The aim of the present systematic review was to evaluate the influence of early life exposure (maternal and childhood) to peanuts and the subsequent development of sensitisation or allergy to peanuts during childhood. Studies were identified using electronic databases and bibliography searches. Studies that assessed the impact of non-avoidance compared with avoidance or reduced quantities of peanuts or peanut products on either sensitisation or allergy to peanuts, or both outcomes, were eligible. Six human studies were identified: two randomised controlled trials, two case-control studies and two cross-sectional studies. In addition, published animal and mechanistic studies, relevant to the question of whether early life exposure to peanuts affects the subsequent development of peanut sensitisation, were reviewed narratively. Overall, the evidence reviewed was heterogeneous, and was limited in quality, for example, through lack of adjustment for potentially confounding factors. The nature of the evidence has therefore hindered the development of definitive conclusions. The systematic review of human studies and narrative expert-led reviews of animal studies do not provide clear evidence to suggest that either maternal exposure, or early or delayed introduction of peanuts in the diets of children, has an impact upon subsequent development of sensitisation or allergy to peanuts. Results from some animal studies (and limited evidence from human subjects) suggest that the dose of peanuts is an important mediator of peanut sensitisation and tolerance; low doses tend to lead to sensitisation and higher doses tend to lead to tolerance.
Data provided are for informational purposes only. Although carefully collected, accuracy cannot be guaranteed. The impact factor represents a rough estimation of the journal's impact factor and does not reflect the actual current impact factor. Publisher conditions are provided by RoMEO. Differing provisions from the publisher's actual policy or licence agreement may be applicable.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: An algorithm based on the moment method for wave scattering
analysis is decomposed for parallel computation in a customer designed
computer network. The network comprises of transputers and 80486 single
processor boards. It is configured in a modified processor farm
architecture. Softwares are written for handling low level tasks and
special techniques are developed to alleviate the bottleneck imposed by
RS422 communication differential links. As reduction of communication
between various processing units is one of the key objectives, nearly
all computational power of each processing unit in the system is
expended in solving the wave scattering problem instead of communication
and synchronization. Satisfactory computational speedup is observed. The
system is not restrictive to algorithms used in wave scattering or
antenna analysis; it is applicable to a class of algorithms which is
relatively short yet extremely time consuming