Maternal and Fetal Outcomes Among Women with Depression

CONRAD, Atlanta, Georgia, USA.
Journal of Women's Health (Impact Factor: 2.05). 02/2010; 19(2):329-34. DOI: 10.1089/jwh.2009.1387
Source: PubMed


To compare maternal and fetal outcomes among women with and without diagnosed depression at the time of delivery.
Hospital discharge data from the 1998-2005 Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS) were used to examine delivery-related hospitalizations for select maternal and fetal outcomes by depression diagnosis.
The rate of depression per 1000 deliveries increased significantly from 2.73 in 1998 to 14.1 in 2005 (p < 0.001). Women diagnosed with depression were significantly more likely to have cesarean delivery, preterm labor, anemia, diabetes, and preeclampsia or hypertension compared with women without depression. Fetal outcomes significantly associated with maternal depression were fetal growth restriction, fetal abnormalities, fetal distress, and fetal death.
These findings suggest that depression is associated with adverse maternal and fetal outcomes. Our results provide additional impetus to screen for depression among women of reproductive age, especially those who plan to become pregnant.

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    • "Earlier studies focusing on anaemia and PPD are heterogeneous . Some identified postpartum anaemia as a significant risk factor for the development of PPD2324252627. Other studies report no association [37] or even a negative association between anaemia and depression during pregnancy [52]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives: To explore the association between postpartum haemorrhage (PPH) and postpartum depression (PPD), taking into account the role of postpartum anaemia, delivery experience and psychiatric history. Methods: A nested cohort study (n = 446), based on two population-based cohorts in Uppsala, Sweden. Exposed individuals were defined as having a bleeding of ≥1000ml (n = 196) at delivery, and non-exposed individuals as having bleeding of <650ml (n = 250). Logistic regression models with PPD symptoms (Edinburgh Postnatal Depression scale (EPDS) score ≥ 12) as the outcome variable and PPH, anaemia, experience of delivery, mood during pregnancy and other confounders as exposure variables were undertaken. Path analysis using Structural Equation Modeling was also conducted. Results: There was no association between PPH and PPD symptoms. A positive association was shown between anaemia at discharge from the maternity ward and the development of PPD symptoms, even after controlling for plausible confounders (OR = 2.29, 95%CI = 1.15-4.58). Path analysis revealed significant roles for anaemia at discharge, negative self-reported delivery experience, depressed mood during pregnancy and postpartum stressors in increasing the risk for PPD. Conclusion: This study proposes important roles for postpartum anaemia, negative experience of delivery and mood during pregnancy in explaining the development of depressive symptoms after PPH.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2016 · PLoS ONE
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    • "Depressed women are more likely to experience preterm labor, preeclampsia, diabetes, Cesarean section, anemia, and infections during labor (Dunkel Schetter & Tanner, 2012; Nylen, O'Hara, & Engeldinger, 2012). Infants born to depressed women are also at greater risk for fetal growth restriction, abnormalities, distress, and death (Bansil et al., 2010). High levels of proinflammatory cytokines have been positively associated with depressive symptoms and psychosocial stress in many studies of nonpregnant individuals (Raison, Capuron, & Miller, 2006). "
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    ABSTRACT: A secondary pilot study was carried out as part of a larger parent study of thyroid function in pregnancy and postpartum. All women in the parent study (N = 631) had blood samples, demographic data, and measures of perceived stress and dysphoric moods collected between 16 and 26 weeks' gestation. The current study was completed with a subset of 105 pregnant women to examine the relationships among perceived stress, depression, plasma cortisol, and cytokines during the second trimester of pregnancy. Stress was measured using Cohen's Perceived Stress Scale and dysphoric moods using the Profile of Mood States Depression/Dejection Scale. Cytokines were measured by a 12-plex analysis on a Luminex-200, and cortisol was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay on stored plasma samples. Stress and depression scores were highly correlated, and depressive symptoms were inversely correlated with 3 of the 12 cytokines: interleukin (IL)-1β, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and IL-7. Cortisol was inversely correlated with proinflammatory cytokines (IL-1β and TNF-α) and anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-4, IL-5, IL-10, and IL-13). These data support the new conceptualizations of normal pregnancy as an inflammatory state that is carefully regulated, as both excessive and inadequate inflammation are potentially hazardous to the health of the pregnancy and fetus.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2014 · Biological Research for Nursing
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    • "There is a correlation of pregnancy-associated depression with poorer obstetric outcome measures, with fetal and neonatal complications [7, 8], with the length of the mother's hospital stay at the time of delivery [9], and with a negative impact on the child's development [10–13]. Information about the pathogenesis for pregnancy-associated depression may therefore be helpful for planning early interventions and understanding the pathogenesis of this disease, as it is not a part of the early intervention program in Germany yet [14]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate whether single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes of the stress hormone signaling pathway, specifically FKBP5, NR3C1, and CRHR1, are associated with depressive symptoms during and after pregnancy. Methods: The Franconian Maternal Health Evaluation Study (FRAMES) recruited healthy pregnant women prospectively for the assessment of maternal and fetal health including the assessment of depressiveness. The German version of the 10-item Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) was completed at three time points in this prospective cohort study. Visit 1 was at study entry in the third trimester of the pregnancy, visit 2 was shortly after birth, and visit 3 was 6-8 months after birth. Germline DNA was collected from 361 pregnant women. Nine SNPs in the above mentioned genes were genotyped. After construction of haplotypes for each gene, a multifactorial linear mixed model was performed to analyse the depression values over time. Results: EPDS values were within expected ranges and comparable to previously published studies. Neither did the depression scores differ for comparisons among haplotypes at fixed time points nor did the change over time differ among haplotypes for the examined genes. No haplotype showed significant associations with depressive symptoms severity during pregnancy or the postpartum period. Conclusion: The analysed candidate haplotypes in FKBP5, NR3C1, and CRHR1 did not show an association with depression scores as assessed by EPDS in this cohort of healthy unselected pregnant women.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2014
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