Article

Randomized phase II study of clinical effects of ghrelin after esophagectomy with gastric tube reconstruction

Division of Gastroenterological Surgery, Department of Surgery, Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka University, Osaka, Japan.
Surgery (Impact Factor: 3.38). 07/2010; 148(1):31-8. DOI: 10.1016/j.surg.2009.11.026
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

Ghrelin is a peptide hormone with pleiotropic functions including stimulation of growth hormone secretion and appetite, and its levels decrease after esophagectomy. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether exogenous ghrelin administration can meliorate the postoperative decrease of oral food intake and body weight, which are serious complications after esophagectomy.
This prospective randomized, placebo-controlled, clinical trial assigned a total of 20 patients with thoracic esophageal cancer who underwent radical operation into either a ghrelin (n =10) or placebo (n =10) group. Synthetic human ghrelin (3 microg/kg) or 0.9% saline placebo was administered intravenously twice daily for 10 days from the day after the start of food intake. The primary end point was calories of food intake. Comparison of appetite and changes in weight and body composition were also made between the 2 groups.
Intake of food calories was greater in ghrelin group than placebo group (mean 874 vs 605 kcal per day; P =.015). The appetite score tended to be greater in ghrelin group than placebo group (P =.094). Loss of weight was less in ghrelin group (-1% vs -3%; P =.019) and this attenuation was due largely to a decrease of lean body weight loss (0% vs -4%; P =.012). No side effects were observed in either groups.
These preliminary results suggest that administration of ghrelin after esophagectomy increased oral food intake and attenuated weight loss together with maintenance of lean body weight.

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    • "Ghrelin treatment has also been applied to other causes of anorexia, sarcopenia, and emaciation, including anorexia nervosa [87], functional dyspepsia [88], aging [21], post-gastrectomy anorexia [22], esophagectomy [23], chemotherapy [89, 90], and thermal injury [91]. In addition, the effects of ghrelin mimetics were examined in age-dependent sarcopenia [21, 32]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Ghrelin, a natural ligand for the growth hormone (GH)-secretagogue receptor, is primarily produced in the stomach. Administration of ghrelin stimulates food intake and GH secretion in both animals and humans. Ghrelin is the only circulating hormone known to stimulate appetite in humans. As GH is an anabolic hormone, protein stores are spared at the expense of fat during conditions of caloric restriction. Ghrelin also inhibits the production of anorectic proinflammatory cytokines. Thus, ghrelin exhibits anti-cachectic actions via both GH-dependent and -independent mechanisms. Several studies are evaluating the efficacy of ghrelin in the treatment of cachexia caused by a variety of diseases, including congestive heart failure, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, cancer, and end-stage renal disease. These studies will hopefully lead to the development of novel clinical applications for ghrelin in the future. These studies have also facilitated a better understanding of the molecular basis of the anti-catabolic effects of ghrelin. This review summarizes the recent advances in this area of research.
    Preview · Article · Dec 2010
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    ABSTRACT: Opinion statement This article reviews various methods of assessing and managing post-gastrectomy or esophagectomy patients from a nutritional standpoint, by examining recent research focusing on assessment models, components of enteral feeding, timing of feeding, safety of enteral nutrition (EN) vs total parenteral nutrition (TPN), appetite stimulants, alternative treatments, and long-term care. Pre-, peri-, and post-operative nutrition represent a major prognostic indicator in patients undergoing a gastrectomy or esophagectomy for malignant cancer. An accurate initial nutrition assessment to determine risk, followed by close monitoring pre-operatively and early enteral feeding post-operatively, has been shown to have the most beneficial effects. The optimal delivery route for nutrition involves the use of EN with immune enhancing nutrients while avoiding TPN. In practice, TPN is reserved for patients with post-operative complications that delay enteral feeding for an extended time. While megace is commonly used as an appetite stimulant, the hormone ghrelin is another novel, safe, and efficacious treatment to improve appetite, increase by mouth (PO) intake, and minimize loss of weight and lean body mass. Although use of ghrelin is not yet common practice, as more studies are published, we predict that this will become a more common treatment. While complementary and alternative therapies are commonly employed in this patient population, more research needs to be done before incorporation into our mainstay of treatment. Long term, these patients continue to be at nutritional risk and therefore should be followed to optimize weight maintenance and prevent micronutrient deficiencies.
    Preview · Article · Mar 2011 · Current Treatment Options in Oncology
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This article reviews various methods of assessing and managing post-gastrectomy or esophagectomy patients from a nutritional standpoint, by examining recent research focusing on assessment models, components of enteral feeding, timing of feeding, safety of enteral nutrition (EN) vs total parenteral nutrition (TPN), appetite stimulants, alternative treatments, and long-term care. Pre-, peri-, and post-operative nutrition represent a major prognostic indicator in patients undergoing a gastrectomy or esophagectomy for malignant cancer. An accurate initial nutrition assessment to determine risk, followed by close monitoring pre-operatively and early enteral feeding post-operatively, has been shown to have the most beneficial effects. The optimal delivery route for nutrition involves the use of EN with immune enhancing nutrients while avoiding TPN. In practice, TPN is reserved for patients with post-operative complications that delay enteral feeding for an extended time. While megace is commonly used as an appetite stimulant, the hormone ghrelin is another novel, safe, and efficacious treatment to improve appetite, increase by mouth (PO) intake, and minimize loss of weight and lean body mass. Although use of ghrelin is not yet common practice, as more studies are published, we predict that this will become a more common treatment. While complementary and alternative therapies are commonly employed in this patient population, more research needs to be done before incorporation into our mainstay of treatment. Long term, these patients continue to be at nutritional risk and therefore should be followed to optimize weight maintenance and prevent micronutrient deficiencies.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2011 · Current Treatment Options in Oncology
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