Serum selenium and serum lipids in US adults: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2003–2004

Department of Cardiovascular Epidemiology and Population Genetics, Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Cardiovasculares (CNIC), Madrid, Spain.
Atherosclerosis (Impact Factor: 3.99). 06/2010; 210(2):643-8. DOI: 10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2010.01.005
Source: PubMed


High selenium has been recently associated with several cardiovascular and metabolic risk factors including diabetes, blood pressure and lipid levels. We evaluated the association of serum selenium with fasting serum lipid levels in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2003-2004, the most recently available representative sample of the US population that measured selenium levels.
Cross-sectional analysis of 1159 adults>or=40 years old from NHANES 2003-2004. Serum selenium was measured by inductively coupled plasma-dynamic reaction cell-mass spectrometry. Fasting serum total cholesterol, triglycerides, and HDL cholesterol were measured enzymatically and LDL cholesterol was calculated.
Mean serum selenium was 136.7 microg/L. The multivariable adjusted average differences (95% confidence interval) comparing the highest (>or=147 microg/L) to the lowest (<124 microg/L) selenium quartiles were 18.9 (9.9, 28.0) mg/dL for total cholesterol, 12.7 (3.3, 22.2) mg/dL for LDL cholesterol, 3.9 (0.4, 7.5)mg/dL for HDL cholesterol, and 11.5 (-7.6, 30.7) mg/dL for triglycerides. In spline regression models, total and LDL cholesterol levels increased progressively with increasing selenium concentrations. HDL cholesterol increased with selenium but reached a plateau above 120 microg/L of serum selenium (20th percentile). The triglyceride-selenium relationship was U-shaped.
In US adults, high serum selenium concentrations were associated with increased serum concentrations of total and LDL cholesterol. Selenium was associated with increasing HDL cholesterol only at low selenium levels. Given increasing trends in dietary selenium intake and supplementation, the causal mechanisms underlying these associations need to be fully characterized.

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    • "Oxidative stress is a feature of excess adiposity [3] [4] [5] [6], which is associated with decreased activity of antioxidant enzymes, including GPx [7], and increased demand for Se and other antioxidants. However, in some studies, high Se status has been associated with cardiometabolic endpoints linked to excess adiposity such as dyslipidemia [8] [9] [10], hypertension [11], and diabetes [12] [13] [14]. Mechanisms explaining cardiometabolic associations are incompletely understood. "
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    ABSTRACT: Recent studies have raised concern over possible associations between high selenium (Se) status and excess adiposity, known to be linked to adverse cardio-metabolic outcomes. Studies of Se status in relation to adiposity are scarce in the UK. This study examined cross-sectional associations of anthropometric indices with Se-status biomarkers in a nationally representative sample of 1045 (577 female, 468 male) British Caucasian adults aged 19-64 who participated in the 2000-2001 National Diet and Nutrition Survey. Median (1(st), 3(rd) Quartile) values for whole-blood glutathione peroxidase [GPx] activity, plasma and erythrocyte Se concentrations were 120.0 (103.0, 142.4) nmol·mgHb(-1)·min(-1), 1.08 (0.98, 1.20) µmol/L and 1.62 (1.38, 1.91) µmol/L, respectively. For males, values were 119.0 (100.0, 141.0) nmol·mgHb(-1)·min(-1), 1.09 (0.99, 1.22) µmol/L and 1.54 (1.34, 1.79) µmol/L, respectively; for females 121.0 (105.0, 145.0) nmol·mgHb(-1)·min(-1), 1.07 (0.97, 1.18) µmol/L and 1.71 (1.43, 1.99) µmol/L, respectively. Multivariate adjusted mean differences (95%CI) in whole-blood GPx between the highest (>30kg/m(2)) and lowest (<25kg/m(2)) categories of body mass index [BMI] and highest (96.5-139.2cm) and lowest (52.2-78.1cm) quartiles of waist circumference [WC] were -7.9 (-13.2, -2.7) nmol·mgHb(-1)·min(-1) and -9.7 (-16.2, -3.2) nmol·mgHb(-1)·min(-1), respectively. Difference (95%CI) in plasma Se between the 3(rd) (87.5-96.4cm) and lowest quartiles of WC was -0.04 (-0.08, -0.03) µmol/L. Difference (95%CI) in RBC Se between the highest (0.91-1.11) and lowest (0.53-0.76) quartiles of waist-to-hip ratio [WHR] was 0.10 (0.00, 0.20) µmol/L. Similar results were observed in gender and menopausal-status subgroup analyses. The inverse association between plasma Se and WC and the positive association between RBC Se and WHR will need confirmation. Findings suggest associations between low whole-blood GPx activity and higher measures of general and central adiposity. Further experimental and randomised studies are needed to deduce mechanisms and infer causality.
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    • "Specifically, several unrelated studies from the US indicate that high selenium status or selenium supplementation is associated with an increased diabetes risk [5-8]. Furthermore, recent evidence from several populations indicates that high selenium exposure may also be associated with an adverse lipid profile [9-12] and hypertension [13], raising additional concerns about metabolic toxicity of high selenium exposure and prolonged use of selenium supplements [14]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Growing evidence raises concern about possible associations of high selenium exposure with diabetes in selenium-replete populations such as the US. In countries with lower selenium status, such as Italy, there is little epidemiological evidence on the association between selenium and diabetes. This study examined the prospective association between dietary selenium intake and risk of type 2 diabetes. The ORDET cohort study comprised a large sample of women from Northern Italy (n = 7,182). Incident type 2 diabetes was defined as a self-report of a physician diagnosis, use of antidiabetic medication, or a hospitalization discharge. Dietary selenium intake was measured by a semi-quantitative food-frequency questionnaire at the baseline examination (1987-1992). Participants were divided in quintiles based on their baseline dietary selenium intake. Average selenium intake at baseline was 55.7 μg/day. After a median follow-up of 16 years, 253 women developed diabetes. In multivariate logistic regression analyses, the odds ratio for diabetes comparing the highest to the lowest quintile of selenium intake was 2.39, (95% CI: 1.32, 4.32; P for linear trend = 0.005). The odds ratio for diabetes associated with a 10 μg/d increase in selenium intake was 1.29 (95% CI: 1.10, 1.52). In this population, increased dietary selenium intake was associated with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes. These findings raise additional concerns about the association of selenium intake above the Recommended Dietary Allowance (55 μg/day) with diabetes risk.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2010 · BMC Public Health
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    • "The association of serum selenium with HDL cholesterol is not consistent in previous studies. Five studies report a positive association [8,9,11,15,16], one has a negative association [7], and three do not show any significant association [10,12,19]. In our present study, the HDL cholesterol concentrations did not increase significantly with increments of serum selenium (Table 2; Fig. 1C). "
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    ABSTRACT: Selenium is an essential micronutrient known for its antioxidant function. However, the association of serum selenium with lipid profiles and fasting glucose are inconsistent in populations with average intake of selenium. Furthermore, there were few studies conducted specifically for the elderly. This study examined the relationship of serum selenium concentration with serum lipids and fasting glucose in the Taiwanese elderly population. This was a cross-sectional study of 200 males and females aged 65-85 years (mean 71.5 +/- 4.6 years) from Taipei, Taiwan. Serum selenium was measured by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometer. The association between serum selenium and metabolic factors was examined using a multivariate linear regression analysis after controlling several confounders. The mean serum selenium concentration was 1.14 mumol/L, without significant difference between sexes. Total cholesterol, triglycerides, and LDL cholesterol increased significantly with serum selenium concentration (P < 0.001, P < 0.05 and P < 0.001, respectively) after adjusting for age, gender, anthropometric indices, lifestyle factors, and cardio-vascular risk factors in several linear regression models. Furthermore, there was a significantly positive association between serum selenium and serum fasting glucose concentrations (P < 0.05). Total cholesterol, triglycerides, and LDL cholesterol, and fasting serum glucose concentrations increased significantly with serum selenium concentration in the Taiwanese elderly. The underlying mechanism warrants further research.
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