Dewald JF, Meijer AM, Oort FJ, et al. The influence of sleep quality, sleep duration and sleepiness on school performance in children and adolescents: a meta-analytic review

Department of Education, Faculty of Social and Behavior Science, University of Amsterdam, Nieuwe Prinsengracht 130, 1018 VZ Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
Sleep Medicine Reviews (Impact Factor: 8.51). 06/2010; 14(3):179-89. DOI: 10.1016/j.smrv.2009.10.004
Source: PubMed


Insufficient sleep, poor sleep quality and sleepiness are common problems in children and adolescents being related to learning, memory and school performance. The associations between sleep quality (k=16 studies, N=13,631), sleep duration (k=17 studies, N=15,199), sleepiness (k=17, N=19,530) and school performance were examined in three separate meta-analyses including influential factors (e.g., gender, age, parameter assessment) as moderators. All three sleep variables were significantly but modestly related to school performance. Sleepiness showed the strongest relation to school performance (r=-0.133), followed by sleep quality (r=0.096) and sleep duration (r=0.069). Effect sizes were larger for studies including younger participants which can be explained by dramatic prefrontal cortex changes during (early) adolescence. Concerning the relationship between sleep duration and school performance age effects were even larger in studies that included more boys than in studies that included more girls, demonstrating the importance of differential pubertal development of boys and girls. Longitudinal and experimental studies are recommended in order to gain more insight into the different relationships and to develop programs that can improve school performance by changing individuals' sleep patterns.

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    • "A growing body of literature indicates that poor sleep functioning has important implications for adjustment and adolescent health. Poor sleep functioning is linked to daytime dysfunction (Wolfson & Carskadon, 1998), impaired executive function (Anderson, Storfer-Isser, Taylor, Rosen, & Redline, 2009), reduced learning ability (Curcio, Ferrara, & De Gennaro, 2006), and poor school performance (Dewald, Meijer, Oort, Kerkhof, & Bögels, 2010). It has also been implicated in an array of poor health behaviors (Chen, Wang, & Jeng, 2006) and negative health outcomes (Javaheri, Storfer-Isser, Rosen, & Redline, 2008; Snell, Adam, & Duncan, 2007). "
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    ABSTRACT: Despite the importance of parenting practices for adolescent adjustment, parenting correlates of adolescent sleep functioning remain understudied. This study delineated patterns of sleep functioning in a sample of ethnically diverse, low-income, adolescents and examined associations among three types of parenting practices (parental involvement, parent-child conflict, and parental control) and adolescent sleep functioning (difficulties initiating sleep and maintaining sleep, and sleep duration). Adolescents (N = 91, 11-19 years old) self-reported on sleep functioning and parenting practices. Results showed that in the preceding month, 60.5% of adolescents had difficulties initiating sleep and 73.6% had difficulties maintaining sleep. Most adolescents slept 8 or more hours per night, but 30.7% slept less than 8 hours. Latino adolescents slept longer and had fewer difficulties maintaining sleep than non-Latino. High school students had fewer difficulties maintaining sleep than their middle school counterparts; conversely, older adolescents experienced shorter sleep duration than younger ones. Adolescents whose parents had post-secondary education had shorter sleep duration than those whose parents had not graduated from high school. Parental control was correlated with fewer difficulties initiating sleep, whereas parent-child conflict was correlated with more difficulties maintaining sleep. There were no parenting correlates of sleep duration. Latino adolescents had better sleep profiles than non-Latino ones. Regression analyses showed that parental control and parent-child conflict were associated with adolescent sleep functioning across ethnicities. Results suggest that parenting practices, as well as demographic characteristics, are associated with adolescent sleep functioning and should be taken into account in interventions aimed at improving sleep functioning among adolescents.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2015 · Journal of Child and Family Studies
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    • "Sleep difficulties in children are common; 20%-40% of children are reported to experience such problems[1,2]. Sleep difficulties in children are a major cause of morbidity and have been associated with poor school performance[3], behaviour problems[4], neurocognitive effects[5]as well as obesity[6]. Radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) are emitted by a range of modern telecommunication devices, such as mobile and cordless phones and their base stations, transmitters or wireless internet connections[7]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background We evaluated if exposure to RF-EMF was associated with reported quality of sleep in 2,361 children, aged 7 years. Methods This study was embedded in the Amsterdam Born Children and their Development (ABCD) birth cohort study. When children were about five years old, school and residential exposure to RF-EMF from base stations was assessed with a geospatial model (NISMap) and from indoor sources (cordless phone/WiFi) using parental self-reports. Parents also reported their children’s use of mobile or cordless phones. When children were seven years old, we evaluated sleep quality as measured with the Child Sleep Habits Questionnaire (CSHQ) filled in by parents. Of eight CSHQ subscales, we evaluated sleep onset delay, sleep duration, night wakenings, parasomnias and daytime sleepiness with logistic or negative binomial regression models, adjusting for child’s age and sex and indicators of socio-economic position of the parents. We evaluated the remaining three subscales (bedtime resistance, sleep anxiety, sleep disordered breathing) as unrelated outcomes (negative control) because these were a priori hypothesised not to be associated with RF-EMF. Results Sleep onset delay, night wakenings, parasomnias and daytime sleepiness were not associated with residential exposure to RF-EMF from base stations. Sleep duration scores were associated with RF-EMF levels from base stations. Higher use mobile phones was associated with less favourable sleep duration, night wakenings and parasomnias, and also with bedtime resistance. Cordless phone use was not related to any of the sleeping scores. Conclusion Given the different results across the evaluated RF-EMF exposure sources and the observed association between mobile phone use and the negative control sleep scale, our study does not support the hypothesis that it is the exposure to RF-EMF that is detrimental to sleep quality in 7-year old children, but potentially other factors that are related to mobile phone usage.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2015 · PLoS ONE
    • "In contrast, Youngstedt et al. (2003) reported no association between sleep patterns and daily physical activity levels in young and older adults, a difference that was attributed to a " ceiling effect " for sleep improvement amongst adults (Youngstedt 2003). As adolescence is associated with several biological alterations that lead to poor sleep quality, the presence of such a ceiling effect may be less likely with adolescents (Dewald et al. 2010), and this could account for the differences in sleep following exercise that have been observed in studies on adolescents. However, in spite of this evidence regarding the importance of sleep on sports performance – evidence associating sleepiness with poorer academic performance and health (Fallone et al. 2005; Orzech et al. 2014), as well as athletic career longevity (Potenziano et al. 2013) – there are currently no data on the habitual sleep patterns of Asian adolescent athletes and the effects of these patterns on daytime sleepiness. "
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    ABSTRACT: Adolescents are predisposed to poorer quality of sleep and experience shortened sleep durations, with these trends being more pronounced amongst Asians. Even though sleep is crucial for athletic recovery, there is a dearth of the literature on the sleep patterns of Asian adolescent athletes. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of different intensities of sports training on sleep patterns in adolescent athletes, and to describe novel sleep data and daytime sleepiness amongst Asian adolescents who were high-level athletes. Those athletes (age 14.8 ± 0.9 years) in higher-intensity sports showed significantly more deep sleep, less light sleep and waketime after sleep onset. Actigraphically determined bedtimes and waketimes were significantly delayed on weekends, when mean total sleep time was also significantly longer. There was a large effect for an increased daytime sleepiness in high-intensity sport athletes. These findings highlight the phenomenon of social jet lag in Asian adolescent student-athletes.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2015 · Biological Rhythm Research
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