) [27,[36][37][38], or a lack of clarity as to whether key confounders had been adjusted for [32,33,35]. ...
... Three studies were of good quality [27,33,36], one was of fair quality [38], and three were of poor quality [32,35,37]. A causal inference is constrained by risk of bias in some studies, the main concerns being measurement of the exposure (a lack of distinction between sips and whole drinks) [27,32,33,36,37], the lack of adjustment for key potential confounders (e.g., parent drinking, and parent rules about alcohol) [27,[36][37][38], or a lack of clarity as to whether key confounders had been adjusted for [32,33,35]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Whether parental supply of alcohol affects the likelihood of later adolescent risky drinking remains unclear. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to synthesize findings from longitudinal studies investigating this association. We searched eight electronic databases up to 10 September 2016 for relevant terms and included only original English language peer-reviewed journal articles with a prospective design. Two reviewers independently screened articles, extracted data and assessed risk of bias. Seven articles met inclusion criteria, six of which used analytic methods allowing for meta-analysis. In all seven studies, the follow-up period was ≥12 months and attrition ranged from 3% to 15%. Parental supply of alcohol was associated with subsequent risky drinking (odds ratio = 2.00, 95% confidence interval = 1.72, 2.32); however, there was substantial risk of confounding bias and publication bias. In all studies, measurement of exposure was problematic given the lack of distinction between parental supply of sips of alcohol versus whole drinks. In conclusion, parental supply of alcohol in childhood is associated with an increased likelihood of risky drinking later in adolescence. However, methodological limitations preclude a causal inference. More robust longitudinal studies are needed, with particular attention to distinguishing sips from whole drinks, measurement of likely confounders, and multivariable adjustment.
... Although parents are generally thought of as protective influences that can offset the comparatively negative influence of peers (Wood et al. 2004;Turrisi and Ray 2010), there is also evidence that certain parental behaviors may be related to higher levels of college student drinking. For example, permissive behavior such as allowance of drinking during high school has been associated with more alcohol-related problems longitudinally (van der Vorst et al. 2010), though other research conflicts with these findings (Foley et al. 2004). ...
... Empirical evidence does not support this claim and shows rates of heavy drinking among college students and emerging adults and rates of alcoholism among adults are higher in countries with lower legal drinking ages than they are in the US (Anderson and Baumberg 2006). Further, parental allowance of drinking inside the home has been associated with higher levels of problem drinking in countries where alcohol use is legal at younger ages (van der Vorst et al. 2010). ...
... Although previous research on parental permissiveness has consistently shown a positive association between permissiveness and drinking (Abar and Turrisi 2008;Livingston et al. 2010;van der Vorst et al. 2006van der Vorst et al. , 2010, existing studies have not sufficiently addressed the role of confounders, such as genetic risk, parental modeling, monitoring, peer norms, etc. The use of propensity modeling allowed us to obtain a less biased estimate of the causal effect of parental permissiveness on college student drinking, independent of such confounders. ...
Article
Full-text available
To enhance prevention efforts to reduce college drinking, parents have been identified as an important source of influence that can be modified with brief interventions. Research suggests parental permissiveness toward drinking in adolescence is positively related to college student drinking, though existing studies have not comprehensively accounted for potential confounders (e.g., parental drinking). The present study used propensity modeling to estimate the effects of pre-college parental permissiveness on college student drinking and consequences while accounting for an inclusive range of confounders. A random sample of 1,518 incoming students at a large university completed baseline measures of parental permissiveness and a list of confounders (e.g., parental drinking, family history). At follow-up 15 months later, participants reported on their drinking and alcohol-related consequences. To control for potential confounders, individuals were weighted based on their propensity scores to obtain less biased estimates of the effects of parental permissiveness on drinking and consequences. Analyses revealed parental permissiveness was consistently and positively associated with college drinking and consequences when the confounders were not accounted for, but these effects were attenuated after weighting. Parents' allowance of drinking was not related to college drinking or consequences after weighting. Students' perceived parental limits for consumption were related to drinking and consequences in the weighted models. Prevention efforts may benefit from targeting parents' communication of acceptable limits for alcohol consumption.
... 'I would advise parents to prohibit their child from drinking, in any setting or on any occasion. ' (van der Vorst et al, 2010) In the Netherlands, parents who try to teach responsible drinking by allowing their teenagers to drink alcohol at home may be well intentioned, but they may also be wrong. In a study of 428 Dutch families, researchers found that the more teenagers were allowed to drink at home, the more they drank outside the home as well. ...
... Based on this and earlier studies, 'I would advise parents to prohibit their child from drinking, in any setting or on any occasion. ' (van der Vorst et al, 2010) reducing alcohol use in a new generation will 'require a joint effort by everyone, including parents, media, professionals, and politicians' . ...
Chapter
Full-text available
The European Union is the region with the highest alcohol consumption in the world accompanied by high levels of alcohol use disorders among adolescents and adults. Alcohol policies and legal drinking ages vary and have been based on the history, culture, social conditions, economic interests and taxation policies of each country. However this is increasingly at odds with a new generation of medical research. This paper will present empirical evidence clearly pointing to basic changes that need to be made in alcohol policy across the EU in order to prevent further alcohol use disorders and the resultant high levels of morbidity and mortality. Note: Michiel Matthes is not a co-author, but he was the co-editor of the book in which this chapter was included.
... On the other hand, mild parental attitudes towards adolescent drinking have been shown to result in more excessive drinking in adolescents [5]. Parents have an active role in monitoring the use of alcohol of their child [6][7][8][9], in reducing the availability of alcohol at home [7,10], and in prohibiting their child to drink alcohol [9][10][11][12]. A more stringent parental approach is likely to reduce adolescent drinking, whereas a more tolerant approach increases adolescent drinking [6,10]. ...
... Alcohol use by ordinaries and ordinary sobers can be influenced by parental alcohol education. Parental measures (e.g., monitoring their child's use of alcohol, restricting the availability of alcohol at home, and setting rules about the use of alcohol) are important and effective measures [6][7][8][9][10][11][12]. Because parents can influence the attitude and alcohol use of their child by applying such measures, these should be the starting points for interventions for parents of both ordinaries and ordinary sobers. ...
Article
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Background An earlier study using social marketing and audience segmentation distinguished five segments of Dutch adolescents aged 12–18 years based on their attitudes towards alcohol. The present, qualitative study focuses on two of these five segments (‘ordinaries’ and ‘ordinary sobers’) and explores the attitudes of these two segments towards alcohol, and the role of parents and peers in their alcohol use in more detail. Methods This qualitative study was conducted in the province of North-Brabant, the Netherlands. With a 28-item questionnaire, segments of adolescents were identified. From the ordinaries and ordinary sobers who were willing to participate in a focus group, 55 adolescents (30 ordinaries and 25 ordinary sobers) were selected and invited to participate. Finally, six focus groups were conducted with 12–17 year olds, i.e., three interviews with 17 ordinaries and three interviews with 20 ordinary sobers at three different high schools. Results The ordinaries thought that drinking alcohol was fun and relaxing. Curiosity was an important factor in starting to drink alcohol. Peer pressure played a role, e.g., it was difficult not to drink when peers were drinking. Most parents advised their child to drink a small amount only. The attitude of ordinary sobers towards alcohol was that drinking alcohol was stupid; moreover, they did not feel the need to drink. Most parents set strict rules and prohibited the use of alcohol before the age of 16. Conclusions Qualitative insight into the attitudes towards alcohol and the role played by parents and peers, revealed differences between ordinaries and ordinary sobers. Based on these differences and on health education theories, starting points for the development of interventions, for both parents and adolescents, are formulated. Important starting points for interventions targeting ordinaries are reducing perceived peer pressure and learning to make one’s own choices. For the ordinary sobers, an important starting point includes enabling them to express to others that they do not feel the need to drink alcohol. Starting points for parents include setting strict rules, restricting alcohol availability at home and monitoring their child’s alcohol use.
... Adolescents may interpret seeing parents drink to intoxication as a sign that binge drinking is acceptable and a normal drinking pattern (Haugland et al., 2012;Pape, Rossow, & Storvoll, 2015;Pedersen & von Soest, 2013). Whereas adolescents' binge drinking is unlikely to occur when drinking at home under the supervision, or in the company of their parents, there is consistent and strong evidence that parental behaviours, such as permission to drink at home or drinking together, are risk factors for adolescent binge drinking (Kaynak, Winters, Cacciola, Kirby, & Arria, 2014;Pape et al., 2015;van der Vorst, Engels, & Burk, 2010); though this usually occurs outside the home. Interestingly, parental supply of alcohol was not consistently associated with adolescent binge drinking (Kaynak et al., 2014). ...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: To give an overview of prevalence, trends, and outcomes of binge drinking defined as drinking a high amount of alcohol on one occasion with a focus on European research. Method: Qualitative review based on a computer-assisted search of articles. Results: Males have more binge drinking occasions than females. In so-called  dry  (Northern) countries, a higher proportion of alcohol is consumed in binges than in  wet  (Southern) countries. Among adolescents and young adults in particular, increasing trends could be found. Binge drinking is linked to a variety of detrimental social and health outcomes. Yet, due to different definition criteria, the comparison of the studies is limited. Conclusion: Cross national studies with unified binge criteria and binge drinking in Europe emphasizing consequences are urgent research tasks. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
... Whereas adolescents' binge drinking is unlikely to occur when drinking at home under the supervision, or in the company of their parents, there is consistent and strong evidence that parental behaviours, such as permission to drink at home or drinking together, are risk factors for adolescent binge drinking (Kaynak, Winters, Cacciola, Kirby, & Arria, 2014;Pape et al., 2015;van der Vorst, Engels, & Burk, 2010); though this usually occurs outside the home. Interestingly, parental supply of alcohol was not consistently associated with adolescent binge drinking (Kaynak et al., 2014). ...
Article
Objective: Binge drinking (also called heavy episodic drinking, risky single-occasion drinking etc.) is a major public health problem. This paper provides an overview of recently published evidence concerning the definition and measurement, prevalence rates, health impact, demographic and psychosocial correlates of, and interventions for, binge drinking. Design: Narrative review. Results: Mostly occurring among young people at weekends, binge drinking increases the risk of both acute (e.g. injuries) and long-term negative consequences (e.g. alcohol disorders). Binge drinkers tend to be extrovert, impulsive and sensation-seeking. Stress, anxiety, traumatic events and depression are also related to binge drinking. Both alcohol-related behaviour of parents and general parenting (e.g. parenting styles, monitoring) are also important. Other major risk factors for binge drinking are frequently spending time with friends who drink, and the drinking norms observed in the wider social environment (e.g. school, community, culture). Emergency departments, birthday parties, fraternities and the workplace serve as settings for interventions; these are increasingly delivered via digital and mobile technology. There is evidence of small-sized effects across approaches (brief interventions, personalised normative feedback, protective behavioural strategies etc.) and populations. Conclusion: A more consistent terminology, investigating multi-level influences and identifying the most effective intervention components are challenges for future research.
... Parents are one of the predominant sources of alcohol for adolescents. [8][9][10][11] Many parents believe it is their responsibility to introduce their children to the consumption of alcohol, 9,12 and that doing so in supervised situations will reduce the likelihood of alcohol misuse. 13 However, there is a critical lack of research examining the role of parents in trajectories of adolescent alcohol use, especially regarding parental alcohol provision to children in early adolescence. ...
Article
The Australian Parental Supply of Alcohol Longitudinal Study (APSALS) was established in 2010 to investigate the short- and long-term associations between exposure to early parental alcohol provision, early adolescent alcohol initiation, subsequent alcohol use and alcohol-related harms, controlling for a wide range of parental, child, familial, peer and contextual covariates. The cohort commenced with 1927 parent-child dyads comprising Australian Grade 7 school students (mean age = 12.9 years, range = 10.8-15.7 years), and a parent/guardian. Baseline, 1- and 2-year follow-up data have been collected, with > 90% retention, and a 3-year follow-up is under way. The data collected include child, familial, parental and peer factors addressing demographics, alcohol use and supply, parenting practices, other substance use, adolescent behaviours and peer influences. The cohort is ideal for prospectively examining predictors of initiation and progression of alcohol use, which increases markedly through adolescence. © The Author 2015; all rights reserved. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association.
... 14 Similar results were seen in the ASSADS where alcohol was obtained from their parents (34%) or from friends (22%). 13 In the NDSHS, 42.6% of Australian adolescents reported consuming alcohol in their own homes, although it was not stated whether adolescents were consuming alcohol whilst supervised by their parents, 15 and 52.1% reported consuming alcohol at a friend's house. In this group, 65.5% said alcohol was consumed at private parties, 42.4% in licensed premises and 41.2% in restaurants and cafes. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background: A significant number of Australian adolescents consume alcohol, with almost two thirds of them doing so at risky levels. This is continuing to increase despite recent National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC) guidelines stipulating that no alcohol is the safest option. Measures initiated to reduce and prevent alcohol consumption by adolescents have limited effectiveness. Consumption of alcohol by Australian adolescents is a national concern because of the deleterious effects of alcohol consumption on adolescents' social, physical and neurological development, as well as other short- and long-term health risks, and the negative impact of alcohol-related violence and injury on the community. Understanding adolescents' decisions to abstain or refrain from alcohol consumption may provide valuable insights to assist in dealing with this significant social and health issue, more particularly about the mechanisms used by adolescents or their ability to make decisions about resisting or abstaining from alcohol consumption when exposed to alcohol in their social setting(s). Objectives: The review aimed to synthesize the best available qualitative evidence on the decisions made or mechanisms used by adolescents who abstain or refrain from consuming alcohol in any social setting where alcohol is available. Inclusion criteria: Adolescents aged between 14 and 19 years who reside in Australia.The phenomenon of interest was abstinence from or resistance to alcohol consumption when exposed to alcohol in social situations.This review considered studies that focused on qualitative data, including, but not limited to,designs such as phenomenology, grounded theory, action research and exploratory studies. Search strategy: A three-step search strategy was used. An initial search to identify keywords only was undertaken in Medline and CINAHL. This was followed by an expanded search using all identified keywords and index terms specific to each included database. The reference lists of included papers were then searched for any other relevant studies. Methodological quality: No studies met the inclusion criteria sufficiently to progress to critical appraisal. Data extraction: No studies progressed to data extraction. Data synthesis: Data synthesis was not undertaken as no study met the inclusion criteria. Results: Although a number of studies retrieved indicated they had qualitative elements to their studies, the qualitative data was not reported. Conclusions: Although a number of studies met some aspects of the inclusion criteria there was insufficient reporting of the phenomenon of interest. Due to the lack of studies meeting the inclusion criteria, no conclusions can be drawn for clinical practice. A lack of qualitative data on this topic has been identified. Thus there is a great need for qualitative research to understand and know more about what enables an adolescent to abstain or refrain from consumption in order to inform or formulate effective interventions, policies or plans to prevent or reduce the volume of alcohol consumed by Australian adolescents.
... Parental monitoring, quality parent-child relationships, parental support and good communication are consistently associated with lower levels of drinking among youths [1] although parental modeling of drinking is also associated with positive alcohol-related expectancies and norms [2], an earlier age of drinking initiation [1,3,4] and risky or problematic consumption of alcohol [3,[5][6][7]. Studies also indicate that other parental behaviors, such as serving as a direct source of alcohol, are associated with risky drinking among youths [8][9][10]. ...
Article
Parental influences on youth drinking are well documented but not the influence of extended family members. This article explores extended family influences on alcohol use among Mexican youths and whether extended family members can be considered natural mentors. We conducted a qualitative study using ethnographic open ended interviews with 117 first year university students in Mexico City. The ethnographic interviews revealed six drinking groups: excessive, heavy, regular, occasional, abstainers and non drinkers. Youths reported close relationships with extended family members who provided counsel and acted as representatives of familial norms and values. The alcohol beliefs and behaviors of these family members, including their alcohol misuse, had a positive influence on youths' alcohol attitudes. The naturally occurring mentoring relationships of Mexican extended family members can positively influence moderate youth drinking. Natural mentoring relationships should be encouraged and facilitated in prevention efforts for Mexican youths, Mexican-American youths and potentially other Hispanic/Latino youths. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.
... Research has not yet established, however, whether learning to drink in a family context actually serves to protect children from developing later alcohol problems. The relevant longitudinal research (Dielman et al. 1989;McMorris et al. 2011;van der Vorst et al. 2010) suggests that this is not the case: prior supervised drinking increases the likelihood of unsupervised drinking and more negative consequences later on. In addition, children who were permitted to drink alcohol at home have been found to show increased alcohol involvement and drunkenness over time (Jackson et al. 1999;Komro et al. 2007). ...
Article
The study of alcohol use by children ages 12 and younger has been very limited. This article summarizes information from U.S. national and statewide surveys on the prevalence of alcohol use among children in grades 6 and lower, data on health conditions wholly attributable to alcohol, the prevalence of children's treatment admissions for alcohol abuse, and their rates of presentation at emergency departments for acute alcohol intoxication. Factors hampering the estimation of alcohol burden in this population include the lack of ongoing national surveys of alcohol use and problems in children, the hand-me-down nature of alcohol assessments in this population, and the lack of studies to establish whether there is a causal relationship between childhood-onset drinking and morbidity and mortality in adolescence and later in life that would permit determination of alcohol-attributable fractions. This article concludes that although the alcohol burden in childhood is low, it may be augmented by both referred alcohol burden through parental drinking and alcohol abuse and by deferred alcohol burden from longer-term consequences of early use.
... Their findings challenge the harm-minimization hypothesis according to which supervised alcohol use or early-age alcohol use will reduce the development of adolescent alcohol problems. Van der Vorst et al. [20] note also that adolescents alcohol use increases over time, regardless of settings or with whom they drink; thus, the prevention workers should focus on making parents more aware of their role in delaying the age at drinking onset. ...
Article
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Aims: Adolescents’ use of alcohol in Europe is high. In this paper aspects of adolescents’ alcohol use, namely differences in gender, age and country clusters concerning social context of drinking, are examined. Study Design: A secondary analysis of the survey data. Place and Duration of Study: Adolescents from 25 European countries (N = 57,771) filled in the Second International Self-Report Delinquency Study (ISRD-2) survey in 2006. Methodology: A sub-sample from the larger ISRD-2 sample was drawn by selecting students from grades 7 to 9 in the age from 12 to 16. The dependent variables were social context of drinking light and strong alcohol, and last time use of alcohol. The independent variables were gender, age and country clusters (Northern, Western, Southern and Eastern Europe). Results: Alcohol was used more with peers. Boys consumed alcohol more likely alone compared to girls. In Northern and Western Europe the proportion of drinking with peers was relatively high; in Southern Europe drinking with parents was high; in Southern and Eastern Europe drinking alone was high. The proportion of those adolescents who drank alcohol alone or with parents decreased by age; those who drank it with peers increased by age. Drinking alone in younger age is more prevalent in boys. A larger amount of alcohol was drunk with peers compared to alone or with parents. Conclusion: Many prevention programs aim at family and/or school as important actors; however, for at least some group of adolescents an individual approach is needed.
... Argentina is a South American country largely influenced by European immigration and culture. Therefore, early onset of drinking is likely to be favored by the parental beliefcommon in some European countries-that children may be protected from AUD if they experience limited drinking at home under parental supervision (van Der Vorst et al., 2010). A recent study (Pilatti et al., 2013b) found that alcohol initiation, including sipping and tasting behaviors, had taken place in 58% of Argentinean children aged 8-12 years. ...
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The aim of the study was to analyze independent and potential interactive effects of age at drinking onset and family history of alcohol abuse on subsequent patterns of alcohol drinking, alcohol-related problems and substance use. Participants were college students (60.3% females, mean age = 20.27 ± 2.54 years) from the city of Córdoba, Argentina. Several measures were used to assess alcohol, tobacco and drug use. The Spanish version of the Brief Young Adult Alcohol Consequences Questionnaire was used to assess alcohol-related problems. Factorial analyses of variance, or its non-parametric equivalent, were performed to explore differences in substance use behaviors and alcohol-related problems in subjects with early or late drinking onset and with or without family history of alcohol abuse. Chi-square tests were conducted to analyze the association between these two risk factors and categorical measures of alcohol, tobacco and drug use. Early onset of drinking was associated with amount of consumption of alcohol including up to hazardous levels, as well as tobacco and drug use. However, the frequency of alcohol problems and frequency of episodes of alcohol intoxication were only related to age of onset in those with a positive family history of alcohol problems. Delaying drinking debut is particularly important in the prevention of future alcohol problems in those adolescents who have a family history of such problems.
... For example, one study suggested that early heavier drinking primarily takes place in a peer context, whereas early lighter drinking often takes place in either a family context or peer context (Jackson et al., 2016). A longitudinal study among Dutch adolescents found that drinking at home predicted increased levels of drinking both at home and outside the home and problem drinking, even after controlling for previous alcohol use in both contexts (van der Vorst, Engels, & Burk, 2010). Focusing on contexts of initiation, Warner and White found that early initiators, whether they first drank at a family gathering or in another context, were more likely to develop problems associated with alcohol use compared with youths who initiated drinking at older ages at a family gathering (Warner & White, 2003). ...
Article
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ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Mechanisms underlying associations between early drinking and problems are largely unknown. OBJECTIVES: We investigated (a) associations between early age of first intoxication (≤ 15 years) and past year drinking in different contexts and (b) whether early age of first intoxication is differentially associated with problems in these contexts. METHODS: We used survey data collected in 2013-2014 from 405 past-year adolescent drinkers in 24 midsized California cities. Data included demographics; drinking behaviors; age of first intoxication; frequency of being at and drinking at restaurants, bars/nightclubs, outdoor places, and home; and problems. We used multilevel logistic and negative binomial models to account for the clustering of adolescents within cities. Probabilities were corrected to maintain family-wise error rates. RESULTS: Early age of first intoxication was associated with a 120% increase in the odds of drinking at outdoor settings (OR=2.20, pc < .05). Early age of first intoxication was associated with increased numbers of problems related to drinking in restaurants (IRR=5.72, pc < .001), outdoor settings (IRR=3.40, pc < .001), and homes (IRR=2.84, pc < .001). Later intoxication (≥ 16 years) was not significantly associated with increased drinking or problems in any of these contexts. CONCLUSIONS: Results suggest that underage drinkers who report early intoxication are more likely to drink at outdoor settings, but not other contexts. However, they may differentially experience drinking problems across contexts. To target youths who have experienced intoxication at an early age and to reduce problems, prevention interventions should focus on outdoor settings. KEYWORDS: Early age of intoxication; Underage drinking; Drinking contexts; Drinking-related problems.
... Les études longitudinales ont mis en évidence le rôle majeur des règles spécifiques à l'alcool dans l'initiation des conduites d'alcoolisation. En particulier, il est apparu une corrélation significative entre l'âge du premier verre complet d'alcool (age at first drink) et les problèmes des mésusages et de dépendance ultérieure (van der Vorst et al., 2010). Vers l'âge de 12 ans, l'influence des parents sur la consommation décroît alors que celle des amis augmente (Huba et Bentler, 1980). ...
Chapter
https://www.dunod.com/sciences-humaines-et-sociales/psychopathologie-cognitive-enfant-adolescent-adulte
... In the Family and Health study, drinking at home or outside the home at 13 to 16years of age was related to alcohol problems 3-years later (van der Vorst et al., 2010). The Victorian Adolescent Health Cohort Study (VACS) investigators found that drinking with families and at pub/club(s), party(s) at 14-15 years of age was associated with an increased risk of consuming ≥ 5 units on one day in the past week by 15-17 years (Degenhardt et al., 2015). ...
Article
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Internationally, laws on the provision of alcohol commonly exempt that provided by parents and/or consumed in private premises. Whether these exemptions mitigate alcohol-related harms, as has been posited, is unclear. We used data from 10,968 individuals (5,216 women) from the 1970 British Birth Cohort Study. Exposures, self-reported at 16-years of age, were consumption of alcohol with specific people (including parents, siblings and friends) and acquisition from different places (including their own home). The outcomes, self-reported at 30-years of age, were high alcohol consumption (>14 units of alcohol in the last week), and screening positive for a possible alcohol problem using the cutting down, being annoyed by criticism, feeling guilty, and eye-openers (CAGE) questionnaire. At 30-years of age, 32.1% of study members consumed > 14 units in the last week and 14.3% screened positive on the CAGE questionnaire. Neither consuming alcohol with parents nor the acquisition of alcohol from home was associated with later high consumption or alcohol problems. There was a suggestion, however, that drinking with other teenagers was related to an increased risk of both outcomes (consumption: 1.32 (1.16, 1.51); alcohol problems: 1.27 (1.01, 1.58), as was acquisition from an off-license (consumption: 1.23 (0.99, 1.51); alcohol problems: 1.49 (1.17, 1.90). This study strengthens the evidence that alcohol consumption with parents, or acquisition from home, does not protect against later alcohol-related harms.
... Disaggregation by type of other supply showed that there was no association between parental supply and subsequent self-supply, however, parental supply was associated with subsequent peer supply. Parental beliefs about peer groups and the assumption that alcohol is already being consumed by peers has been previously associated with parental supply [33] and other research shows consuming alcohol at home is predictive of consuming alcohol out of the home [34]. It should be noted that the current results were evident even after controlling for peer use. ...
Article
Background and aims: Despite legal age limits set for alcohol consumption, parents are one of the main suppliers of alcohol to underage minors. While supply from non-parental sources has been found to be associated with greater risk of harm compared with parental supply, the association between parental supply and supply from other sources is unclear. This study investigated the associations between parental supply of sips and whole serves of alcohol on subsequent other supply, conditional on current supply from non-parental sources. Methods: Data from the Australian Parental Supply of Alcohol Longitudinal Study cohort of adolescents were used. A cohort of 1927 Australian children recruited in Grade 7 (mean age 12.9 years) was surveyed annually from 2010 to 2016 (94%, n=1821 included for analyses). The primary outcome was alcohol exposure from other sources ('other supply'), including alcohol supply from other adults, friends, siblings, or self-supply, compared with adolescents reporting no supply from these sources. Analyses were conducted using random intercept logistic regression (to account for within-respondent correlation). Results: Parental supply of alcohol alone was associated with increased odds of receiving alcohol from other non-parental sources in subsequent years (odds ratio (OR): 1.99; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.65-2.39) after adjusting for confounders. Increased odds of subsequent other supply were associated with current parental supply of sips (OR: 1.92; 95% CI: 1.56-2.36) and whole drinks (OR: 2.76; 95% CI: 1.85-4.11). Conclusions: Parental supply of alcohol appears to increase the risk of subsequent supply of alcohol from other sources in certain contexts.
... Yet, findings are mixed. Some studies suggest that father's substance use is a stronger contributor to adolescent alcohol use (Mares et al., 2011;Van Der Vorst et al., 2010). Other studies indicate that mother's use is a stronger predictor of adolescent substance use (Marsden et al., 2005;Walls et al., 2017). ...
Article
Purpose Informed by ecological theories and models of influence, this review discusses various psychosocial risk and protective factors that contribute to adolescent substance use behavior. Given typical patterns of substance use initiation during this developmental period, an emphasis is placed on alcohol, cigarette, and marijuana use. Findings Consistent with bioecological theories, peers and parents tend to have the strongest effect on adolescent substance use behavior. Influences can be both direct, such as offers and availability to use substances, as well as indirect influences, such as the perception of substance use approval. Schools and neighborhoods also contribute to adolescent substance use behavior, but this effect is often less direct. Moreover, the effect of neighborhoods on adolescent behavior reflects both structural components (e.g., neighborhood racial composition, teacher-student ratios) in addition to social process (e.g., neighborhood social cohesion, school connectedness). A review of parallel studies conducted with animals is also provided. Summary Adolescent substance use behavior does not occur in a vacuum. Investigations must encompass the relevant social ecologies that affect adolescent behavior, including family, peer, school, and neighborhood contexts to provide a more complete understanding of substance use etiology.
... Some of them explored the topic of children being initiated into drinking by their parents at home. Van der Vorst (2010) noted that this may be more harmful than previously believed. Other studies suggest that parental drinking is a risk factor for the early onset of alcohol use (Seljamo et al., 2006). ...
Article
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INTRODUCTION: The foreign studies indicate that parental substance use makes it more likely that their children will engage in risk behaviour. Risk behaviour may be positively influenced by prevention programmes. AIM: The aim of this research project was to assess whether the Unplugged prevention programme has the desired effect on drinking among children at the age of approximately 15 years. The study addresses any differences in the effects on the children that depend on whether their mothers drink more than weekly. We regarded drinking as a sign of risk behaviour engaged in by children from families where the mothers use alcohol more or less than weekly. METHODS: The data of the children who were exposed to the prevention programme was compared to that of the children who did not participate in the programme. RESULTS: The Unplugged prevention programme was found to have no statistically measurable effect on drinking among children who came from families where the mother uses alcohol more than weekly. Children from the families where the mother reported using alcohol weekly or less frequently than that and who had been exposed to the Unplugged prevention programme were found to be less likely (by 63%) to report drunkenness in the last 30 days.
... Parental alcohol use may convey social norms about alcohol [15,20] and provide information about apparent physiological and psychological effects of drinking [21]. In addition, most adolescents start to drink at home in their parents' company [22][23][24]. ...
Article
The aim of the current study was to examine the mediating role of alcohol-related memory associations in the relation between perceived parental drinking and the onset of adolescents' alcohol use. Gender and grade were also included in the analyses. We tested a mediation model within a structural path modelling framework using longitudinal data (two waves). The sample consisted of 608 Canadian adolescents (42.9% boys), who did not have any alcohol experiences at the first measurement. The adolescents were recruited from all grades 7–9 classes in a large school district in western Canada. Alcohol-related memory associations were tested with the Word Association Test. We used adolescent self-reports of alcohol use and parental drinking. Results clearly showed a mediation effect of alcohol-related memory associations [estimate = 0.023, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.002–0.044). That is, parental drinking as perceived by the adolescent was related positively to alcohol-related memory associations, which in turn predicted adolescents' alcohol use a year later. Gender and grade were related to alcohol-related memory associations. That is, boys and adolescents of higher grades had more memory associations. Children appear to form memory associations related to alcohol before they ever drink alcohol themselves, and these associations appear to mediate the link between their perceptions of their parents' drinking and their own initial alcohol use.
... Young adult laborers, who had friends who were smokers, alcohol drinkers, or betel-quid chewers, were more likely to practice multiple health-risk behaviors than those who did not have such friends. These results concur with previous findings, which suggested that adolescents who are connected with peers practicing negative behaviors were more likely to practice health risk-related behaviors (Hoffman et al, 2007;Huang et al, 2010;van der Vorst et al, 2010;Cruz et al, 2012). The results also agree with a study of adolescents in Lao PDR, which found that peer behaviors were associated with concurrent health-risk behaviors (Sychareun et al, 2011). ...
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Health-risk behaviors among young adults are a serious public health problem. This cross sectional study aimed to estimate the prevalence of single and concurrent multiple health-risk behaviors: smoking tobacco, consuming alcohol, and chewing betel quid among young adult Myanmar laborers in Mae Sot District, Tak Province, Thailand. Three hundred Myanmar laborers, aged 18-24 years, were interviewed using a structured questionnaire. About 33.6% reported no risk behaviors, 24.7% had one, and 41.7% had two or three risk behaviors. Multinomial logistic regression analysis showed six variables were significantly associated with health-risk behaviors: male gender, high/moderate custom/traditional influences, friends who smoked/consumed alcohol/chewed betel quid, and exposure to betel-quid chewing by other family members.
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Alcoholic beverage consumption during adolescence is considered as a serious health problem. Moreover, the differences in the past consumption pattern between boys and girls have decreased, which draws attention to the effects of such behavior in female adolescents. Because family can act as both risk and protective factors for the use of alcohol, the objective of this study was to comprehend the family influence on alcohol use among female adolescents. The research is qualitative and it was performed in an exploratory, descriptive and cross-sectional way. Two focus groups were conducted, one in a private school and another in a public one, both in a city in Southern Brazil, in order to discuss the topic with the adolescents. Afterwards, the participants were invited to attend an individual interview, in addition to answering a questionnaire on alcohol use and the Family Support Perception Inventory. In total, the groups consisted of 17 adolescents, from which 12 were interviewed. The data was submitted to thematic content analysis. The results indicated that the participating adolescents had a pattern of social alcohol use similar to their families. Fathers were more prohibitive to their daughters drinking than mothers, who were more permissive. For this sample, clear rules for drinking, family support and emotional closeness with female figures served as protection mechanisms, corroborating data from previous surveys.
Article
Purpose Within the framework of an ongoing cluster‐randomized effectiveness trial of a parental prevention program, the aim of the present study is to investigate attitudes towards under‐age drinking and use of program components, i.e. alcohol‐specific parenting behaviors, in parents who did and did not take part in the programme. Design/methodology/approach Non‐parametric tests were used to analyze cross‐sectional data from 1,239 14‐year‐olds and their parents, collected at a 12‐month follow‐up. Findings Strict attitudes and alcohol‐specific rule‐setting were more frequently reported among parents in the experimental group than among parents in the control group (89.2 v. 81.7 percent, p < 0.001, respectively 92.8 v. 88.5 percent, p < 0.01). Parental reports were supported by that significantly fewer youths in the experimental group reported being served alcohol at home (36.6 v. 44.7 percent, p < 0.01). Research limitations/implications Most of the measures were not included at the baseline measurement. However, the validity of the results is increased by the finding that parent and youth reports converge. Originality/value The results substantiate a previous study finding on maintained attitudinal restrictivity and extend one's knowledge on parents' use of programme components (e.g. having and communicating alcohol‐specific rules). The present study tentatively suggests that two brief presentations to parents might result in changes in alcohol‐specific parenting.
Article
This longitudinal study, funded by the Swedish National Institute of Public Health, explored gender differences in predictors of parental servings of alcohol to youth and youth drunkenness. Data were collected from 1,752 Swedish 7th-grade youth and their parents, at three occasions between 2007 and 2010. Measurements included youth alcohol use, parental warmth, and parental control. Two-level logistic regressions showed that 15-year-old girls are more likely to be served alcohol at home compared to boys, and that there are some gender differences in predictors of drunkenness. Limitations and implications of the findings are discussed and areas for future research identified.
Chapter
The prevention of mental health problems in adolescence is an important public health issue. This systematic review utilised a modified version of the Cochrane review model to examine existing programs aimed at the prevention of depression and anxiety in adolescence, with a particular focus on programs that assist adolescents in their transition into high school. The majority of the investigated programs delivered to this specific cohort had a cognitive-behavioural underpinning and showed significantly positive results when implemented in a methodologically sound manner. Future research needs to focus on prevention (using universal and selected interventions) and early intervention (targeted) programs that are delivered throughout the entire schooling period.
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Family factors have been widely implicated in the development of adolescent drinking behaviors. These include parental attachment and parental rules concerning drinking behaviors. Moreover, throughout adolescence attachment to parents gives way to attachment to peers, and parental rules about alcohol use become less strict. The present study examined the relationship between parental and peer attachment, parental rules on drinking and alcohol use in a large sample (n = 1,724) of adolescents in the United Kingdom. Controlling for school grade (proxy for age), sex and the non-independence of respondents (clustering at school level) results showed that scores on a parental rules on drinking questionnaire were a significant statistical predictor when comparing moderate drinkers and abstainers, as well as moderate drinkers and problematic drinkers. Scores on both attachment scales were also significant, but only in the comparison between moderate and problematic drinkers, with lower attachment to parents and higher attachment to peers associated with problematic drinking.
Article
The frequency of parental alcohol risk communication (ARC) is considered an integral component of socializing youth about alcohol, but the literature offers mixed findings on whether such communication is protective. Early adolescents’ prior drinking experiences may moderate the effectiveness of ARC, but evidence for such an interaction is inconsistent. One limitation of this work considering prior drinking experience is that it has not distinguished drinking with versus without parental permission. Parents are one of the earliest sources of information about alcohol use and many parents view allowing adolescents to drink alcohol with permission as a harm reduction strategy, despite some work suggesting the opposite effect. Using a random effects multilevel regression, we tested the unique moderating effects of drinking with and without parental permission on the prospective association between alcohol risk communication and later drinking without parental permission. Adolescent and parent dyads completed 3 annual assessments (first assessment mean age = 12.6, 52% girls, 76% White/non-Hispanic). Results supported a three-way interaction. There was a modest protective effect of parental ARC on later adolescent drinking, but only for adolescents who had prior experience drinking both with and without parental permission. For all other combinations of prior drinking experience, parental communication was not prospectively related to later drinking. These results help clarify the mixed literature on alcohol communication and suggests that ARC may help reduce some of the risk associated with allowing youth to drink alcohol but only for youth who also have experience with alcohol outside of parental supervision.
Article
Although there is a clear association between early use of alcohol and short- and long-term adverse outcomes, it is unclear whether consumption of minor amounts of alcohol (less than a full drink) at a young age is prognostic of risk behaviors in later adolescence. Data were taken from 561 students enrolled in an ongoing prospective web-based study on alcohol initiation and progression (55% female; 25% White non-Hispanic). Based on a combination of monthly and semiannual surveys, we coded whether participants sipped alcohol before sixth grade and examined associations between early sipping and alcohol consumption by fall of ninth grade, as well as other indices of problem behavior. Participants also reported on the context of the first sipping event. The prevalence of sipping alcohol by fall of sixth grade was 29.5%. Most participants indicated that their first sip took place at their own home, and the primary source of alcohol was an adult, usually a parent. Youth who sipped alcohol by sixth grade had significantly greater odds of consuming a full drink, getting drunk, and drinking heavily by ninth grade than nonsippers. These associations held even when we controlled for temperamental, behavioral, and environmental factors that contribute to proneness for problem behavior, which suggests that sipping is not simply a marker of underlying risk. Our findings that early sipping is associated with elevated odds of risky behaviors at high school entry dispute the idea of sipping as a protective factor. Offering even just a sip of alcohol may undermine messages about the unacceptability of alcohol consumption for youth. (J. Stud. Alcohol Drugs, 76, 212-221, 2015).
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Objective The objectives of this study were to investigate the patterns of alcohol consumption and ecological factors influencing those patterns in the Klang Valley. The study focuses on youth from the Chinese, Indian and Malay ethnic groups in Malaysia, resident in urban and semi-urban areas of the Klang Valley. Methods Data were collected with a combination of interviews and self-administered questionnaires available in Bahasa Malaysia and English were adapted from the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Youth Risk Behavior Survey. The study sample consisted of 326 respondents: 103 Malays, 111 Chinese and 112 Indians. There were 171 males and 155 females, with mean age of 20.56 and 20.59 years, respectively, were identified by convenience sampling in six sites. Results A combination of at least one family member and one friend who consumed alcohol was a significant driver of alcohol use: 80% in this category had tried alcohol; 55% were current drinkers; and 35% were binge drinkers. With at least one family member, the respective figures were 72%, 48%, and 30%; and with at least one friend, but no family pattern of consumption, the figures dropped to 64%, 42% and 26%, respectively. With respect to ethnicity, 72% of Chinese youth had tried alcohol or were current drinkers (49%). The figure was lower for Indian youth (47% and 37%, respectively) and Malay youth (15% and 9%, respectively). In the binge drinking category, however, the highest figures were from the Indian youth (31%) followed by Chinese youth (23%) and significantly less in Malay youth (5%). Alcohol consumption was consistently higher among males: 54% had tried alcohol, 44% were current drinkers, and 30% were binge drinkers, compared to 36%, 18% and 9% of female youth, respectively. Conclusion Family alcohol consumption patterns were most strongly associated with consumption patterns which varied across the three ethnic groups. Family education regarding family influence on youth’s alcohol consumption patterns is warranted.
Article
Using intergenerational, prospective data at ages 9 months, 7, 11, and 14 years from the nationally representative United Kingdom Millennium Cohort Study, this interdisciplinary study unpacks why 14‐year‐old adolescents with early perceived pubertal timing (PT) were more likely to drink alcohol (ever, frequent, and binge drinking) compared to those whose PT was on‐time or late (5,757 girls, 5,799 boys; 80% White, 10% Asian, 3% Black, and 7% Other British). Parents allowed drinking among 22% (18%) of early PT girls (boys) compared to 11% of late PT adolescents; formal mediation models showed differences by PT in parent permissiveness and gains in alcohol‐using friends primarily explained age 14 PT‐drinking associations. Parental alcohol permissiveness should be a key prevention target for early PT adolescents.
Article
Objective: Adolescents' drinking is influenced by their friends' drinking. However, it is unclear whether individually-targeted alcohol interventions reduce drinking in the friends of individuals who receive the intervention. This study used simulations of drinking in simulated longitudinal social networks to test whether individually-targeted alcohol interventions may be expected to spread to non-targeted individuals. Method: Stochastic actor-based models simulated longitudinal social networks where changes in drinking and friendships were modeled using parameters from a meta-analysis of high school 10th grade social networks. Social influence (i.e., how much one's friends' drinking affects their own drinking) and social selection (i.e., how much one's drinking affects who they select as friends) were manipulated at several levels. At the midpoint of each simulation, a randomly-selected heavy-drinking individual was experimentally assigned to an intervention (changing their drinking status to non-drinking) or a control condition (no change in drinking status) and the drinking statuses of that individual's friends were recorded at the end of the simulation. Results: Friends of individuals who received the intervention significantly reduced their drinking, with higher reductions occurring in networks with greater social influence. However, all effect sizes were small (e.g., average per-friend reduction of .07 on a 5-point drinking scale). Conclusions: Individually-targeted alcohol interventions may have small effects on reducing the drinking of non-targeted adolescents, with social influence being a mechanism that drives such effects. Due to small effect sizes, many adolescents may need to receive alcohol interventions to produce measurable effects on drinking outcomes for non-targeted individuals. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).
Conference Paper
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The objective of this study is to carry out an ethnographic mapping that reflects the geographical relationships of alcohol accessibility and availability within Malaysian community settings. The study also aims to encapsulates the community and youth norms in terms of alcohol use within their residential areas.
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Early initiation of substance use significantly increases one's risk of developing substance use dependence and mental disorders later in life. To interrupt this trajectory, effective prevention during the adolescent period is critical. Parents play a key role in preventing substance use and related harms among adolescents and parenting interventions have been identified as critical components of effective prevention programs. Despite this, there is currently no substance use prevention program targeting both students and parents that adopts online delivery to overcome barriers to implementation and sustainability. The Climate Schools Plus (CSP) program was developed to meet this need. CSP is an online substance use prevention program for students and parents, based on the effective Climate Schools prevention program for students. This paper describes the development of the parent component of CSP including a literature review and results of a large scoping survey of parents of Australian high school students (n = 242). This paper also includes results of beta-testing of the developed program with relevant experts (n = 10), and parents of Australian high school students (n = 15). The CSP parent component consists of 1) a webinar which introduces shared rule ranking, 2) online modules and 3) summaries of student lessons. The parent program targets evidence-based modifiable factors associated with a delay in the onset of adolescent substance use and/or lower levels of adolescent substance use in the future; namely, rule-setting, monitoring, and modelling. To date, this is the first combined parent-student substance use prevention program to adopt an online delivery method.
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Background Alcohol use in young people remains a public health concern, with adverse impacts on outcomes such as health, well-being, education and relationships. Objectives To assess the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a combined classroom curriculum and parental intervention on self-reported alcohol use [heavy episodic drinking (HED)] and alcohol-related harms (indicators such as getting into fights after drinking, poorer school performance and trouble with friends and family). Design A two-arm, cluster randomised controlled trial with schools as the unit of randomisation. Setting A total of 105 post-primary schools in Northern Ireland (NI) and Glasgow/Inverclyde Educational Authority areas. Participants A total of 12,738 male and female secondary school students (intervention delivered when students were in school year 9 in NI or S2 in Scotland in the academic year 2012–13 and aged 12–13 years) were randomised. Randomisation and baseline (T0) surveys took place when children were in school year 8 or S1. Schools were randomised (1 : 1) by an independent statistician to the Steps Towards Alcohol Misuse Prevention Programme (STAMPP) or to education as normal (EAN). All schools were stratified by free school meal provision. Schools in NI were also stratified by school type (male/female/coeducational). Interventions STAMPP combined a school-based alcohol harm reduction curriculum [an adapted version of the School Health and Alcohol Harm Reduction Project (SHAHRP)] and a brief parental intervention designed to support parents in setting family rules around drinking. The classroom component comprised two phases delivered over 2 years, and the parental component comprised a standardised presentation delivered by a trained facilitator at specially arranged parent evenings on school premises. This was followed up a few weeks later by an information leaflet mailed to all intervention pupils’ parents highlighting the main points of the evening. Main outcome measures (1) Self-reported HED (defined as self-reported consumption of ≥ 6 units in a single episode in the previous 30 days for male students and ≥ 4.5 units for female students) assessed at 33 months from baseline (T3); and (2) the number of self-reported harms (harms caused by own drinking) assessed at T3. Data sources Self-completed pupil questionnaires. Results At final follow-up (T3), data were available for 5160 intervention and 5073 control pupils for the HED outcome, and for 5234 intervention and 5146 control pupils for the self-reported harms outcome. The intervention reduced self-reported HED compared with EAN (p < 0.001), but did not reduce self-reported harms associated with own drinking. The odds ratio for the intervention effect on HED was 0.596 (standard error 0.0596, 95% confidence interval 0.490 to 0.725). The mean cost of delivery per school was £818 and the mean cost per individual was £15. There were no clear cost savings in terms of service utilisation associated with the intervention. The process evaluation showed that the classroom component engaged and was enjoyed by pupils, and was valued by teachers. Schools, students, intervention trainers and delivery staff (teachers) were not blind to study condition. Data collection was undertaken by a team of researchers that included the trial manager and research assistants, some of whom were not blinded to study condition. Data analysis of primary and secondary outcomes was undertaken by the trial statistician, who was blinded to the study condition. Limitations Although the classroom component was largely delivered as intended, there was very low attendance at the parent/carer event; however, all intervention pupils’ parents/carers received an intervention leaflet. Conclusions The results of this trial provide some support for the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of STAMPP in reducing heavy episodic (binge) drinking, but not in reducing self-reported alcohol-related harms, in young people over a 33-month follow-up period. As there was low uptake of the parental component, it is uncertain whether or not the intervention effect was accounted for by the classroom component alone. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN47028486. Funding This project was funded by the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Public Health Research programme and will be published in full in Public Health Research; Vol. 5, No. 2. See the NIHR Journals Library website for further project information. The Public Health Agency of NI and Education Boards of Glasgow/Inverclyde provided some intervention costs. Diageo provided funds to print some workbooks. The remaining intervention costs were internally funded.
Article
Adolescent drinking influences, and is influenced by, peer alcohol use. Several efficacious adolescent alcohol interventions include elements aimed at reducing susceptibility to peer influence. Modeling these interventions within dynamically changing social networks may improve our understanding of how such interventions work and for whom they work best. We used stochastic actor-based models to simulate longitudinal drinking and friendship formation within social networks using parameters obtained from a meta-analysis of real-world 10th grade adolescent social networks. Levels of social influence (i.e., friends affecting changes in one's drinking) and social selection (i.e., drinking affecting changes in one's friendships) were manipulated at several levels, which directly impacted the degree of clustering in friendships based on similarity in drinking behavior. Midway through each simulation, one randomly selected heavy-drinking actor from each network received an "intervention" that either (a) reduced their susceptibility to social influence, (b) reduced their susceptibility to social selection, (c) eliminated a friendship with a heavy drinker, or (d) initiated a friendship with a nondrinker. Only the intervention that eliminated targeted actors' susceptibility to social influence consistently reduced that actor's drinking. Moreover, this was only effective in networks with social influence and social selection that were at higher levels than what was found in the real-world reference study. Social influence and social selection are dynamic processes that can lead to complex systems that may moderate the effectiveness of network-based interventions. Interventions that reduce susceptibility to social influence may be most effective among adolescents with high susceptibility to social influence and heavier-drinking friends. (PsycINFO Database Record
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Research characterizing the adolescent drinking context is limited, often relies on samples of current drinkers reporting on recent/last or typical drinking experiences, and provides little information about the context of very early use. The present study uses repeated monthly assessments to describe the context of drinking days and matched nondrinking days to determine the unique risk associated with different drinking-related characteristics. Additionally, we used latent class analysis to empirically identify key configurations of drinking-related characteristics and both family- and nonfamily-related environmental characteristics (social context, physical location, source of alcohol). Data included 688 days (344 drinking days, 344 nondrinking days) from 164 middle-school students enrolled in a prospective study on drinking initiation and progression (62% female; 26% non-White, 11% Hispanic). Results supported 4 patterns: (a) heavier drinking occurring in a peer context, lighter drinking occurring in (b) a family context or (c) a peer context, and (d) drinking alcohol obtained at home without permission. Latent classes varied as a function of gender, age, peer norms, and parenting behaviors as well as alcohol type and perceived alcohol availability. Findings indicated that highly endorsed contexts were not necessarily the riskiest ones, and simply targeting an oft-reported source of alcohol, physical location, or social context may not be an effective strategy for reducing underage drinking. Additionally, although greater monitoring and anticipated parent reaction to drinking are typically protective against adolescent drinking, we found they were associated with parent-sanctioned drinking, suggesting the role of parenting practices must be considered in the context of drinking pattern.
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Research documents an association between early use of alcohol and adverse outcomes. Most studies on drinking initiation exclude sipping or confound sips with consumption of a full drink. However, even a few sips of alcohol can constitute a meaningful experience for naïve drinkers. Prior research with this project indicated that sipping before middle school predicted subsequent adverse outcomes (at high-school entry), even controlling for child externalizing and sensation seeking and parent alcohol use. The present study extends our prior work by examining the correlates of early sipping and sipping onset. The sample was comprised of 1,023 6th, 7th, and 8th graders (52% female; 24% non-White, and 12% Hispanic). Participants completed Web-based surveys on 5 occasions over the course of 2 years. The prevalence of sipping at Wave 1 was 37%, with 29% of never-sippers initiating sipping within 2 years. Sipping was associated with stronger alcohol-related cognitions and low school engagement as well as contextual influences in the peer, sibling, and parent domains. Sipping onset among never-sippers was prospectively predicted by sensation seeking and problem behavior as well as parental and sibling influences. More important, mere availability of alcohol was a strong correlate both concurrently and prospectively. Further analyses demonstrated that youth who sipped alcohol with parental permission had a lower profile of risk and healthier relationships with parents as compared with youth who reported unsanctioned sipping. Findings point to the importance of considering fine-grained early drinking behavior and call for further attention to sipping in research on initiation of alcohol use. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
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Objective: To conduct a systematic review of the literature examining risk and protective factors of alcohol related negative consequences (ARNCs) among adolescents. Methods: We conducted a systematic search of original empirical articles published between January 1, 1990 and June 1, 2015. The qualitative synthesis was performed using the Theory of Triadic Influence as a framework. Results: Fifty-two studies were reviewed. Intrapersonal (e.g., personality traits, drinking motives and expectancies, depression), interpersonal (e.g., parental and peer alcohol use, violence exposure) and attitudinal factors (e.g., media exposure to alcohol, religiosity) influence ARNCs. Emerging evidence of new trends contributing to ARNCs include ready mixed alcohol drinks and childhood trauma and abuse. Conclusions: Risk factors from all domains of influence were observed. More research is needed on protective factors and how alcohol use interacts with preventive factors in predicting ARNCs. The conceptualization of negative consequences varies significantly between studies and may impact the external validity of previous research.
Chapter
This chapter provides an overview of the existing literature on the role of parents in the development of adolescents’ alcohol use. Numerous studies showed that adolescents model the drinking of their parents, particularly the drinking of the fathers. Other parental influences involve the way parents raise their children in general or specifically concerning alcohol use (alcohol-specific socialization). Parents being supportive toward their adolescent children and monitoring their daily lives have children who drink fewer amounts of alcohol. Also, parents who prohibit alcohol use at home and in other settings have strict attitudes about youth drinking, and supervising the drinking of adolescents lower the risk for their children to start using alcohol at an early age and to drink heavy later on in adolescence. However, parents are not rigid in their (alcohol-specific) parenting and adolescents are not passive recipients of the parenting. It seems that parents become more tolerant toward youth ­drinking over time which results in heavier drinking of the adolescents. The drinking of adolescents, on the other hand, affects their parents in the sense that parents withdraw in their parental efforts of controlling youth alcohol use. This in turn predicts an increase in adolescents’ alcohol use. Implications for future research are discussed.
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Czech children and adolescents are at higher risk of addictive problems than in most other countries. Family- based prevention is not omnipotent, but it is important. Parents should spend enough time with their children, be caring and sensitive. At the same time they should establish and consistently enforce strict rules in relation to addictive risks such as alcohol, tobacco, drugs and gambling. Parents should never allow their underage children to drink alcohol at home. Alcoholic drinks and solutions (e.g. mouthwashes containing alcohol) should locked up to prevent poisoning in small children and because of other reasons. Children should know that the drinking of alcohol in children and adults is fundamental different. Parents' restraint and moderation with regard to alcohol serve as a positive model for their children. Brief intervention can be often successfully applied in mild addictive problems in adolescents and it is also mentioned.
Thesis
The aim of this study was to assess the attitude of undergraduate students of selected tertiary institutions in Ado-Odo/Ota Local Government towards alcohol consumption. The study employed the use of an adapted attitude towards alcohol scale. The sampling method used was stratified random sampling. All generated data were entered into the statistical package for social sciences (IBM, SPSS v. 25). Relevant hypothesis testing was also carried out using logistic regression and univariate analysis of variance. Reliability was attained by conducting a pilot study with a Cronbach alpha of 0.82. The mean age of respondents was 24.1 years (±2.2). The results revealed that an undergraduate's attitude towards alcohol consumption was mostly positive. Peer influence has the most significant impact on undergraduate’s attitudes towards alcohol consumption, and attitude towards alcohol consumption was a significant predictor of alcohol use.
Family TIES is a multilevel treatment program for helping youth with anger, aggression, and interconnected problems. It is embedded within a social service centre that provides child protective and youth offender services. In this article we summarize the program’s origin and theoretical foundation, and discuss the results of a preliminary investigation. Based on the premise that youth problems emerge largely from family discord, the program involves (a) teaching prosocial and anger management skills to youth, (b) training parents to become supportive coaches for their children, and (c) enacting effective family problem solving within the context of multi-family group sessions. The intention is to replace negative family processes with constructive communication between family members, positive expectations about one another, and shared beliefs in the family’s capacity to arrive at mutually agreeable solutions to problems. As part of an internal investigation of the program, youth-report and parent-report measures of youth behaviour, youth social skills, youth and parent anger, parenting, and family functioning were administered prior to and after delivery of the program. Positive changes were found in principal measures of interest, i.e., reductions in youth aggression, rule breaking, and anger; improved parental monitoring; and fewer family functioning problems. The results provide justification for evaluating Family TIES using an experimental design. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved). (journal abstract)
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What are the implications of drinking with parents (DWP) on adolescents' drinking behavior? We expanded the meagre body of research on this controversial issue by assessing the association between the frequency of DWP and adolescent high-risk drinking, taking a number of parental factors into account. Data stemmed from a subsample of 14-17-year-old current drinkers (n = 7,616) who participated in a cross-sectional Norwegian school survey (response rate: 84%). One in four reported DWP during the past year. The higher the frequency of DWP, the higher was the prevalence of high-risk drinking. Parental drunkenness, permissive alcohol-related parenting, and indicators of suboptimal parenting more generally also correlated with DWP. After controlling for these confounders, only frequent DWP remained significantly associated with high-risk drinking. DWP was related to adolescent high-risk drinking, yet the association was in part attributable to parents' drinking and parenting style. The risk of involvement in high-risk drinking was about the same for adolescents reporting no DWP and infrequent DWP, while it was significantly elevated among those reporting frequent DWP. This study thus demonstrated that the frequency of DWP matters and that parents who drink with their adolescent children differ from other parents in important ways. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Article
Objective: The present study examined familial risk and protective factors as moderators of parents allowing their adolescent children to drink at home on longitudinal alcohol involvement trajectories. Method: A total of 772 community adolescents and their parents provided data beginning in 1989 and at four subsequent time points over 15 years; Black adolescents were intentionally oversampled (50% at baseline). Results: Outcomes related to allowing adolescents to drink at home depended on family structure: Adolescents from intact families who were allowed to drink at home showed the lowest levels of alcohol use and problems over time, whereas those from nonintact families who were allowed to drink at home showed the highest levels of involvement. These results controlled for family history of alcohol problems, consistent parenting styles, and demographic characteristics. Conclusions: Results suggest that allowing adolescents to drink at home is neither inherently protective nor risky but depends on the family context. Implications for the development of adolescent alcohol involvement are discussed.
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A family of scaling corrections aimed to improve the chi-square approximation of goodness-of-fit test statistics in small samples, large models, and nonnormal data was proposed in Satorra and Bentler (1994). For structural equations models, Satorra-Bentler's (SB) scaling corrections are available in standard computer software. Often, however, the interest is not on the overall fit of a model, but on a test of the restrictions that a null model sayM 0 implies on a less restricted oneM 1. IfT 0 andT 1 denote the goodness-of-fit test statistics associated toM 0 andM 1, respectively, then typically the differenceT d =T 0−T 1 is used as a chi-square test statistic with degrees of freedom equal to the difference on the number of independent parameters estimated under the modelsM 0 andM 1. As in the case of the goodness-of-fit test, it is of interest to scale the statisticT d in order to improve its chi-square approximation in realistic, that is, nonasymptotic and nonormal, applications. In a recent paper, Satorra (2000) shows that the difference between two SB scaled test statistics for overall model fit does not yield the correct SB scaled difference test statistic. Satorra developed an expression that permits scaling the difference test statistic, but his formula has some practical limitations, since it requires heavy computations that are not available in standard computer software. The purpose of the present paper is to provide an easy way to compute the scaled difference chi-square statistic from the scaled goodness-of-fit test statistics of modelsM 0 andM 1. A Monte Carlo study is provided to illustrate the performance of the competing statistics.
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The current study tested parent alcoholism effects on growth curves of adolescent substance use and examined whether parent and peer influences, temperamental emotionality and sociability, and stress and negative affect could explain parent alcoholism effects. Longitudinal latent growth curve modeling showed that adolescents with alcoholic fathers, boys, and adolescents with drug-using peers had steeper growth in substance use over time than did adolescents without alcoholic fathers, girls, and adolescents without drug-using peers. Data were consistent with father's monitoring and stress as possible mediators of paternal alcoholism effects. However, the direct effects of paternal alcoholism on substance use growth remained significant even after including the hypothesized mediators in the model. This suggests that other (unmeasured) mediators are necessary to fully explain paternal alcoholism risk for adolescents' escalating substance use over time.
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Inner-city black and Hispanic adolescents might be at great risk for alcohol use. Yet the etiology of drinking among these adolescents receives little attention. The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of social influences and problem behavior on alcohol use among Hispanic and black adolescents. The impact of these factors was also tested separately for girls and boys to determine the differences in etiology of alcohol use depending on gender. A large sample of black and Hispanic seventh-grade students (N = 4,847, 52% female) self-reported alcohol use, demographic characteristics (gender, family structure, age, ethnicity and socioeconomic status), social influences to drink (peer norms, adult norms, their friends' use, their mother's use, their father's use, their siblings' use, and perceived availability of alcohol), and problem behaviors (cigarette smoking, marijuana use, getting into trouble). Teams of three to five data collectors administered the questionnaire following standardized protocol. These data were collected in class during a regular 40-minute period. Logistic regressions indicated that social influences to drink from friends, peers, and family and problem behaviors including cigarette smoking and marijuana use were related to alcohol use across and within gender. Getting into trouble predicted drinking for boys but not girls. Based on these findings, adolescent alcohol prevention programs need to include an awareness of the many social influences to drink, modify incorrectly perceived peer norms for drinking, involve family members in the prevention program and address an array of problem behaviors within one prevention intervention.
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Project Northland is a randomized community trial initially implemented in 24 school districts and communities in northeastern Minnesota, with goals of delaying onset and reducing adolescent alcohol use using community-wide, multiyear, multiple interventions. The study targets the Class of 1998 from the 6th to 12th grades (1991-1998). The early adolescent phase of Project Northland has been completed, and reductions in the prevalence of alcohol use at the end of 8th grade were achieved. Phase II of Project Northland, targeting 11th- and 12th-grade students, uses five major strategies: (1) direct action community organizing methods to encourage citizens to reduce underage access to alcohol, (2) youth development involving high school students in youth action teams, (3) print media to support community organizing and youth action initiatives and communicate healthy norms about underage drinking (e.g., providing alcohol to minors is unacceptable), (4) parent education and involvement, and (5) a classroom-based curriculum for 11th-grade students. This article describes the background, design, implementation, and process measures of the intervention strategies for Phase II of Project Northland.
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Parental monitoring has been conceptualized as tracking and surveillance but operationalized as knowledge of daily activities. This study tested the tracking and surveillance explanation of why parental knowledge is linked to better adolescent adjustment. Participants were 1,186 14-year-olds in central Sweden and their parents. The results supported and extended a reinterpretation of parental monitoring (H. Stattin & M. Kerr, in press). Across sex and informant, high parental knowledge was linked to multiple measures of good adjustment. But children's spontaneous disclosure of information explained more of these relations than parents' tracking and surveillance efforts did. Parents' control efforts were related to good adjustment only after the child's feelings of being controlled, which were linked to poor adjustment, were partialed out. The findings suggest that parents' tracking and surveillance efforts are not as effective as previously thought.
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The purpose of this study was to describe aspects of the first alcohol-use experience, and examine the predictive relations among age of first use, context of alcohol use initiation, and problem drinking with and without controls for psychosocial risk factors. Data were from the Rutgers Health and Human Development Project, a five-wave, prospective study of substance-use behaviors in a community sample. Respondents, who were first interviewed at age 12 (1979-81) and most recently at age 30 or 31 (1999-2000) (N=371), reported on their first drinking experience, and on a range of known risk factors for alcohol abuse. Most alcohol initiation occurred during a family gathering. Regardless of initiation context, youth who drank at an early age were more likely than youth who initiated later to become problem drinkers, although the risk was relatively greater for the youth who first drank outside a family gathering. Based on multivariate logistic regressions, feeling drunk at initiation was the only onset-related variable significantly associated with problem drinking; other significant risks factors included male gender, delinquency, and family history of alcoholism. Because most initiation occurs at a family gathering, alcoholism prevention research may benefit from examining the role that drinking in family contexts could play with regard to socializing young drinkers to less risky drinking behaviors in adulthood. In particular, further research focusing on the subjective effects experienced by youth when they first drink may be merited.
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This study examines the effects of 2 brief family-focused interventions on the trajectories of substance initiation over a period of 6 years following a baseline assessment. The 2 interventions, designed for general-population families of adolescents, were the 7-session Iowa Strengthening Families Program (ISFP) (Molgaard & Spoth, 2001) and the 5-session Preparing for the Drug Free Years Program (PDFY) (Catalano, Kosterman, Haggerty, Hawkins, & Spoth, 1999). Thirty-three rural public schools were randomly assigned to the ISFP, the PDFY, or a minimal-contact control condition. The authors evaluated the curvilinear growth observed in school-level measures of initiation using a logistic growth curve analysis. Alcohol and tobacco composite use indices--as well as lifetime use of alcohol, cigarettes, and marijuana--and lifetime drunkenness, were examined. Significant intervention-control differences were observed, indicating favorable delays in initiation in the intervention groups.
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This paper reports on a meta-analysis of 207 universal school-based drug prevention programs that compared the self-reported drug use of treatment to control or comparison youth. Programs are classified into Interactive and Non-Interactive groups based on a combination of content and delivery method. Weighted categorical and weighted regression methods have been used to determine the attributes that most effectively reduce, delay, or prevent drug use, including program size, type of control group and leader, attrition, target drug, intensity, grade, special population and level of drug use. Program type and size are found to be significant predictors of effectiveness. Non-interactive lecture-oriented prevention programs that stress drug knowledge or affective development show small effects. Interactive programs that foster development of interpersonal skills show significantly greater effects that decrease with large-scale implementations.
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From socialization theory, it was hypothesized that parental support and monitoring as well as peer deviance would influence individual trajectories of alcohol misuse, other substance use, and delinquency. Six waves of data were analyzed using interviews with 506 adolescents in a general population sample. Results from multilevel modeling showed that monitoring significantly predicted adolescents’ initial levels (intercepts) of alcohol misuse and delinquency. Parental monitoring strongly predicted the rates of increase (slope) in all 3 problem behaviors. Peer deviance significantly predicted initial levels of all problem behaviors and the rates of increase in them. This study provides evidence that both effective parenting and avoidance of associations with delinquent peers are important factors in preventing adolescent problem behaviors.
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Structural equation modeling was used with data from over 570 middle adolescents to evaluate a multivariate developmental model of predictors of adolescent alcohol and other drug use, and alcohol problems. Consistent with previous research, peer and sibling substance use were more strongly related to adolescent substance use than parental alcohol use. Sibling substance use was a robust predictor of peer substance use, and both temperament characteristics (e.g., activity level) and stressful life events predicted peer substance use. Sibling substance use also predicted coping motives for drinking by the target adolescent, implicating possible role modeling or imitation for drinking under stressful conditions and a preference for avoidance coping strategies. Alcohol use was a significant predictor of alcohol problems and illicit drug use; however, peer substance use, coping motives for drinking, and stressful life events were also statistically significant predictors of alcohol problems, over and above their influence on level of alcohol use. Findings based on these multivariate relations are discussed with regard to intervention implications and the need to provide more secondary interventions for middle adolescents with alcohol problems.
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In this reply, the authors address the comments of L. Chassin and E. D. Handley (see record 2006-07521-006) and of K. Fromme (see record 2006-07521-007) on the authors' article, "Parental Attachment, Parental Control, and Early Development of Alcohol Use: A Longitudinal Study" (see record 2006-07521-002). Further, the authors elaborate on some topics in the area of parenting and substance use-for example, testing bidirectional associations between parenting and adolescents' substance use, the importance of measuring substance-specific socialization, and the relevance of using within-family designs and multi-informant data. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Key elements of promising family-based drug abuse prevention strategies include: (1) program content based on proven prevention theory and research; (2) comprehensive approaches that begin early, extend across the life span, address multiple risk and protective factors, and generalize across settings; (3) developmentally appropriate material; (4) sensitivity to the culture and community; (5) sufficient dosage and follow-up; (6) use of interactive teaching techniques; (7) training for prevention program providers; and (8) evaluation to know that the intervention had the desired effect on behavior. In addition, an issue with major implications for prevention is how to reach the broadest possible audience or those who may most benefit from prevention services.
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The aim of this study was to identify subgroups of early and mid-adolescents with different drinking trajectories. In addition, we examined whether gender, parental, and peer factors predicted adolescents' membership of these drinking trajectories. We used longitudinal data of 428 families (fathers, mothers, mid-adolescents, and their younger siblings). Latent Class Growth Analyses were performed to identify drinking trajectories. Four drinking trajectories emerged for early adolescents: abstainers, light drinkers, increasers, and heavy drinkers. For mid-adolescents, we identified a fifth group (stable drinkers) in addition to the four trajectories identified for early adolescents. Our results showed that being a boy, having a best friend or father who drinks heavily, and having parents who are permissive toward adolescents' alcohol creates increased risk for both siblings to attend the more heavy drinking trajectories.
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Normed and nonnormed fit indexes are frequently used as adjuncts to chi-square statistics for evaluating the fit of a structural model. A drawback of existing indexes is that they estimate no known population parameters. A new coefficient is proposed to summarize the relative reduction in the noncentrality parameters of two nested models. Two estimators of the coefficient yield new normed (CFI) and nonnormed (FI) fit indexes. CFI avoids the underestimation of fit often noted in small samples for Bentler and Bonett's (1980) normed fit index (NFI). FI is a linear function of Bentler and Bonett's non-normed fit index (NNFI) that avoids the extreme underestimation and overestimation often found in NNFI. Asymptotically, CFI, FI, NFI, and a new index developed by Bollen are equivalent measures of comparative fit, whereas NNFI measures relative fit by comparing noncentrality per degree of freedom. All of the indexes are generalized to permit use of Wald and Lagrange multiplier statistics. An example illustrates the behavior of these indexes under conditions of correct specification and misspecification. The new fit indexes perform very well at all sample sizes.
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This paper examines the relationships between age at first exposure to alcohol and four measures of drinking behaviour (frequency of drinking, typical and most amount consumed, alcohol-related problems) at age 15 years in a birth cohort of New Zealand children. There were small but consistent correlations (r = -0.10 to -0.16) between self-reported age at first exposure to alcohol and the four measures of alcohol consumption. These associations remained statistically significant (p < 0.05) after control for a wide range of potentially confounding covariates including measures of family socio-demographic background, parental alcohol use and attitudes to alcohol use and early childhood behaviour. After control for these factors, children who had been introduced to alcohol before the age of 6 years were 1.9 to 2.4 times more likely to report frequent, heavy or problem drinking at age 15 years than children who did not drink alcohol before the age of 13. It is concluded that young people reared in home environments that have permissive attitudes to alcohol use and who are introduced to alcohol at an earlier age may be more vulnerable to alcohol-related problems in adolescence.
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An anonymous questionnaire was administered to a sample of over 890 adolescent drinkers. The questionnaire contained measures of their social context of drinking, perceived social norms, and perceived parental behaviors regarding drinking. These measures were related to a variety of alcohol problem behaviors including binge drinking, driving while alcohol-impaired, riding with an alcohol-impaired driver, and experiencing one or more negative consequences because of drinking. Results indicated that drinking frequently in a social context of social facilitation, stress control or school defiance, as well as having close friends engage in these behaviors, tended to separate alcohol abusers from nonabusers. The implications for program development are discussed.
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We describe the prevalence of bush party (an outdoor gathering of youth) attendance and examine predictors of attendance and of driving after drinking at bush parties. The 1995 Ontario Student Drug Use Survey (OSDUS) data on students (n = 1,853) in schools across the province in grades 7, 9, 11 and 13 are employed to estimate prevalence of bush party attendance within the previous 12 months. The 1994 Graduated Licensing Study (GLS), a multi-community survey of drivers (n = 1,157, 53.6% male) in grades 11 and 12 in Ontario, data are employed to study predictors of attendance and of drinking-driving. Based on the OSDUS, the prevalence of bush party attendance is 37.6%. Based on the GLS, 38.4% attended bush parties, and among attenders 71.5% drank at bush parties, 63.5% observed drinking-driving, 16.1% rode with a drinking-driver and 16.6% drove after drinking at bush parties. Logistic regression reveals that attendance at bush parties is positively associated with number of other places alcohol was consumed, tobacco use, number of alcohol-related problems, number of kilometers ever driven, sensation seeking and northern residents. Among attenders who drank at bush parties, males were three and a half times more likely to drive after drinking at a bush party, and the probability of drinking and driving increased with the number of other drugs used. Despite important differences in the design and purpose of the two surveys, both indicate that bush party attendance is prevalent among adolescents. Driving after drinking at these events is common and warrants community action.
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To assess the effectiveness of interventions directed at the prevention or reduction of use of illicit substances by young people or those directed at reducing harm caused by continuing use. A systematic review was conducted. Reports were identified through electronic and hand searching and contact with known workers in the area. Studies were included if they reported evaluations of interventions targeting illicit drug use and provided sufficient detail of the intervention and design of the evaluation to allow judgements to be made of their methodological soundness. Meta-analyses were conducted combining the data of the methodologically sound studies. PARTICIPANTS AND SETTINGS TARGETED BY INTERVENTIONS: Evaluations of interventions were included if their targeted audience included young people aged between 8 and 25 years. Identified evaluations were delivered in a range of settings including: schools and colleges; community settings; the family; medical/therapeutic settings; mass media. Data extracted from each report included details of design, content and theoretical orientation of intervention, setting of the intervention, target audience, methods, population size, subject refusal rates, rates of attrition, outcome measures, length of follow-up and findings, including statistical power. The majority of studies identified were evaluations of interventions introduced in schools and targeting alcohol, tobacco and marijuana simultaneously. These studies were methodologically stronger than interventions targeting other drugs and implemented outside schools. Meta-analyses showed that the impact of evaluated interventions was small with dissipation of programme gains over time. Interventions targeting hard to reach groups have not been evaluated adequately. Effort needs to be directed towards the development of improved evaluative solutions to the problems posed by these groups. There is still insufficient evidence to assess the effectiveness of the range of approaches to drugs education; more methodologically sound evaluations are required. There is also a need to target interventions to reflect the specific needs and experiences of recipients.
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The present study aimed to assess how far associations between possible explanatory variables and smoking onset depend on the use of cross-sectional versus prospective designs. Data were analysed from a three-wave 5-year longitudinal survey among 1063 secondary schoolchildren (12-18-year-olds) in The Netherlands. The survey questionnaire contained items on smoking history, smoking-specific beliefs and attitudes, social influence variables and socio-demographic variables in each wave. The cross-sectional analyses showed strong associations between explanatory variables and smoking behaviour (R2 varied from 0.50 to 0.71). However, only 8% of the variance in change of smoking status from non-smoking to regular smoking over a period of 5 years and 14% of the variance over a period of 3 years could be predicted by the model variables. Factors believed to lead to smoking may result from smoking or they may change quickly in ways that make them of low predictive value even though they may be important aetiologically.
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A sample of Scottish schoolchildren (N=1240) were asked a series of questions about their consumption of alcoholic beverages. Those who had consumed alcohol were asked about the circumstances of their last drinking occasion. That is, what alcoholic drink(s) they consumed, how they obtained this alcohol and where they were when they drank it. This was done with the intention of quantifying the extent of under-age drinking in different settings. The results presented in this paper indicate a continuum of drinking styles between what might be regarded as low-risk and high-risk circumstances. At one extreme, much drinking tended to take place within the family home, usually under parental supervision. At the opposite extreme, other alcohol consumption took place in a variety of public or 'hidden' outdoor locations. Consumption in these latter location types more often resulted in intoxication. Also, more dangerous, high alcohol, large volume beverages (e.g. white cider) tended to be consumed in more risky locations. The implications of these findings are discussed in terms of the potential harm and delinquency that can be associated with adolescent drinking.
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Drug prevention in schools is a top priority in most Western countries and several well-designed studies have shown that prevention programs have the potential of reducing drug use in adolescents. However, most prevention programs are not effective and there are no general criteria available for deciding which program is effective and which is not. In this systematic review of the literature, the current scientific knowledge about which characteristics determine the effectiveness of drug prevention programs is examined. Three types of studies are reviewed: meta-analyses (3 studies were included), studies examining mediating variables of interventions (6 studies), and studies directly comparing prevention programs with or without specific characteristics (4 studies on boosters, 12 on peer-versus adult-led programs, and 5 on adding community interventions to school programs). Seven evidence-based quality criteria were formulated: the effects of a program should have been proven; interactive delivery methods are superior; the "social influence model" is the best we have; focus on norms, commitment not to use, and intentions not to use; adding community interventions increases effects; the use of peer leaders is better; and adding life skills to programs may strengthen effects.
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This study was conducted to identify factors associated with alcohol use among early adolescents. A survey was administered to all Grade 7 and 8 students in 16 Vermont school districts. The questionnaire covered demographics, alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana use, and measures of psychosocial mediators of alcohol use drawn from social cognitive theory. These included positive and negative expectancies about alcohol effects, perceived peer and parent alcohol norms, perceived prevalence of adolescent alcohol use, and confidence in ability to refuse alcohol. Of the 2919 respondents, 29% reported having at least one drink of beer in the preceding 30 days. In logistic regression, factors independently related to risk of drinking beer in the past 30 days were smoking (odds ratio [OR] = 2.3, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.8-3.0), marijuana use (OR 3.9, 95% CI 3.0-5.2), negative expectancies (OR 0.4, 95% CI 0.3-0.6), parent norms (OR 1.4, 95% CI 1.1-1.7), and estimated percentage of high school students who drink (OR 1.3, 95% CI 1.1-1.5). Gender, positive alcohol expectancies, and lack of confidence in ability to refuse alcohol all significantly interacted with peer norm, with these items more strongly associated with alcohol use when peer norm is toward "shouldn't drink." Modifiable perceptions of alcohol use were strongly associated with actual use in this adolescent sample, providing a basis for intervention program design.
Article
This study examined alcohol use from pre-adolescence to mid-adolescence and determined the influence of hypothesized covariates on changes in alcohol use rates during this developmental period. The sample comprised 405 randomly recruited youth from three age cohorts (9, 11, and 13 years), assessed annually for 4 years. Youth were 48.4% female, 50.4% African-American, and 49.6% White. A cohort-sequential latent growth model was employed which modeled alcohol use (use versus non-use) from ages 9 to 16 years, accounting for demographic variables of gender, race, parent marital status, and family economic status. Covariates of alcohol use included parent alcohol use, family alcohol problems, family cohesion, parent supervision, peer deviance, peer alcohol use, and peer encouragement of alcohol use. Results showed that proportions of alcohol users increased steadily from ages 9 to 16 years. Significant covariates were found on the intercept and slope. Being female and higher levels of parent alcohol use were associated with higher initial rates of alcohol use, whereas greater friends' encouragement of alcohol use was related to lower initial rates of alcohol use (intercept). Alternatively, more peer deviance and friends' encouragement of alcohol use was related to an increase in alcohol use rates from ages 9 to 16 years (slope), as was being White and from a single-parent family.
Article
To determine which alcohol-specific socialization practices are related to adolescents' alcohol use, and to investigate whether parents differ in their alcohol-specific socialization towards their children. In a sample of 428 families, both parents and two adolescents (aged 13-16 years) completed a questionnaire at home about alcohol-specific parenting and their own alcohol use. Based on the reports of each family member, three different models of alcohol-specific socialization were formulated: from the perspective of the siblings, the mother and the father. Results of structural equation modelling generally showed the same associations between alcohol-specific socialization and drinking of younger and older adolescents. The strongest association was found for providing alcohol-specific rules. Applying strict rules about alcohol use was negatively related to adolescents' alcohol use; this was also the case for having confidence in the effectiveness of alcohol-specific socialization. Unexpectedly, frequency of communication about alcohol issues was positively associated with alcohol consumption of adolescents. This study is one of the first to examine associations between alcohol-specific socialization and adolescents' drinking using a between- and a within-family design. Results showed strong associations between alcohol-specific socialization (particularly of enforcing rules) and adolescent alcohol use. Although parents strongly differentiated their socialization practices between children, no differences in associations between alcohol-specific socialization and drinking were found between older and younger adolescents.
Article
Using a probability sample of 4,230 adolescents from grades 7-12, we used negative binomial regression to estimate the effects of peer and six family variables on the risk of adolescent drug use. Peer drug use had relatively strong effects of adolescent drug use. Parental drug attitudes, sibling drug use, and adult drug use had significant direct effects net of peer influences. In addition, they had significant indirect effects that were mediated by peer drug use. The influences of parental monitoring, attachment to mother, and attachment to father were statistically significant but relatively small. The findings applied to alcohol, binge drinking, cigarettes, marijuana, and other illicit drugs. Editors' Strategic Implications: The authors interpret their findings as being more consistent with social learning than social control theory. This research, although cross-sectional and limited to adolescents' self-reports, contributes to a growing literature on the direct and indirect influences of parents on their teens' substance use rates. It speaks to the need for school- and community-based prevention efforts to focus on families as well as peers.
Article
This study examines the association between alcohol use and mental health in adolescence, specifically the interaction with age and gender. Data were derived from the 2001 Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children (HBSC) survey--a repeated cross-sectional study with a total of 5,730 students aged 12-16 years, carried out as part of the World Health Organization cross-national HBSC Project. A two-stage random sampling procedure was used. Written questionnaires were administered in classroom settings. These contained questions about alcohol and other drug use as well as sociodemographic and behavioral variables. In addition, the Youth Self-Report was used to assess mental health. Weekly alcohol use among adolescents is related to less withdrawn behavior and more delinquent, aggressive behavior. Significant interactions between weekly alcohol use and age were found on both externalizing and internalizing problems, indicating a stronger association between weekly alcohol use and problems among younger adolescents. No interactions with gender were found. Particularly at a young age, the weekly use of alcohol is associated with mental health problems. Regular alcohol use should alert parents and professionals that these adolescents might experience problems in other areas.
Article
Examine sources of alcohol over time in a large, ethnically diverse adolescent population from a poor, urban environment. Surveys were administered at four time points (6th-8th grades) assessing demographic characteristics, past year alcohol use and sources of alcohol to youth in Chicago, Illinois 2002-2005. Growth curve analysis was used to examine alcohol access trends among all alcohol using youth and consistent alcohol users. Interactions by race and gender were tested. Social sources of alcohol were the most prevalent source over time. Parents were the primary source of alcohol, but their prominence significantly decreased over time. Taking alcohol from home, and getting alcohol from other adults, individuals under age 21, and commercial sources significantly increased as sources of alcohol over time. Males were significantly more likely than females to get alcohol from commercial sources and friends' parents. Greater attention for reducing social access to alcohol, particularly among parents, is needed for alcohol prevention efforts prior to and during middle school.
Article
To examine the bi-directional associations between providing alcohol-specific rules and adolescents' alcohol use. Further, to explore person-environment interactions, we tested whether Big Five personality traits moderate the assumed association between providing alcohol-specific rules and adolescents' alcohol use. Longitudinal data (three waves in 2 years) from 428 families, consisting of both parents and two adolescents (aged 13-16 years) were used for the analyses. Analyses were conducted on four samples: a group of older adolescents and a group of younger adolescents who already consumed alcohol, and a group of older and younger adolescents who were not drinking at baseline measurement. In general, results of structural equation modelling showed that providing clear alcohol-specific rules lowers the likelihood of drinking initiation, regardless of the age of the youngsters. Once adolescents have established a drinking pattern, the impact of parental alcohol-specific rules declined or even disappeared. Finally, the Big Five personality traits did not moderate the association between providing alcohol-specific rules and adolescents' alcohol involvement. In sum, in particular during the initiation phase of drinking, parents could prevent the drinking of their offspring, regardless of the age or personality of their youngsters, by providing clear alcohol-specific rules.
Article
The purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of parental provision of alcohol and home alcohol accessibility on the trajectories of young adolescent alcohol use and intentions. Data were part of a longitudinal study of alcohol use among multi-ethnic urban young adolescents who were assigned randomly to the control group of a prevention trial. Data were collected from a cohort of youth, and their parents, who attended public schools in Chicago, Illinois (2002-2005). The sample comprised the 1388 students, and their parents, who had been assigned randomly to the control group and were present and completed surveys at baseline, in the beginning of 6th grade (age 12). The sample was primarily low-income, and African American and Hispanic. Students completed self-report questionnaires when in the 6th, 7th and 8th grades (age 12-14 years; response rates 91-96%). Parents of the 6th grade students also completed questionnaires (70% response rate). Student report, at age 12, of parental provision of alcohol and home alcohol availability, and parental report of providing alcohol to their child and the accessibility of alcohol in the home, were associated with significant increases in the trajectories of young adolescent alcohol use and intentions from ages 12-14 years. Student report of receiving alcohol from their parent or taking it from home during their last drinking occasion were the most robust predictors of increases in alcohol use and intentions over time. Results indicate that it is risky for parents to allow children to drink during early adolescence. When these findings are considered together with the risks associated with early onset of alcohol use, it is clear that parents can play an important role in prevention.