Design and Synthesis of Potent Quillaja Saponin Vaccine Adjuvants

Melanoma and Sarcoma Service, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York, United States
Journal of the American Chemical Society (Impact Factor: 12.11). 02/2010; 132(6):1939-45. DOI: 10.1021/ja9082842
Source: PubMed


The success of antitumor and antiviral vaccines often requires the use of an adjuvant, a substance that significantly enhances the immune response to a coadministered antigen. Only a handful of adjuvants have both sufficient potency and acceptable toxicity for clinical investigation. One promising adjuvant is QS-21, a saponin natural product that is the immunopotentiator of choice in many cancer and infectious disease vaccine clinical trials. However, the therapeutic promise of QS-21 adjuvant is curtailed by several factors, including its scarcity, difficulty in purification to homogeneity, dose-limiting toxicity, and chemical instability. Here, we report the design, synthesis, and evaluation of chemically stable synthetic saponins. These novel, amide-modified, non-natural substances exhibit immunopotentiating effects in vivo that rival or exceed that of QS-21 in evaluations with the GD3-KLH melanoma conjugate vaccine. The highly convergent synthetic preparation of these novel saponins establishes new avenues for discovering improved molecular adjuvants for specifically tailored vaccine therapies.

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Available from: Payal Damani-Yokota, Mar 19, 2014
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    • "Quil A modulates the cell mediated immune system as well as enhancing antibody production. In addition, only a low dose is needed for its adjuvant activity [20,21]. In this study, DNA vaccines pVAX1-EU-ORF3-ORF5, pVAX1-EU-ORF3 and pVAX1-EU-ORF5 were constructed based on the European LV strain (M96262) and formulated together with chitosan. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background The European (EU) genotype of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (Genotype-I PRRSV) has recently emerged in China. The coexistence of Genotype-I and -II PRRSV strains could cause seriously affect PRRSV diagnosis and management. Current vaccines are not able to protect against PRRSV infection completely and have inherent drawbacks. Thus, genetically engineered vaccines, including DNA vaccine and live vector engineered vaccines, have been developed. This study aimed to determine the enhanced immune responses of mice inoculated with a DNA vaccine coexpressing GP3 and GP5 of a Genotype-I PRRSV. Results To evaluate the immunogenicity of GP3 and GP5 proteins from European-type PRRSV, three DNA vaccines, pVAX1-EU-ORF3-ORF5, pVAX1-EU-ORF3 and pVAX1-EU-ORF5, were constructed, which were based on a Genotype-I LV strain (GenBank ID: M96262). BALB/c mice were immunized with the DNA vaccines; delivered in the form of chitosan-DNA nanoparticles. To increase the efficiency of the vaccine, Quil A (Quillaja) was used as an adjuvant. GP3 and GP5-specific antibodies, neutralizing antibodies and cytokines (IL-2, IL-4, IL-10 and IFN gamma) from the immunized mice sera, and other immune parameters, were examined, including T-cell proliferation responses and subgroups of spleen T-lymphocytes. The results showed that ORF3 and ORF5 proteins of Genotype-I PRRSV induced GP3 and GP5-specific antibodies that could neutralize the virus. The levels of Cytokines IL-2, IL-4, IL-10, and IFN–γ of the experimental groups were significantly higher than those of control groups after booster vaccination (P < 0.05). The production of CD3+CD4+ and CD3+CD8+ T lymphocyte was also induced. T lymphocyte proliferation assays showed that the PRRSV LV strain virus could stimulate the proliferation of T lymphocytes in mice in the experimental group. Conclusions Using Quil A as adjuvant, Genotype-I PRRSV GP3 and GP5 proteins produced good immunogenicity and reactivity. More importantly, better PRRSV-specific neutralizing antibody titers and cell-mediated immune responses were observed in mice immunized with the DNA vaccine co-expressing GP3 and GP5 proteins than in mice immunized with a DNA vaccine expressing either protein singly. The results of this study demonstrated that co-immunization with GP3 and GP5 produced a better immune response in mice.
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    • "Saponins are secondary metabolites widely distributed in plants, characterized by the presence of a skeleton derived from a 30-carbon 2,3-oxidosqualene precursor, to which one or more sugar residues are linked [4] [5]. The complex structure and its higher variability are factors responsible for difficulties in isolating and synthesizing these molecules [6]. These obstacles, associated with the often low concentration of saponins in biomass, highlight the need for developing ways to increase their content in plants prior to extraction. "
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    ABSTRACT: The saponins from leaves of Quillaja brasiliensis, a native species from Southern Brazil, show structural and functional similarities to those of Quillaja saponaria barks, which are currently used as adjuvants in vaccine formulations. The accumulation patterns of an immunoadjuvant fraction of leaf triterpene saponins (QB-90) in response to stress factors were examined, aiming at understanding the regulation of accumulation of these metabolites. The content of QB-90 in leaf disks was significantly increased by application of different osmotic stress agents, such as sorbitol, sodium chloride and polyethylene glycol in isosmotic concentrations. Higher yields of bioactive saponins were also observed upon exposure to salicylic acid, jasmonic acid, ultrasound and UV-C light. Experiments with shoots indicated a significant increase in QB-90 yields with moderate increases in white light irradiance and by mechanical damage applied to leaves. The increased accumulation of these terpenes may be part of a defense response. The results herein described may contribute to further advance knowledge on the regulation of accumulation of bioactive saponins, and at defining strategies to improve yields of these useful metabolites.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2013 · Plant Physiology and Biochemistry
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    • "The synthesis was analogous to that described in detail by Adams et al. (2010) and performed under an argon atmosphere . A solution of n-butyllithium in pentane (1.2 mL, 2.24 mmol, 3.3 equivalent) was added dropwise to a solution of diisopropylamine (300 lL, 2.24 mmol, 3.3 equivalent) in tetrahydrofuran (3 mL) cooled to –78 °C. "
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    ABSTRACT: Within the multitude of chemical signals used by termites, the trail marking by means of pheromones is ubiquitous. Chemistry and biology of the trail-following communication have been described in more than 60 species from all families except for the Neotropical Serritermitidae. The chemical ecology of Serritermitidae is of special interest not only as a missing piece of knowledge on the diversity and evolution of isopteran pheromones but also because it may contribute to the debate on the phylogenetic position of this family, which is still unresolved. Therefore, we aimed in this study to identify the trail-following pheromone of the serritermitid Glossotermes oculatus. Based on a combined approach of analytical chemistry, electrophysiology, and behavioral bioassays, we propose (10Z,13Z)-nonadeca-10,13-dien-2-one to be the trail-following pheromone of G. oculatus, secreted by the sternal gland of pseudergates. Thus, we report on a new termite trail-following pheromone of an unexpected chemical structure, a ketone with 19 carbons, contrasting with unsaturated alcohols containing 12 carbons as trail-following pheromones in other advanced termite families. In addition to this unique trail-following pheromone, we also describe the sternal gland in pseudergates as an organ of unusual shape, size, and structure when compared with other isopteran species. These results underline the peculiarity of the family Serritermitidae and prompt our interest in the chemistry of pheromones in the other genus of the family, Serritermes.
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