Self-recruitment and sweepstakes reproduction amid extensive gene flow in a coral-reef fish. Mol Ecol

Department of Zoology, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331-2914, USA.
Molecular Ecology (Impact Factor: 6.49). 03/2010; 19(5):1042-57. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-294X.2010.04524.x
Source: PubMed


Identifying patterns of larval dispersal within marine metapopulations is vital for effective fisheries management, appropriate marine reserve design, and conservation efforts. We employed genetic markers (microsatellites) to determine dispersal patterns in bicolour damselfish (Pomacentridae: Stegastes partitus). Tissue samples of 751 fish were collected in 2004 and 2005 from 11 sites encompassing the Exuma Sound, Bahamas. Bayesian parentage analysis identified two parent-offspring pairs, which is remarkable given the large population sizes and 28 day pelagic larval duration of bicolour damselfish. The two parent-offspring pairs directly documented self-recruitment at the two northern-most sites, one of which is a long-established marine reserve. Principal coordinates analyses of pair-wise relatedness values further indicated that self-recruitment was common in all sampled populations. Nevertheless, measures of genetic differentiation (F(ST)) and results from assignment methods suggested high levels of gene flow among populations. Comparisons of heterozygosity and relatedness among samples of adults and recruits indicated spatially and temporally independent sweepstakes events, whereby only a subset of adults successfully contribute to subsequent generations. These results indicate that self-recruitment and sweepstakes reproduction are the predominant, ecologically-relevant processes that shape patterns of larval dispersal in this system.

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Available from: Christopher D Stallings, Feb 24, 2014
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    • "This finding might be seen as evidence for intra-aggregation recruitment, but the same population did not exhibit a significant F IS value. These apparent discrepancies might be symptomatic of complex patterns of recruitment, including the occurrence of Wahlund effects as a result of sampling distinct cohorts within a specific geographical area that may have arisen through sweepstakes recruitment processes (Christie et al., 2010 "
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    ABSTRACT: Despite the importance of gelatinous zooplankton as components of marine ecosystems, both ecologically and socio-economically, relatively little information is known about population persistence or connectivity in jellyfish. In the present study, we employed a combination of nuclear microsatellite markers and sequence data from the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (COI) gene to determine levels and patterns of population genetic structuring in the holoplanktonic jellyfish Pelagia noctiluca across the northeast Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea. Our results indicate a high degree of connectivity in P. noctiluca, with little evidence of geographical structuring of genetic variation. A small but significant differentiation of Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean stocks was detected based on the microsatellite data, but no evidence of differentiation was observed with the mtDNA, probably due to the higher power of the microsatellites to detect low levels of genetic structuring. Two clearly distinct groups of genotypes were observed within the mtDNA COI, which probably diverged in the early Pleistocene, but with no evidence of geographical structuring. Palaeodistribution modelling of P. noctiluca at the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM; c. 21 Kya) indicated large areas of suitable habitat south of the species’ current-day distribution, with little reduction in area. The congruent evidence for minimal genetic differentiation from the nuclear microsatellites and the mtDNA, coupled with the results of the palaeodistribution modelling, supports the idea of long-term population stability and connectivity, thus providing key insights into the population dynamics and demography of this important species.
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    • "In addition, studies on larval recruitment of A. perideraion and closely related species have shown high levels of self-recruitment (Amphiprion chrysopterus, Beldade et al. 2012; Amphiprion percula, Almany et al. 2007; Buston et al. 2012; Amphiprion polymnus, Jones et al. 2005; A. perideraion, Madduppa et al. 2014), supporting expectations of a strong genetic population structure. The impact of self-recruitment and sweepstake reproduction (Hedgecock and Pudovkin 2011) can limit migrant exchange between populations, leading to demographic isolation of populations on very small spatial scales (Buston et al. 2012), although this is not always the case (Christie et al. 2010). In the search for common barriers to dispersal for purposes of conservation planning, the intergeneric comparison is of particular value and can further increase understanding of factors affecting larval dispersal. "
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    ABSTRACT: To enhance the understanding of larval dispersal in marine organisms, species with a sedentary adult stage and a pelagic larval phase of known duration constitute ideal candidates, because inferences can be made about the role of larval dispersal in population connectivity. Members of the immensely diverse marine fauna of the Indo-Malay Archipelago are of particular importance in this respect, as biodiversity conservation is becoming a large concern in this region. In this study, the genetic population structure of the pink anemonefish, Amphiprion perideraion, is analyzed by applying 10 microsatellite loci as well as sequences of the mitochondrial control region to also allow for a direct comparison of marker-derived results. Both marker systems detected a strong overall genetic structure (ΦST = 0.096, P < 0.0001; mean Dest = 0.17; FST = 0.015, P < 0.0001) and best supported regional groupings (ΦCT = 0.199 P < 0.0001; FCT = 0.018, P < 0.001) that suggested a differentiation of the Java Sea population from the rest of the archipelago. Differentiation of a New Guinea group was confirmed by both markers, but disagreed over the affinity of populations from west New Guinea. Mitochondrial data suggest higher connectivity among populations with fewer signals of regional substructure than microsatellite data. Considering the homogenizing effect of only a few migrants per generation on genetic differentiation between populations, marker-specific results have important implications for conservation efforts concerning this and similar species.
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    • "However, evaluating the connectivity between different areas in a network is a complex task. Some studies have addressed this issue by evaluating connectivity both indirectly, focusing on the degree of self-recruitment (see, for example, Jones et al., 2005), and directly, using DNA parentage analysis (Planes et al., 2009; Christie et al., 2010). However, most of these studies have focused exclusively on long distance dispersal, by comparing areas out of the reach of short distance dispersal movements. "
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