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The total antioxidant content of more than 3100 foods, beverages, spices, herbs and supplements used worldwide

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The total antioxidant content of more than 3100 foods, beverages, spices, herbs and supplements used worldwide

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A plant-based diet protects against chronic oxidative stress-related diseases. Dietary plants contain variable chemical families and amounts of antioxidants. It has been hypothesized that plant antioxidants may contribute to the beneficial health effects of dietary plants. Our objective was to develop a comprehensive food database consisting of the total antioxidant content of typical foods as well as other dietary items such as traditional medicine plants, herbs and spices and dietary supplements. This database is intended for use in a wide range of nutritional research, from in vitro and cell and animal studies, to clinical trials and nutritional epidemiological studies. We procured samples from countries worldwide and assayed the samples for their total antioxidant content using a modified version of the FRAP assay. Results and sample information (such as country of origin, product and/or brand name) were registered for each individual food sample and constitute the Antioxidant Food Table. The results demonstrate that there are several thousand-fold differences in antioxidant content of foods. Spices, herbs and supplements include the most antioxidant rich products in our study, some exceptionally high. Berries, fruits, nuts, chocolate, vegetables and products thereof constitute common foods and beverages with high antioxidant values. This database is to our best knowledge the most comprehensive Antioxidant Food Database published and it shows that plant-based foods introduce significantly more antioxidants into human diet than non-plant foods. Because of the large variations observed between otherwise comparable food samples the study emphasizes the importance of using a comprehensive database combined with a detailed system for food registration in clinical and epidemiological studies. The present antioxidant database is therefore an essential research tool to further elucidate the potential health effects of phytochemical antioxidants in diet.
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RESEARC H Open Access
The total antioxidant content of more than 3100
foods, beverages, spices, herbs and supplements
used worldwide
Monica H Carlsen
1
, Bente L Halvorsen
1
, Kari Holte
1
, Siv K Bøhn
1
, Steinar Dragland
2
, Laura Sampson
3
,
Carol Willey
3
, Haruki Senoo
4
, Yuko Umezono
4
, Chiho Sanada
4
, Ingrid Barikmo
5
, Nega Berhe
1
, Walter C Willett
3
,
Katherine M Phillips
6
, David R Jacobs Jr
1,7
, Rune Blomhoff
1*
Abstract
Background: A plant-based diet protects against chronic oxidative stress-related diseases. Dietary plants contain
variable chemical families and amounts of antioxidants. It has been hypothesized that plant antioxidants may
contribute to the beneficial health effects of dietary plants. Our objective was to develop a comprehensive food
database consisting of the total antioxidant content of typical foods as well as other dietary items such as
traditional medicine plants, herbs and spices and dietary supplements. This database is intended for use in a wide
range of nutritional research, from in vitro and cell and animal studies, to clinical trials and nutritional
epidemiological studies.
Methods: We procured samples from countries worldwide and assayed the samples for their total antioxidant
content using a modified version of the FRAP assay. Results and sample information (such as country of origin,
product and/or brand name) were registered for each individual food sample and constitute the Antioxidant Food
Table.
Results: The results demonstrate that there are several thousand-fold differences in antioxidant content of foods.
Spices, herbs and supplements include the most antioxidant rich products in our study, some exceptionally high.
Berries, fruits, nuts, chocolate, vegetables and products thereof constitute common foods and beverages with high
antioxidant values.
Conclusions: This database is to our best knowledge the most comprehensive Antioxidant Food Database
published and it shows that plant-based foods introduce significantly more antioxidants into human diet than non-
plant foods. Because of the large variations observed between otherwise comparable food samples the study
emphasizes the importance of using a comprehensive database combined with a detailed system for food
registration in clinical and epidemiological studies. The present antioxidant database is therefore an essential
research tool to further elucidate the potential health effects of phytochemical antioxidants in diet.
Background
It is widely accepted that a plant-based diet with high
intake of fruits, vegetables, and other nutrient-rich plant
foods may reduce the risk of oxidative stress-related dis-
eases [1-6]. Understanding the complex role of diet in
such chronic diseases is challenging since a typical diet
provides more than 25,000 bioactive food constituents
[6], many of which may modify a multitude of processes
that are related to these diseases. Because of the com-
plexity of this relationship, it is likely that a comprehen-
sive understanding of the role of these bioactive food
components is needed to assess the role of dietary
plants in human health and disease development. We
suggest that both their numerous individual functions as
well as their combined additive or synergistic effects are
crucial to their health beneficial effects, thus a food-
* Correspondence: rune.blomhoff@medisin.uio.no
Contributed equally
1
Department of Nutrition, Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, University of
Oslo, Oslo, Norway
Carlsen et al.Nutrition Journal 2010, 9:3
http://www.nutritionj.com/content/9/1/3
© 2010 Carlsen et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons
Attribution L icense (http://creati vecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which perm its unrestricted use, di stribution, and reproduction in
any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
based research approach is likely to elucidate more
health effects than those derived from each individual
nutrient. Most bioactive food constituents are derived
from plants; those so derived are collectively called phy-
tochemicals. The large majority of these phytochemicals
are redox active molecules and therefore defined as anti-
oxidants. Antioxidants can eliminate free radicals and
other reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, and these
reactive species contribute to most chronic diseases. It
is hypothesized that antioxidants originating from foods
may work as antioxidants in their own right in vivo, as
well as bring about beneficial health effects through
other mechanisms, including acting as inducers of
mechanisms related to antioxidant defense [7,8], longev-
ity [9,10], cell maintenance and DNA repair [11].
Several assays have been used to assess the total anti-
oxidant content of foods, e.g. the 6-hydroxy-2,5,7,8-tet-
ramethylchroman-2-carboxylic acid (Trolox) equivalent
antioxidant capacity (TEAC) assay [12], the ferric-redu-
cing ability of plasma (FRAP) [13] and the oxygen radi-
cal absorbance capacity assay (ORAC) assay [14]. Based
on careful considerations (see Blomhoff 2005 and Hal-
vorsen et al 2002 for discussion [15,16]) we chose to use
a modified version of the FRAP assay by Benzie and
Strain [13] for total antioxidant analysis [16]. Most
importantly, the modified FRAP assay is a simple, fast
and inexpensive assay with little selectivity. Assay condi-
tions, such as extraction solvents, were optimized
regarding detection of both lipophilic and hydrophilic
antioxidants [16]. The FRAP assay directly measures
antioxidants with a reduction potential below the reduc-
tion potential of the Fe
3+
/Fe
2+
couple [16,17]. Thus, the
FRAP assay does not measure glutathione. Most other
assays have higher reduction potentials and measures
glutathione and other thiols [18]. This may be an advan-
tage when using the FRAP assay, because glutathione is
found in high concentrations in foods but it is degraded
in the intestine and poorly absorbed by humans [19]. A
disadvantage of the FRAP assay is its inability to detect
other small molecular weight thiols and sulfur contain-
ing molecules of e.g. garlic. Most assays for assessing
total antioxidant capacity generally result in similar
ranking of foods [20-23]. We have now performed a sys-
tematic measurement of the total antioxidant content of
more than 3100 foods. This novel Antioxidant Food
Table enables us to calculate total antioxidant content
of complex diets, identify and rank potentially good
sources of antioxidants, and provide the research com-
munity with comparable data on the relative antioxidant
capacity of a wide range of foods.
There is not necessarily a direct relationship between
the antioxidant content of a food sample consumed and
the subsequent antioxidant activity in the target cell.
Factors influencing the bioavailability of phytochemical
antioxidants, include the food matrix, absorption and
metabolism [24-27]. Also, the methods measuring total
antioxidant capacity do not identify single antioxidant
compounds, and they are therefore of limited use when
investigating the mechanisms involved. This is however,
not the scope of this article. With the present study,
food samples with high antioxidant content are identi-
fied, but further investigation into each individual food
and phytochemical antioxidant compound is needed to
identify those which may have biological relevance and
the mechanisms involved.
The aim of the present study was to screen foods to
identify total antioxidant capacity of fruits, vegetables,
beverages, spices and herbs in addition to common
everyday foods. In nutritional epidemiologic and inter-
vention studies, the Antioxidant Food Database may be
utilized to identify and rank diets and subjects with
regard to antioxidant intake and as a tool in planning
dietary antioxidant interventions. The database will be
available online at the University of Oslos web site.
Methods
Reagents
TPTZ (2,4,6-tri-pyridyl-s-triazine) was obtained from
FlukaChemieAG(Deisenhofen, Switzerland), sodium
acetate trihydrate and FeSO
4
×7H
2
O from Riedel-
deHaën AG (Seelze, Germany), acetic acid and hydro-
chloric acid from Merck (Darmstadt, Germany), FeCl
3
×
6H
2
O from BDH Laboratory Supplies (Dorset, England).
MilliQ water (Millipore, Bedford, MA) and methanol of
HPLC-grade obtained from Merck was used for all
extractions. 2-propanol (HPLC-grade) was obtained
from Merck.
Sample collection and sample preparation
The antioxidant measurements have been conducted
over a period of eight years, from 2000 to 2008. The
samples were procured from local stores and markets in
Scandinavia, USA and Europe and from the African,
Asian and South American continents. Many of the
samples of plant material, like berries, mushrooms and
herbs, were handpicked. Commercially procured food
samples were stored according to the description on the
packing and analyzed within four weeks. Handpicked
samples were either stored at 4°C and analyzed within
three days or frozen at -20°C and analyzed within four
weeks. Products that needed preparation such as coffee,
tea, processed vegetables etc. were prepared on the day
of analysis. Furthermore, all samples were homogenized,
dry samples were pulverized and solid samples were
chopped in a food processor. After homogenizing, analy-
tical aliquots were weighed. Included in the database are
1113 of the food samples obtained from the US Depart-
ment of Agriculture National Food and Nutrient
Carlsen et al.Nutrition Journal 2010, 9:3
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Analysis Program. They were collected, homogenized,
and stored as previously described [17]. Three replicates
were weighed out for each sample. All samples were
extracted in water/methanol, except vegetable oils which
were extracted in 2-propanol and some fat-rich samples
which were extracted in water/2-propanol. The extracts
were mixed, sonicated in ice water bath for 15 min,
mixed once more and centrifuged in 1.5 mL tubes at
12.402 × g for 2 min at 4°C. The concentration of anti-
oxidants was measured in triplicate of the supernatant
of the centrifuged samples.
Measurements of antioxidant content
The FRAP assay of Benzie and Strain [13] was used with
minor modifications that allowed quantification of most
water- and fat-soluble antioxidants [16,17]. A Technicon
RA 1000 system (Technicon instruments corporation,
New York, USA) was used for the measurements of
absorption changes that appear when the TPTZ-Fe
3+
complex reduces to the TPTZ-Fe
2+
form in the presence
of antioxidants. An intense blue color with absorption
maximum at 593 nm develops. The measurements were
performed at 600 nm after 4 min incubation. An aqueous
solution of 500 μmol/L FeSO
4
×7H
2
O was used for cali-
bration of the instrument. Validation of the assay is
described in Halvorsen et al. 2002 [17]. Briefly, the within-
day repeatability measured as relative standard deviation
(RSD) in standard solutions ranged from 0.4% to 6%. The
between-day repeatability was < 3%. The variation in the
values for replicate food items obtained from the same
source were typically between 3 and 10 RSD%.
Organization of the Antioxidant Food Table
The samples were classified into 24 different categories
covering products from the plant kingdom, products
from the animal kingdom and mixed food products.
Information about sample processing (raw, cooked,
dried etc), if any, was included, along with all sample
specifications, i.e. product name, brand name, where the
product/sample was procured and country of origin.
The product information in the database was collected
from the packing of the product, from supplier or pur-
chaser. When this information was not available or the
samples were handpicked, only country of origin is pre-
sented. Each sample is assigned to only one category.
The classification was done according to information
from the supplier or purchaser, or according to com-
mon traditional use of the food. Some foods may there-
fore be categorized otherwise in other food cultures. For
products in the categories Herbal/traditional plant
medicineand Vitamin and dietary Supplementssome
products may rightfully be classified as both an herbal
medicine and a supplement, but are still assigned to
only one category. All berries, fruits, and vegetables
were fresh samples unless otherwise noted in the data-
base. The Antioxidant Food Table contains 3139 sam-
ples. About 1300 of these samples have been published
before [16,17,28] but for comparison and completeness
we have included them in the present publication. All
individual samples previously published are identified by
a comment in the Antioxidant Food Table. The cate-
gories and products in the database are presented in
alphabetic order. Information about brand names and
product trademarks does not imply endorsement by the
authors, and are reported as descriptive information for
research applications only. The Antioxidant Food Table
will in the future be available online as a searchable
database. In addition to the products mentioned in this
paper, other foods will in the future be analyzed and
incorporated into the online version, which will be
posted on the University of Oslos web site.
Results
Our results show large variations both between as well as
within each food category; all of the food categories con-
tain products almost devoid of antioxidants (Table 1).
Please refer to Additional file 1, the Antioxidant Food
Table, for the FRAP results on all 3139 products analyzed.
The categories Spices and herbs,Herbal/traditional
plant medicineand Vitamin and dietary supplements
include the most antioxidant rich products analyzed in the
study. The categories Berries and berry products,Fruit
and fruit juices,Nuts and seeds,Breakfast Cereals,
Chocolate and sweets,Beveragesand Vegetables and
vegetable productsinclude most of the common foods
and beverages which have medium to high antioxidant
values (Table 1). We find that plant-based foods are gener-
ally higher in antioxidant content than animal-based and
mixed food products, with median antioxidant values of
0.88, 0.10 and 0.31 mmol/100 g, respectively (Table 1).
Furthermore, the 75
th
percentile of plant-based foods is
4.11 mmol/100 g compared to 0.21 and 0.68 mmol/100 g
for animal-based and mixed foods, respectively. The high
mean value of plant-based foods is due to a minority of
products with very high antioxidant values, found among
the plant medicines, spices and herbs. In the following,
summarized results from the 24 categories are presented.
Beverages
In the category Beverages, 283 products were included,
from coffee and tea to beer, wine and lemonades. Dry
products like coffee beans and dried tea leaves and pow-
ders were also included. The highest antioxidant values
in this category were found among the unprocessed tea
leaves, tea powders and coffee beans. In Table 2 we pre-
sent an excerpt of this category and of the analyses of
fruit juices. Fifty-four different types of prepared coffee
variants procured from 16 different manufacturers
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showed that the variation in coffees are large, ranging
from a minimum of 0.89 mmol/100 g for one type of
brewed coffee with milk to 16.33 mmol/100 g for one
type of double espresso coffee, the highest antioxidant
value of all prepared beverages analyzed in the present
study. Other antioxidant rich beverages are red wine,
which have a smaller variation of antioxidant content
(1.78 to 3.66 mmol/100 g), pomegranate juice, prepared
green tea (0.57 to 2.62 mmol/100 g), grape juice, prune
juice and black tea (0.75 to 1.21 mmol/100 g) (Table 2).
Beer, soft drinks and ginger ale contain the least antioxi-
dants of the beverages in our study, with drinking water
completely devoid of antioxidants.
Breakfast cereals, grains, legumes, nuts and seeds
Most of the breakfast cereals have antioxidant content
in the range of 0.5 to 2.25 mmol/100 g, while 4 single
products are above this range. Among grains and grain
products, buckwheat, millet and barley flours are the
flours with the highest antioxidant values in our study
(Table 3), while crisp bread and whole meal bread with
fiber are the grain products containing most antioxi-
dants. Beans and lentils have mean antioxidant values
ranging from 0.1 to 1.97 mmol/100 g. Different types of
rice have antioxidant values between 0.01 and 0.36
mmol/100 g.
In the nuts and seeds category we analyzed 90 differ-
ent products, with antioxidant contents varying from
0.03 mmol/100 g in poppy seeds to 33.3 mmol/100 g in
walnuts, with pellicle and purchased with nut shell
intact. Pecans with pellicle, sunflower seeds and chest-
nuts with pellicle, have mean antioxidant content in the
range of 4.7 to 8.5 mmol/100 g (Table 3). Walnuts,
chestnuts, peanuts, hazelnuts and almonds have higher
values when analyzed with the pellicle intact compared
to without pellicle.
Table 1 Statistical descriptives of the Antioxidant Food Table and individual categories.
Antioxidant content in mmol/100 g
n mean median min max 25th percentile 75th percentile 90th percentile
Plant based foods
a)
1943 11.57 0.88 0.00 2897.11 0.27 4.11 24.30
Animal based foods
b)
211 0.18 0.10 0.00 1.00 0.05 0.21 0.46
Mixed foods
c)
854 0.91 0.31 0.00 18.52 0.14 0.68 1.50
Categories
1 Berries and berry products 119 9.86 3.34 0.06 261.53 1.90 6.31 37.08
2 Beverages 283 8.30 0.60 0.00 1347.83 0.15 2.37 3.64
3 Breakfast cereals 90 1.09 0.89 0.16 4.84 0.53 1.24 1.95
4 Chocolates and sweets 80 4.93 2.33 0.05 14.98 0.82 8.98 13.23
5 Dairy products 86 0.14 0.06 0.00 0.78 0.04 0.14 0.44
6 Desserts and cakes 134 0.45 0.20 0.00 4.10 0.09 0.52 1.04
7 Egg 12 0.04 0.04 0.00 0.16 0.01 0.06 0.14
8 Fats and oils 38 0.51 0.39 0.19 1.66 0.30 0.50 1.40
9 Fish and seafood 32 0.11 0.08 0.03 0.65 0.07 0.12 0.21
10 Fruit and fruit juices 278 1.25 0.69 0.03 55.52 0.31 1.21 2.36
11 Grains and grain products 227 0.34 0.18 0.00 3.31 0.06 0.38 0.73
12 Herbal/traditional plant medicine 59 91.72 14.18 0.28 2897.11 5.66 39.67 120.18
13 Infant foods and beverages 52 0.77 0.12 0.02 18.52 0.06 0.43 1.17
14 Legumes 69 0.48 0.27 0.00 1.97 0.12 0.78 1.18
15 Meat and meat products 31 0.31 0.32 0.00 0.85 0.11 0.46 0.57
16 Miscellaneous ingredients, condiments 44 0.77 0.15 0.00 15.54 0.03 0.41 1.70
17 Mixed food entrees 189 0.19 0.16 0.03 0.73 0.11 0.23 0.38
18 Nuts and seeds 90 4.57 0.76 0.03 33.29 0.44 5.08 15.83
19 Poultry and poultry products 50 0.23 0.15 0.05 1.00 0.12 0.23 0.59
20 Snacks, biscuits 66 0.58 0.61 0.00 1.17 0.36 0.77 0.97
21 Soups, sauces gravies, dressing 251 0.63 0.41 0.00 4.67 0.25 0.68 1.27
22 Spices and herbs 425 29.02 11.30 0.08 465.32 4.16 35.25 74.97
23 Vegetables and vegetable products 303 0.80 0.31 0.00 48.07 0.17 0.68 1.50
24 Vitamin and dietary supplements 131 98.58 3.27 0.00 1052.44 0.62 62.16 316.93
a)
Categories 1, 2, 3, 10, 11, 12, 14, 18, 22, 23
b)
Categories 5, 7, 9, 15, 19
c)
Categories 4, 6, 8, 13, 16, 17, 20, 21
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Chocolate
Various types of chocolate were analyzed, from milk
chocolate to dark chocolate and baking cocoa. The var-
iation of antioxidant content in chocolate ranged from
0.23 in white chocolate to 14.98 mmol/100 g in one
individual dark chocolate sample. Mean antioxidant con-
tents increased with increasing content of cocoa in the
chocolate product (Pearson correlation r = 0.927, p <
0.001). Chocolate products with cocoa contents of 24-
30%, 40-65% and 70-99% had mean antioxidant contents
of 1.8, 7.2 and 10.9 mmol/100 g, respectively.
Dairy products, desserts and cakes, eggs, fats and oils
The dairy category included 86 products and the majority of
these products were low in antioxidant content, in the range
of 0.0 to 0.8 mmol/100 g. Dairy products with added berries
or chocolate and cheeses like Brie, Gorgonzola and Roque-
fort are the most antioxidant rich products in this category.
One hundred and thirty four products are included in
the category Desserts and cakes. In the upper range of
this category we find dog rose soup and chocolate
cookies. Eggs are almost devoid of antioxidants with the
highest antioxidant values found in egg yolk (0.16
mmol/100 g).
Margarine, butter, canola, corn and soybean oil are the
highest ranking products in the Fats and oilscategory.
Almost half of the fats and oils have antioxidant content
between 0.4 and 1.7 mmol/100 g.
Berries, fruit and vegetables
In Table 4 we present an excerpt of the all the berries,
fruits and vegetables analyzed. One hundred and
Table 2 Excerpt of the analyses of beverages in the Antioxidant Food Table.
Antioxidant content mmol/100 g
a)
n min max
Apple juice 0.27 11 0.12 0.60
Black tea, prepared 1.0 5 0.75 1.21
Cocoa with milk 0.37 4 0.26 0.45
Coffee, prepared filter and boiled 2.5 31 1.24 4.20
Cranberry juice 0.92 5 0.75 1.01
Espresso, prepared 14.2 2 12.64 15.83
Grape juice 1.2 6 0.69 1.74
Green tea, prepared 1.5 17 0.57 2.62
Orange juice 0.64 16 0.47 0.81
Pomegranate juice 2.1 2 1.59 2.57
Prune juice 1.0 3 0.83 1.13
Red wine 2.5 27 1.78 3.66
Tomato juice 0.48 14 0.19 1.06
a)
Mean value when n > 1
Table 3 Excerpt of the analyses of nuts, legumes and grain products in the Antioxidant Food Table.
Antioxidant content mmol/100 g
a)
n Min Max
Barley, pearl and flour 1.0 4 0.74 1.19
Beans 0.8 25 0.11 1.97
Bread, with fiber/whole meal 0.5 3 0.41 0.63
Buckwheat, white flour 1.4 2 1.08 1.73
Buckwheat, whole meal flour 2.0 2 1.83 2.24
Chestnuts, with pellicle 4.7 1 - -
Crisp bread, brown 1.1 3 0.93 1.13
Maize, white flour 0.6 3 0.32 0.88
Millet 1.3 1 - -
Peanuts, roasted, with pellicle 2.0 1 - -
Pecans, with pellicle 8.5 7 6.32 10.62
Pistachios 1.7 7 0.78 4.98
Sunflower seeds 6.4 2 5.39 7.50
Walnuts, with pellicle 21.9 13 13.13 33.29
Wheat bread, toasted 0.6 3 0.52 0.59
Whole wheat bread, toasted 1.0 2 0.93 1.00
mean value when n > 1
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nineteen berries and berry products were analyzed. The
average antioxidant content of berries and berry pro-
ductsisrelativelyhighwith25
th
and 75
th
percentiles
being 1.90 to 6.31 mmol/100 g, respectively. There were
13 samples with especially high antioxidant capacity in
this category, including dried amla (Indian gooseberry,
261.5 mmol/100 g), wild dried dog rose (Rosa canina)
and products of dried dog rose with antioxidant con-
tents in the range from 20.8 to 78.1 mmol/100 g. Dried
wild bilberries (Vaccinum Myrtillus, native to Northern
Europe), zereshk (red sour berries) from Iran and fresh
dog rose (from Norway and Spain) have mean antioxi-
dant contents of 48.3, 27.3 and 24.3 mmol/100 g,
respectively. Other examples of antioxidant rich berries
are fresh crowberries, bilberries, black currants, wild
strawberries, blackberries, goji berries, sea buckthorn
and cranberries. The least antioxidant rich berry pro-
ducts are some of the berry jams with mean values of
approximately 0.5 mmol/100 g.
A total of 278 fruits and fruit products and 303 vege-
tables and vegetable products were included in the
database. In the analyzed vegetables, antioxidant content
varied from 0.0 mmol/100 g in blanched celery to 48.1
mmol/100 g in dried and crushed leaves of the African
baobab tree. In fruits, procured in 8 different countries,
the antioxidant content varies from 0.02 mmol/100 g for
watermelon to 55.5 mmol/100 g in the yellow pith of
Spanish pomegranate. Examples of antioxidant rich
fruits and vegetables were dried apples, flour made of
okra, artichokes, lemon skin, dried plums, dried apricots,
curly kale, red and green chili and prunes (Table 4).
Examples of fruit and vegetables in the medium antioxi-
dant range were dried dates, dried mango, black and
green olives, red cabbage, red beets, paprika, guava and
plums.
Herbal/traditional plant medicine
This is the most antioxidant rich category in the present
studyandisalsothecategorywithlargestvariation
between products. Half of the products have antioxidant
values above the 90
th
percentile of the complete Antiox-
idant Food Table and the mean and median values are
Table 4 Excerpt of the berries, fruit and vegetable analyses in the Antioxidant Food Table.
Antioxidant content mmol/100 g
a)
n Min Max
African baobab tree, leaves dry, crushed 48.1 1 - -
Amla (Indian gooseberry), dried 261.5 1 - -
Apples 0.4 15 0.1 1.22
Apples, dried 3.8 3 1.86 6.07
Apricots, dried 3.1 4 1.32 4.67
Artichoke 3.5 8 0.69 4.76
Bilberries, dried 48.3 1 - -
Black olives 1.7 6 0.23 3.25
Blueberry jam 3.5 4 2.68 4.71
Broccoli, cooked 0.5 4 0.25 0.85
Chilli, red and green 2.4 3 2.08 2.92
Curly kale 2.8 4 1.62 4.09
Dates, dried 1.7 2 1.53 1.88
Dog rose, products of dried hip 69.4 3 54.30 75.84
Dog rose, wild, dried 78.1 1 - -
Dog rose, wild, fresh 24.3 3 12.65 34.49
Fruit from the African baobab tree 10.8 1 - -
Mango, dried 1.7 2 0.58 2.82
Moringa Stenopetala, dried leaves, stem 11.9 1 - -
Moringa Stenopetala, fresh leaves, stem 3.7 1 - -
Okra/gumbo from Mali, dry, flour 4.2 1 - -
Oranges 0.9 3 0.83 1.08
Papaya 0.6 2 0.36 0.76
Plums, dried 3.2 1
Pomegranate 1.8 6 0.88 2.26
Prunes 2.4 6 1.95 3.70
Strawberries 2.1 4 1.85 2.33
Zereshk, red sour berries 27.3 1 - -
mean value when n > 1
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91.7 and 14.2 mmol/100 g, respectively. The 59 products
included originate from India, Japan, Mexico and Peru.
Sangre de Grado (Dragons Blood) from Peru has the
highest antioxidant content of all the products in the
database (2897.1 mmol/100 g). Other antioxidant rich
products are Triphala, Amalaki and Arjuna from India
and Goshuyu-tou, a traditional kampo medicine from
Japan, with antioxidant values in the range of 132.6 to
706.3 mmol/100 g. Only four products in this category
have values less than 2.0 mmol/100 g.
Infant food and beverages
The category includes 52 products, including European,
Scandinavian and American products. The variation in
antioxidant content in dinner and dessert products for
infants varies from 0.02 to 1.25 mmol/100 g. Interest-
ingly, human breast milk (49 samples from Norwegian
mothers) has a mean content of 2.0 mmol/100 g. In
addition, the category includes two Norwegian dog rose
products for infants with antioxidant contents of 6.7
and 18.5 mmol/100 g.
Spices and herbs
An excerpt of the 425 spices and herbs analyzed in our
study are presented in Table 5. The study includes
spices and herbs from 59 different manufacturers or
countries. Twenty seven single products are in the range
100 to 465 mmol/100 g, but the variation is from 0.08
mmol/100 g in raw garlic paste procured in Japan, to
465 mmol/100 g in dried and ground clove purchased
in Norway. Sorted by antioxidant content, clove has the
highest mean antioxidant value, followed by peppermint,
allspice, cinnamon, oregano, thyme, sage, rosemary, saf-
fron and estragon, all dried and ground, with mean
values ranging from 44 to 277 mmol/100 g. When ana-
lyzed in fresh samples compared to dried, oregano,
rosemary and thyme have lower values, in the range of
2.2 to 5.6 mmol/100 g. This is also true for basil, chives,
dill and parsley. In addition to common spices and
culinary herbs, we have also analyzed other herbs, like
birch leaves, wild marjoram and wood cranesbill among
others. Details on all herbs can be found in Additional
file 1, the Antioxidant Food Table.
Soups, sauces, gravies and dressings
In this broad category, we have analyzed 251 products
and found that the products with highest antioxidant
content are tomato based sauces, basil pesto, mustard
paste, sun dried tomatoes and tomato paste/puree, in
the range of 1.0 to 4.6 mmol/100 g.
Vitamin and dietary supplements
The category Vitamin and dietary supplements
includes 131 commercially available vitamin and dietary
supplement products from USA, Norway, Mexico and
Japan of which many have high antioxidant scores.
Among them are supplements containing anthocyanins,
vitamin C, green tea powder and multivitamins and
multi-antioxidant tablets.
Meat, poultry, fish and miscellaneous ingredients
The majority of the products in these categories were
low in antioxidant content. Nevertheless, products like
liver, bacon and some prepared chicken and beef
Table 5 Excerpt of the spices and herbs analyzed in the Antioxidant Food Table.
Antioxidant content mmol/100 g
a)
n Min Max
Allspice, dried ground 100.4 2 99.28 100.40
Basil, dried 19.9 5 9.86 30.86
Bay leaves, dried 27.8 2 24.29 31.29
Cinnamon sticks and whole bark 26.5 3 6.84 40.14
Cinnamon, dried ground 77.0 7 17.65 139.89
Clove, dried, whole and ground 277.3 6 175.31 465.32
Dill, dried ground 20.2 3 15.94 24.47
Estragon, dried ground 43.8 3 43.22 44.75
Ginger, dried 20.3 5 11.31 24.37
Mint leaves, dried 116.4 2 71.95 160.82
Nutmeg, dried ground 26.4 5 15.83 43.52
Oregano, dried ground 63.2 9 40.30 96.64
Rosemary, dried ground 44.8 5 24.34 66.92
Saffron, dried ground 44.5 3 23.83 61.72
Saffron, dried whole stigma 17.5 3 7.02 24.83
Sage, dried ground 44.3 3 34.88 58.80
Thyme, dried ground 56.3 3 42.00 63.75
a)
mean value when n > 1
Carlsen et al.Nutrition Journal 2010, 9:3
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Page 7 of 11
products have antioxidant values between 0.5 and 1.0
mmol/100 g.
Discussion
With this study we present a comprehensive survey of
the total antioxidant capacity in foods. Earlier small-
scale studies from other laboratories have included from
a few up to a few hundred samples [20-22,29-31], and
in 2007 the U.S. Department of Agriculture presented
the Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity (ORAC) of
Selected Foods report including 277 food samples [23].
These studies have been done using different antioxi-
dant assays for measuring antioxidant capacity making it
difficult to compare whole lists of foods, products and
product categories. Still, a food that has a high total
antioxidant capacity using one antioxidant assay will
most likely also be high using another assay [20-22].
Consequently, the exact value will be different but the
ranking of the products will be mainly the same which-
ever assay is used. In the present extensive study, the
same validated method has been used on all samples,
resulting in comparable measures, thus enabling us to
present a complete picture of the relative antioxidant
potential of the samples.
When classifying the samples into the three main
classes the difference in antioxidant content between
plant- and animal-based foods become apparent. The
results here uncover that the antioxidant content of
foods varies several thousand-fold and that antioxidant
rich foods originate from the plant kingdom while meat,
fish and other foods from the animal kingdom are low
in antioxidants. Comparing the mean value of the Meat
and meat productscategory with plant based categories,
fruits, nuts, chocolate and berries have from 5 to 33
times higher mean antioxidant content than the mean
of meat products. Diets comprised mainly of animal-
based foods are thus low in antioxidant content while
diets based mainly on a variety of plant-based foods are
antioxidant rich, due to the thousands of bioactive anti-
oxidant phytochemicals found in plants which are con-
served in many foods and beverages.
Most of the spices and herbs analyzed have particu-
larly high antioxidant contents. Although spices and
herbs contribute little weight on the dinner plate, they
may still be important contributors to our antioxidant
intake, especially in dietary cultures where spices and
herbs are used regularly. We interpret the elevated con-
centration of antioxidants observed in several dried
herbs compared to fresh samples, as a normal conse-
quence of the drying process leaving most of the antiox-
idants intact in the dried end product. This tendency is
also seen in some fruits and their dried counterparts.
Thus, dried herbs and fruit are potentially excellent
sources of antioxidants.
Herbal and traditional plant medicines emerged as
many of the highest antioxidant-containing products in
our study. We speculate that the high inherent antioxi-
dant property of many plants is an important contribu-
tor to the herbs medicinal qualities. In our study we
identified Sangre de Grado, the sap from the tree trunk
of the species Croton lechleri sampled in Peru to have
exceptional high antioxidant content. This sap has a
long history of indigenoususeinSouthAmericafor
wound healing and as an antifungal, antiseptic, antiviral
and antihaemorrhagic medicine. Proanthocyanidins are
major constituents of this sap [32] and studies have
shown that Sangre de Grado limits the transcription of
a wide range of pro-inflammatory cytokines and media-
tors and accelerates the healing of stomach ulcers
[33,34] and promotes apoptosis in cancer cells [35].
Other extreme antioxidant rich herbal medicines are
Triphala, an Indian Ayurvedic herbal formulation,
shown to have anti-inflammatory activity [36], antibac-
terial and wound healing properties [37,38] and cancer
chemopreventive potential [39]. Arjuna, another Auyrve-
dic formula, has been shown to have health beneficial
activities [40,41] while Goshuyu-tou, a traditional Chi-
nese kampo medicine has been shown to significantly
reduce the extracellular concentration of NO in the
LPS-stimulated Raw 264.7 cells [42].
With their high content of phytochemicals such as fla-
vonoids, tannins, stilbenoids, phenolic acids and lignans
[43-45] berries and berry products are potentially excel-
lent antioxidant sources. The phytochemical content of
berries varies with geographical growing condition, and
between cultivars [46,47] explaining the variations found
in our study. During the processing of berries to jams,
total phenol content is reduced [48] resulting in lower
antioxidant values in processed berry products than in
fresh berries.
Nuts are a rich source of many important nutrients
and some are also antioxidant-rich. The observed
increase in antioxidant content in nuts with pellicle
compared to nuts without pellicle is in good agreement
with earlier studies showing the flavonoids of many nuts
are found in the nut pellicle [49].
After water, tea and coffee are the two most con-
sumed beverages in the world, although consumption
patterns vary between countries. Because of the fairly
high content of antioxidants and the frequent use, coffee
and tea are important antioxidant sources in many diets.
Several different compounds contribute to coffeesanti-
oxidant content, e.g., caffeine, polyphenols, volatile
aroma compounds and heterocyclic compounds,
[25,50-52]. Many of these are efficiently absorbed, and
plasma antioxidants increase after coffee intake [50,53].
In green tea, the major flavonoids present are the mono-
mer catechins, epigallocatechin gallate, epigallocatechin,
Carlsen et al.Nutrition Journal 2010, 9:3
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Page 8 of 11
epicatechin gallate and epicatechin. In black tea the
polymerized catechins theaflavin and thearubigen predo-
minate in addition to quercetin and flavonols [54,55].
Interestingly, the antioxidant content in human breast
milk is comparable to that in pomegranate juice, straw-
berries and coffee and on average higher than the anti-
oxidant content observed in the commercially available
infant formulas analyzed in our study. Breakfast cereals
are also potential important sources of antioxidants;
some of these products have antioxidant contents com-
parable to berries, which are fairly high, compared to
other grain products and may be due to antioxidants
added to the products in fortification process.
Chocolate have for several years been studied for its
possible beneficial health effects [56]. Our results show
a high correlation between the cocoa content and the
antioxidant content, which is in agreement with earlier
studies [30,57].
As demonstrated in the present study, the variation in
the antioxidant values of otherwise comparable products
is large. Like the content of any food component, anti-
oxidant values will differ for a wide array of reasons,
such as growing conditions, seasonal changes and
genetically different cultivars [46,58], storage conditions
[59-61] and differences in manufacturing procedures
and processing [62-64]. Differences in unprocessed and
processed plant food samples are also seen in our study
where processed berry products like jam and syrup have
approximately half the antioxidant capacity of fresh ber-
ries. On the other hand, processing may also enhance a
foods potential as a good antioxidant source by increas-
ing the amount of antioxidants released from the food
matrix which otherwise would be less or not at all avail-
able for absorption [65]. Processing of tomato is one
such example where lycopene from heat-processed
tomatosauceismorebioavailablethanunprocessed
tomato [66]. The large variations in antioxidant capacity
observed in the present study emphasize the importance
of using a comprehensive antioxidant database com-
bined with a detailed system for food registration in
clinical and epidemiological studies.
Initial studies have been carried out to examine the
association between intake of antioxidant rich foods
and their health effects [67,70]. Some of these studies
describe a beneficial effect on oxidative stress related
chronic diseases, e.g. from intake of nuts [49,69],
pomegranates [71-73], tomatoes [6], coffee [74], tea
[54,75,76], red wine [77-79] and cocoa [56]. The highly
reactive and bioactive phytochemical antioxidants are
postulated to in part explain the protective effect of
plant foods. An optimal mixture of different antioxi-
dants with complementary mechanisms of action and
different redox potentials is postulated to work in
synergistic interactions. Still, it is not likely that all
antioxidant-rich foods are good sources and that all
antioxidants provided in the diet are bioactive. Bioa-
vailability differs greatly from one phytochemical to
another [26,27,80], so the most antioxidant rich foods
in our diet are not necessarily those leading to the
highest concentrations of active metabolites in target
tissues. The antioxidants obtained from foods include
many different molecular compounds and families with
different chemical and biological properties that may
affect absorption, transport and excretion, cellular
uptake and metabolism, and eventually their effects on
oxidative stress in various cellular compartments [24].
Biochemically active phytochemicals found in plant-
based foods also have many powerful biological prop-
erties which are not necessarily correlated with their
antioxidant capacity, including acting as inducers of
antioxidant defense mechanisms in vivo or as gene
expression modulators. Thus a food low in antioxidant
content may have beneficial health effects due to other
food components or phytochemicals executing bioac-
tivity through other mechanisms.
Conclusions
The Antioxidant Food Table is a valuable research con-
tribution, expanding the research evidence base for
plant-based nutritional research and may be utilized in
epidemiological studies where reported food intakes can
be assigned antioxidant values. It can also be used to
test antioxidant effects and synergy in experimental ani-
mal and cell studies or in human clinical trials. The ulti-
mate goal of this research is to combine these strategies
in order to understand the role of dietary phytochemical
antioxidants in the prevention of cancer, cardiovascular
diseases, diabetes and other chronic diseases related to
oxidative stress.
Additional file 1: The Antioxidant Food Table, Carlsen et al. 2010.
the main results of the present study; the table includes all the 3139
products with product descriptions, details and antioxidant analysis
results, categorized into 24 categories and arranged alphabetically within
each category.
Click here for file
[ http://www.biomedcentral.com/content/supplementary/1475-2891-9-3-
S1.PDF ]
Acknowledgements
This work was funded by the Throne Holst foundation, The Research Council
of Norway, and the Norwegian Cancer Society. The authors thank Amrit K.
Sakhi, Nasser Bastani, Ingvild Paur and Trude R. Balstad for help procuring
samples, the Tsumura Pharmaceutical Company for providing traditional
herb medicines and Arcus AS and Norsk Øko-Urt BA for providing samples
of beverages and herbs, respectively.
Author details
1
Department of Nutrition, Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, University of
Oslo, Oslo, Norway.
2
The Norwegian Institute for Agricultural and
Environmental Research Bioforsk Øst Apelsvoll, Kapp, Norway.
3
Department
Carlsen et al.Nutrition Journal 2010, 9:3
http://www.nutritionj.com/content/9/1/3
Page 9 of 11
of Nutrition, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.
4
Department of Cell Biology and Morphology, Akita University Graduate
School of Medicine, Akita City, Japan.
5
Faculty of Health, Nutrition and
Management, Akershus University College, Lillestrøm, Norway.
6
The
Biochemistry Department, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University,
Blacksburg, VA, USA.
7
The Division of Epidemiology and Community Health,
School of Public Health, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, USA.
Authorscontributions
MHC took part in planning the study design, contributed to database
management, sample procurement, drafting and writing of manuscript. BLH
took part in planning the study design and was responsible for assay
development and validation, sample analysis, and writing of manuscript, SKB
took part in planning the study design and was the database creator and
contributed to database management and writing of manuscript, SD, LS,
CW, HS, IB, NB, WCW, KMP and DRJ contributed to sample procurement and
writing of manuscript, KH, YU and CS contributed to sample procurement
and analysis and writing of manuscript, RB was responsible for funding and
study design and contributed to sample procurement and writing of
manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.
Competing interests
R. Blomhoff is a shareholder in Vitas AS, D.R. Jacobs Jr is an unpaid member
of the Scientific Advisory Council of the California Walnut Commission. The
other authors declare that they have no competing interests.
Received: 18 August 2009
Accepted: 22 January 2010 Published: 22 January 2010
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doi:10.1186/1475-2891-9-3
Cite this article as: Carlsen et al.: The total antioxidant content of more
than 3100 foods, beverages, spices, herbs and supplements used
worldwide. Nutrition Journal 2010 9:3.
Carlsen et al.Nutrition Journal 2010, 9:3
http://www.nutritionj.com/content/9/1/3
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Supplementary resource (1)

... Carotenoids are classified as lipophilic antioxidants, while ascorbic acid and phenols are hydrophilic molecules [50]. The antioxidant activity of berries and berry products can range from 19.0 to 63.1 µmol trolox·g −1 dm [51]; however, there are also some superfruits (e.g., wild dried roses or Indian gooseberries) with enhanced antioxidant activity, from 208 to 2615.0 µmol trolox·g −1 dm [51]. According to the data available in the literature, the wild-grown fruits had the following antioxidant activity as measured by the ABTS method (µmol trolox·g [7,8,10,[13][14][15]52,53]. ...
... Carotenoids are classified as lipophilic antioxidants, while ascorbic acid and phenols are hydrophilic molecules [50]. The antioxidant activity of berries and berry products can range from 19.0 to 63.1 µmol trolox·g −1 dm [51]; however, there are also some superfruits (e.g., wild dried roses or Indian gooseberries) with enhanced antioxidant activity, from 208 to 2615.0 µmol trolox·g −1 dm [51]. According to the data available in the literature, the wild-grown fruits had the following antioxidant activity as measured by the ABTS method (µmol trolox·g [7,8,10,[13][14][15]52,53]. ...
Article
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This study aimed to evaluate the impact of widely grown fruits (wild roses, elderberries, sea buckthorns, rowans, chokeberries, and hawthorns) as a functional ingredient in wheat-flour cookie formulation on antioxidative properties with a simultaneous reduction of the carcinogen-like compound acrylamide. The organoleptic features of the cookies were assessed by a panel of consumers. The following parameters were measured: chemical composition, total polyphenols, polyphenolic profile, antioxidant activity, and acrylamide content. The overall ratings of the tested cookies with the addition of chokeberries, hawthorns, sea buckthorns, and elderberries were more than satisfactory, while wild rose and rowan cookies were the most widely accepted and best rated by the panelists. The antioxidant activity of the tested cookies was 1.1–15.22 μmol trolox·g−1 dm and 2.46–26.12 μmol Fe (II)·g−1 dm as measured by the ABTS and FRAP methods, respectively. All the fruit-enriched cookies had significantly higher antioxidative properties (p < 0.05) in comparison to the control cookies, but among the fruit-enriched cookies, there were differences in the quality and quantity of particular polyphenols. The acrylamide content was significantly decreased by 59% (hawthorn), 71% (rowan), 87% (wild rose), 89% (sea buckthorn), 91% (elderberry), and 94% (chokeberry) compared with the control cookies (p < 0.05). Cookies enriched with wild-grown fruits could constitute a promising novel snack food.
... Spices, because of their flavouring and medicinal properties, play a significant role in the pharmaceutical and food industries. Nowadays, spices and herbs are mainly used for medicinal purposes like prevention of coughs and colds (Carlsen et al. 2010), treatment of heart, diabetes, inflammation, and chronic degenerative diseases (Kaefer and Milner 2008). Use of spices for medicinal purpose is because of their antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and nutritional properties. ...
... According to the results of meta-analysis, consumption of fruits and vegetables were inversely related to the risk of depression [32]. Fruits, vegetables and whole grain are known as mains sources of dietary antioxidants [33] and reduced risk of psychotic problems were seen in populations that consumed more amount of high rich antioxidant food [34]. These results are consistent with the findings of our study that whole grains, fruits and vegetables, in particular cruciferous vegetable, were more associated with higher DTAC. ...
Article
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Background Oxidative stress is considered to be a contributory factor for depression, and is affected by the dietary intake of pro-and anti-oxidants. Dietary total antioxidant capacity (DTAC) is an index which is applied to estimate the cumulative power of antioxidants in the whole diet. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between DTAC and prevalence of depression in adolescent girls. Methods A total of 741 Iranian adolescent girls aged 12–18 years were recruited into this cross-sectional study. Dietary intake and depression severity score were assessed using a food frequency questionnaire and Beck's depression inventory, respectively. To estimate the DTAC, the oxygen radical absorbance capacity method was used for selected foods. To explore the associations between DTAC and depression, logistic regression was applied using crude and adjusted models. Results Individuals in the greatest adherence to high DTAC had more intakes of whole grains, legumes, fruits, dried fruits, low fat dairy products, cruciferous vegetables, fiber, magnesium, vitamin C, folate, potassium, zinc, β-carotene, lutein, thiamin, riboflavin, niacin and vitamin B-6 and lower consumption of refined grains. Subjects in the highest quartile of DTAC had a 39% lower odds of depression compared to those in the first quartile (OR = 0.61; 95% CI: 0.38–0.97, P for trend = 0.012); these associations remained significant after adjustments in first, second and third (OR = 0.5; 95% CI: 0.28–0.92, P for trend < 0.001) adjusted models. Conclusions An inverse association was observed between the DTAC and the prevalence of depression in our population sample of adolescent girls. Further research needs to be conducted in different areas, including longitudinal studies with larger sample sizes.
... Many ultra-processed foods are considered potentially inflammatory due to their free sugars, hydrogenated fat, and food additives content (30,31). Additionally, it is known that its relevant accumulation of Advanced Glycation End-products (AGEs) is also related to a pro-inflammatory effect (32,33), by promoting TNFα, IL6, VCAM1, Th1, Treg, Th2, and Th17 liberation, which induce inflammation (34,35). ...
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Background Fibromyalgia (FM) has been associated with dysbiosis and low-grade inflammation. Studies have reported that diet influences clinical features in FM. Objective To evaluate the effect of an anti-inflammatory and low fermentable oligo, di, and monosaccharides and polyols (FODMAP) diet on clinical outcomes of patients with FM. Methods This two arms Randomized Controlled Trial ( NCT04007705) included 46 female patients with FM. The intervention group ( n = 22) adopted an anti-inflammatory diet for 3 months, excluding gluten, dairy, added sugar, and ultra-processed foods, along with a low FODMAPs diet in the first month. The control group ( n = 24) followed general healthy eating recommendations. Both diets were applied by a certified dietitian. Before and after the intervention, participants were assessed regarding pain, fatigue, gastrointestinal symptoms, quality of sleep, and quality of life, through the Revised Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQR), Visual Analogue Pain Scale (VAS), Visual Analog Scale from gastrointestinal symptoms (VAS GI), Brief Pain Inventory (BPI), Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), Fatigue Severity Survey (FSS), and The Short Form Health Survey (SF-36). A blood sample was collected and high-sensitive C-Reactive Protein and Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate were quantified. Paired Samples t -test/Wilcoxon and independent samples t -test/Mann−Whitney were used to compare variables between groups. Results After intervention, there was an improvement in intervention group scores of FIQR ( p = 0.001), VAS ( p = 0.002), BPI ( p = 0.011), FSS ( p = 0.042), VAS_GI ( p = 0.002), PSQI ( p = 0.048), and SF36 ( p = 0.045) compared to control group. Inflammatory biomarkers (hs-CRP, ESR) did not change in both groups. The intervention was beneficial in the intervention group, regardless of age, disease duration, body mass index variation, and body fat change between baseline and post-intervention. Conclusion An anti-inflammatory and low-FODMAP diet improved clinical features in patients with FM and may be useful as a complement to pharmacological therapy. Clinical Trial Registration [ https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT04007705 ], identifier [NCT04007705].
... The baobab fruit pulp also has numerous nutritional and medicinal potentials. Indeed Baobab pulp contains high antioxidant capacity estimated at 10.8 mmol/100g (Carlsen et al., 2010;Hamad, 2019) and is rich in vitamin C, about 209 to 360 mg/100g (Chadare et al., 2009). The mineral content reported for the pulp were: 1794 -2220 mg/100g dw for potassium, 302 -430 mg/100g dw for calcium, 195 -230 mg/100g dw for magnesium, 14.8 -100 mg/100g dw for sodium, 106 -110 mg/100g dw for phosphorus, 4.3 -5.74 mg/100g dw for iron and 0.7 -2.72 mg/100g dw for manganese (Chadare et al., 2009;Muthai et al., 2016). ...
Article
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Baobab is a multipurpose tree, with nutritional importance to African rural populations, and several products are derived from its fruit. The dehulled fruit delivers a pulp used for food processing. The present study aimed to characterize the baobab pulp derived products encountered in food outlets in Benin. Pulp based foods were inventoried and characterized for their physico-chemical composition, through the determinations of pH, Brix value, dry matter, color and their microflora, through the mesophilic aerobic germs and the enterobacteriaceae. The pH, Brix value, dry matter and color were assessed using potentiometric, refractometric, gravimetric methods, and the chromameter respectively; the microflora was evaluated by colony count method. Surveying the food outlets of the four dominant cities, nectars, syrups and pulp were noticed as the main baobab fruit pulp products commercialized. The pH, Brix value, dry matter of these foods, ranged between 3.3-3.7, 5.7-20.9 °Bx and 6.7-19.4 g/100g for nectars, 3.3-3.5, 58-69 °Bx and 52-58 g/100g for syrups, and 3.3-3.4, 54.5-61.5 °Bx, 84.0-90.8 g/100g for pulps. The color was orange for nectars, red for syrups and from orange to yellow for pulp, based on their hue value. Mesophilic aerobic germs and Enterobacteriaceae count in pulps ranged from 3.4-5.0 log CFU/g and <1-3.2 log CFU/g respectively. The baobab pulp derived products, namely the nectar, the pulp and the syrup, possess a strong variability in their quality, and the understanding of the processing and storage techniques will contribute to develop suitable technologies for each baobab pulp derived product. Caractéristiques des aliments dérivés de la pulpe de baobab des centres urbains du Bénin Résumé Le baobab est un arbre à usage multiple, nutritionnellement important pour les populations rurales africaines; plusieurs produits sont obtenus de ses fruits. Le fruit décortiqué fournit une pulpe utilisée pour la transformation de nombreux aliments. La présente étude a visé la caractérisation des produits dérivés de la pulpe de baobab rencontrés dans les points de vente alimentaire au Bénin. Ces aliments ont été inventoriés et caractérisés pour leur composition physico-chimique, à travers le pH, le degré Brix, la matière sèche, la couleur, et leur microflore, dont les germes aérobies mésophiles et les entérobactéries. Le pH, le degré Brix, la matière sèche et la couleur ont été évalués respectivement avec des méthodes potentiométriques, réfractométriques, gravimétriques et du chromamètre; la microflore a été évaluée par la méthode du comptage des colonies. L'analyse des données collectées des points de vente d'aliments dans les quatre grandes villes du Bénin a révélé que les nectars, les sirops et la pulpe étaient les principaux produits de pulpe de fruits de baobab. Le pH, le degré Brix, la matière sèche de ces aliments, variaient respectivement entre 3,3-3,7, 5,7-20,9 °Bx et 6,7-19,4 g/100 g pour les nectars, 3,3-3,5, 58-69 °Bx et 52-58 g/100g pour les sirops, et 3,3-3,4, 54,5-61,5 °Bx, 84,0-90,8 g/100g pour les pulpes. Sur la base de la valeur de la teinte, les pulpes, nectars et sirops étaient respectivement de couleur jaune-orange, orange et rouge. Les charges en germes aérobies mésophiles et en entérobactéries dans les pulpes variaient de 3,4 à 5,0 log UFC/g et de <1 à 3,2 log UFC/g respectivement. Le nectar, la pulpe et le sirop de baobab commercialisés au Bénin, présentent qualitativement une forte variabilité ; la compréhension des techniques de transformation et de stockage contribuera à développer des technologies appropriées pour chaque produit dérivé de la pulpe de baobab.
... Furthermore, the FRAP found in the flesh here (12,571 mg TE/100 g) is much higher than the FRAP of Indian gooseberry ( Phyllanthus emblica ; 1,527 mg TE/100 g) ( Filipiak-Szok et al., 2012 ), which is widely touted as one of the fruits with the highest antioxidant capacities worldwide ( Carlsen et al., 2010 ). The seeds showed quite high total phenolic content and antioxidant activity, albeit significantly lower than the flesh. ...
Article
Burdekin plum (Pleiogynium timoriense) is a widespread native edible fruit from Australia; however, there are limited studies exploring the chemical composition of this species. This study investigated the phytochemical composition of Burdekin plum flesh and seeds, finding a high antioxidant activity (12,571 mg Trolox equivalents/100 g as Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Potential), total phenolic content (10,928 mg gallic acid equivalents/100 g) and anthocyanin content (161 mg cyanidin-3-glucoside equivalents/100 g) in the flesh. The seeds also displayed a moderately high antioxidant activity (3,306 mg Trolox equivalents/100 g) and total phenolic content (2,344 mg gallic acid equivalents/100 g). Seventeen phenolic compounds were identified in the flesh and 14 in the seeds using targeted quantitative profiling using liquid chromatography - tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The most abundant compounds were cyanidin-3-glucoside and catechin in the flesh and seeds, respectively. Catechin also showed a high antioxidant activity, along with ellagic acid and gallic acid, while the activity of cyanidin-3-glucoside was relatively lower. Consequently, the main phenolic compounds contributing to the exceptionally high antioxidant activity of Burdekin plum flesh were identified as cyanidin-3-glucoside and ellagic acid. In the seeds, catechin provides a significant contribution to the antioxidant activity.
Chapter
As one of the most important bioactive compounds, antioxidants, derived from plants are redox active molecules, are able to eliminate free radicals as well as other reactive nitrogen and oxygen species have direct contribution to chronic diseases. They have important functions in longevity, antioxidant defense mechanism, DNA repair, and cell survival. Antioxidants can control lipid oxidation rate providing shelf life extension of foods. This function may be used to protect cells from damage caused by reactive oxygen species (ROS). Antioxidants are used in food systems because they are not toxic, effective at low concentrations, very stable during processing, and have high solubility with no off-odor, color, or taste. With an increasing demand for healthier foods and beverages, addition of antioxidants and preservation of natural antioxidant compounds have become more important. Thus, antioxidants in beverages, their function and impact in addition to effect of processing technologies on antioxidants in beverages must be reported in detail.
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