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Who knows what about a person? The Self-Other Knowledge Asymmetry (SOKA) Model

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Abstract

This article tests a new model for predicting which aspects of personality are best judged by the self and which are best judged by others. Previous research suggests an asymmetry in the accuracy of personality judgments: Some aspects of personality are known better to the self than others and vice versa. According to the self-other knowledge asymmetry (SOKA) model presented here, the self should be more accurate than others for traits low in observability (e.g., neuroticism), whereas others should be more accurate than the self for traits high in evaluativeness (e.g., intellect). In the present study, 165 participants provided self-ratings and were rated by 4 friends and up to 4 strangers in a round-robin design. Participants then completed a battery of behavioral tests from which criterion measures were derived. Consistent with SOKA model predictions, the self was the best judge of neuroticism-related traits, friends were the best judges of intellect-related traits, and people of all perspectives were equally good at judging extraversion-related traits. The theoretical and practical value of articulating this asymmetry is discussed.

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... As Paulhus and Vazire (2007) well concluded, informant reports often correspond to selfreports to a meaningful degree but also provide unique perspectives. Indeed, recent studies using diverse rating sources have empirically shown discrepancies between self-and other-report measures and thereby called for the use of multiple rating sources to derive a more comprehensive view of a person's personality profile (e.g., Carlson, Vazire, & Oltmanns, 2013;Connelly & Ones, 2010;Connelly, McAbee, Oh, Jung, & Jung, 2021;Connolly, Kavanagh, & Viswesvaran, 2007;Vazire, 2010;cf. Roberts, Harms, Smith, Wood, & Webb, 2006). ...
... From an interpersonal perspective, self-ratings reflect a person's view of his/her own personality based on one's self-knowledge, whereas other ratings reflect what others know and think about a target based on their prior observations of and interactions with that person (McAdams, 1995;Kenny, 1994). Connelly et al. (2021) further pointed out that because other people's perceptions about a person's personality are mostly shaped by that person's displayed behaviors (rather than inner thoughts or intentions), other ratings of personality may reveal the impression one creates among others (Hogan & Foster, 2016) which could tap aspects of which the target him/herself might not even be aware but were observable to other people through previous interpersonal interactions (McAbee & Connelly, 2016;McLarty, Whitman, Kluemper, & Tao, 2022;Oh et al., 2011;Vazire, 2010). In this vein, as a manifest behavior of delaying tasks with the intention to maximize work efficiency, AP is likely to be construed differently by the delayers themselves and their observers (who probably have little knowledge about the target's internally held intention or strategy) and therefore, the self-and other perspectives of an active procrastinator's personality traits might diverge. ...
... This is in accordance with the contention that in practice, common rater variance might not be so problematic as is often assumed (Spector, 2006). Also in line with past research showing self-other rating congruence on the Big Five traits (e.g., Connelly & Ones, 2010;Connolly et al., 2007;Vazire, 2010), our results showed that supervisor ratings of the focal employees' personality traits moderately correlated with employees' self-ratings, suggesting sufficient convergence as well as a substantial distinction between self-and supervisor-ratings in the study. In the hierarchical regression analysis, we did not find incremental validity of the supervisor-reports of personality traits over and above the self-reports of the corresponding traits in predicting AP, likely due to the inadequate power with the current sample size. ...
Article
What are active procrastinators like? Past research examining the Big Five personality predictors of active procrastination (AP) has found Extraversion and Emotional Stability to be predictive of such a behavioral characteristic. Yet, previous studies suffered from the fact that data were solely collected from undergraduates in academic settings using self-reports of personality. Attempting to extend the personality-AP associations among college students to working adults as well as to expand our knowledge on the personality profiles of active procrastinators according to both self- and other reports, the present study investigated the predictive effects of N = 173 full-time employees’ Big Five personality traits on their AP behaviors in the workplace via self- and supervisor-rated personality. Results revealed that Extraversion and Emotional Stability predicted AP across both rating sources and that in the supervisor-rating results only, the trait Agreeableness emerged as another (negative) predictor of AP. In light of recent developments with multimethod studies in the field of personality research, we discussed possible reasons for the current findings together with the study implications for research and practice related to AP at work.
... Recently introduced, one such integration is the TRI model, which builds on multiple perspectives on personality such as the Johari window (Luft & Ingham, 1955), the socioanalytic theory of personality (R. Hogan & Blickle, 2013), the self-other knowledge asymmetry model (Vazire, 2010), and bifactor models (Reise, 2012) with multisource data. In bifactor models, the correlations between items are first attributed to a general factor that accounts for the shared variance across all the items, and second, to group factors that capture incremental variance over the general factors shared among the groups of items. ...
... Thus, the authors advocated applying the DeYoung et al. aspects model of personality to construct correspondence. In sum, by combining self-and other-raters of personality and performance, we can overcome the information knowledge asymmetry (Vazire, 2010) and use all available information for predicting performance. Furthermore, by focusing on aspects of personality (DeYoung et al., 2007), we provide better alignment between predictor and criteria, overcoming the issue of too narrow personality facets (Hurtz & Donovan, 2000) or too broad personality traits (Connelly et al., 2021;Judge et al., 2013). ...
... Despite repeated claims in the past (Mischel, 1977;Morgeson et al., 2007) that personality does not play much of a role in determining behavior and job performance, continuous advancements in this area of psychological research have led to a more fine-grained understanding of how personality is associated with job performance (Connelly & Ones, 2010;Oh, Wang, et al., 2011). Focusing on implications of information knowledge asymmetry (Vazire, 2010), we took a more nuanced approach and integrated several streams of research: The TRI model (McAbee & Connelly, 2016) for combining self-and other-ratings, construct correspondence for aligning predictors and criteria (Fishbein & Ajzen, 1974), and new advancements in the understanding of more narrow aspects of personality traits as compared with broad domains (DeYoung et al., 2007). We expected that the aspect trait factors would be substantially correlated with their corresponding performance criteria. ...
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Recent research has suggested that self‐ and other‐ratings of personality may provide different information about personality, which can be captured in the trait‐reputation‐identity (TRI) model. Based on the TRI model, we investigate the link between personality and aligned job performance criteria on domain and aspect levels of the Big Five personality traits. In five samples (overall N = 571 triplets of target self‐ratings and two coworker other‐ratings), we investigated the relationships between the shared information on personality and shared information about job performance. We found that all personality domains showed substantial criterion validity in predicting the corresponding job‐performance dimensions. Furthermore, we found stronger estimates for aspects of agreeableness and openness. We discuss theoretical and practical implications for target replacement and performance management.
... Hence, an observable trait refers to one that is readily observed (e.g., talkative), whereas difficult-to-observe traits are more internal, subjective, and difficult to perceive (e.g., intelligent). In personality and socio-emotional research, the observability of traits and behaviors has previously been investigated (e.g., Vazire, 2010). It has been shown that the more visible a trait is, the more accurately it can be judged in interjudge agreements, which is called the trait-visibility effect. ...
... It has been shown that the more visible a trait is, the more accurately it can be judged in interjudge agreements, which is called the trait-visibility effect. Depending on the focus of a particular study, it would seem reasonable to include those stimuli that can better be assessed from the perspective of the self or others, as in knowledge asymmetry between traits that are high or low in observability (Vazire, 2010). Further, it has been shown that it is easier to capture observable characteristics from the external perspective, and this leads to more accurate judgments, whereas less visible characteristics are judged more accurately from the point of view of the self probably not only because they are more salient but also because such traits are more significant for oneself (Vazire, 2010). ...
... Depending on the focus of a particular study, it would seem reasonable to include those stimuli that can better be assessed from the perspective of the self or others, as in knowledge asymmetry between traits that are high or low in observability (Vazire, 2010). Further, it has been shown that it is easier to capture observable characteristics from the external perspective, and this leads to more accurate judgments, whereas less visible characteristics are judged more accurately from the point of view of the self probably not only because they are more salient but also because such traits are more significant for oneself (Vazire, 2010). It has, for instance, been shown that self-other agreements are influenced by a trait's observability and affectivity (Watson et al., 2000) and by its social desirability (John & Robins, 1993). ...
Article
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To enable flexible and controlled research on personality, information processing, and interactions in socio-emotional contexts, the availability of highly controlled stimulus material, especially trait words and related attributes, is indispensable. Existing word databases contain mainly nouns and rating dimensions, and their role in studies within socio-emotional contexts are limited. This study aimed to create an English list of traits (ELoT), a database containing 500 trait adjectives rated by a large sample ( n = 822, 57.42% female). The rating categories refer to the perceived valence associated with the traits and their social desirability and observability. Participants of different ages (18 to 65 years of age) and educational levels rated the words in an online survey. Both valence and social desirability ratings showed a bimodal distribution, indicating that most traits were rated either positive (respectively socially desirable) or negative (respectively socially undesirable), with fewer words rated as neutral. For observability, a bell-shaped distribution was found. Results indicated a strong association between valence and social desirability, whereas observability ratings were only moderately associated with the other ratings. Valence and social desirability ratings were not related to participants’ age or gender, but observability ratings were different for females and males, and for younger, middle-aged, and older participants. The ELoT is an extensive, freely available database of trait norms. The large sample and the balanced age and gender distributions allow to account for age- and gender-specific effects during stimulus selection.
... The tendency, commonly called social desirability, may motivate raters to behave in a culturally acceptable manner, regardless of their true attitudes or feelings (Crowne & Marlowe, 1964). At least six decades of research (e.g., Edwards, 1953;Vazire, 2010) has been devoted to understanding the nature of social desirability (Helmes & Holden, 2003;Holden, & Fekken, 1989;Paulhus, 1984;Vazire, 2010b), creating social desirability inventories (Crowne & Marlowe, 1964;Paulhus et al., 2003) and examining their validity (Dunlop et al., 2020;, investigating the effect of social desirability in various settings (Protzko et al., 2019;Richman et al., 1999), and inventing novel methods to minimize social desirability (Bäckström et al., 2009;Bäckström & Björklund, 2021). Social desirability not only changes respondents' answers to an uncertain degree (Paulhus & Buckels, 2012), but it also obscures the genuine relationships between variables (Ganster et al., 1983;Ones et al., 1996;Paunonen & LeBel, 2012). ...
... There is ongoing debate as to which type of rating, self-or other-, has higher validity (e.g., Connelly & Ones, 2010;Paunonen & Kam, 2014;Vazire, 2010). On the one hand, self-raters have more opportunities to observe their behavior, resulting in more accurate judgments. ...
... Is the relationship between a rating and a criterion distorted by social desirability, and if so, how? (Ones et al., 1996). Theoretically, disentangling the process of how social desirability explains response distortion man help resolve the debate of who is the better judge of personality: self or observer (Vazire, 2010). We believe separation of the two types of desirability, together of course with routine measurement of both, will be key for explaining if and how desirability distorts response (Leising et al., 2015). ...
Article
It is often assumed that informant, or peer evaluation is more trustworthy than self-evaluation because the former is less vulnerable to social desirability response style. The current study examines this assumption in three independent samples, conceptually distinguishing between two types of social desirability: desirability due to item characteristics and due to a person's trait characteristics. We found that self-ratings (Studies 1–3) and peer ratings (Studies 2–3) are equally liable to item desirability in two cultures (Canada and China) with the relation further moderated by rater's trait desirability. Results challenge the popular assumption that informant ratings are impervious to social desirability. Relationship closeness has a moderating role, with closer targets rated more favorably than more distant ones. Results demonstrate the importance of conceptually distinguishing between item and trait desirability and are discussed in terms of a motivational account of response inflation.
... However, some traits are easier to perceive accurately in oneself than other traits, for instance due to introspective limits, selfenhancement, and social desirable responding (Back & Vazire, 2012). People are better at evaluating highly internal or highly observable traits (i.e., neuroticism and extraversion) and less well at evaluating highly evaluative traits (i.e., openness to experience and conscientiousness; Vazire, 2010). Therefore, we may expect stronger moderating effects of self-concept clarity for extraversion and neuroticism, moderately strong effects for agreeableness, and less strong effects for openness to experience and conscientiousness. ...
... First, the data were self-reported, meaning that our results may only have captured the parts of personality traits that were observed by the youth themselves and, conversely, may have captured parts of personality traits that would not be observed by others. Previous work has shown that each perspective on personality, such as the perspective of the parents, teachers, co-workers, peers, or youth themselves, contains unique information (e.g., Self-Other Knowledge Asymmetry model; Vazire, 2010). For example, in several studies examining parent-reports in addition to self-reports, parents reported a decrease in neuroticism in later adolescence, whereas the youth themselves reported no such decrease or even an increase (Luan et al., 2017;Göllner et al., 2017;Van den Akker et al., 2014). ...
Article
Personality develops across the lifespan, but most development occurs in adolescence and young adulthood. Life transitions to new social roles may be important drivers of mean-level personality development. The present study examined mean-level personality development in adolescence and young adulthood, and the role of the transition to tertiary education and working life therein in a sample of Dutch young people that were followed across 14 years ( N = 497, Age W1 = 13.03 years). We explored whether young people’s self-concept clarity moderated these associations. Our hypotheses and analytical plan were pre-registered. Findings from Latent Growth Models showed support for maturation in personality across adolescence and young adulthood, but not a maturity dip. Having the role of employee was associated with higher conscientiousness, but no associations were found of the transition to tertiary education and the transition to work with mean-level development of any of the personality traits. Self-concept clarity did not moderate the role of transitions in mean-level personality development. Our findings suggest that socialization effects may not explain associations between life transitions and personality development in adolescence and young adulthood.
... We Patterned Person-Situation Fit in Daily Life 13 expected patterns to be similar but, of course, not identical across rating sources for fits and correlates. Different psychological processes (including genuine and accurate insights as well as biases, distortions, and errors) operate when self and other raters report on variables (Vazire, 2010). Thus, evidence for some cross-source replication would be encouraging. ...
... However, this does not mean that the associations found, particularly when using only self-reports, are necessarily erroneous, spurious, biased, or not of substantive interest. After all, the self and others each have different valid information available (Vazire, 2010), and thus self-and informant-ratings can show divergent findings which are not simply reducible to a mere method artifact. As a case in point, the overall self-informant profile correlation for the cognate CAQ items was .54, ...
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Person-situation fit can be operationalized as within-person associations between profiles of personality traits and situation characteristics (trait-situation fit) as well as personality states and situation characteristics (state-situation fit). We provide an initial examination of basic properties (magnitudes, individual differences, reliabilities, intercorrelations), short-term stability (across weeks), and nomological correlates of overall and distinctive profile-level person-situation fits. In a real-life, multi-method multi-occasion design (N = 204-209), we obtained data on participants’ traits (self- and informant-reported) as well as, at four time-points from their everyday lives, on situation characteristics (self- and coder-reported) and states (self-reported). Profile scores (q-correlations) were computed across 35 cognate items between the CAQ (traits), RSQ (situations), and RBQ (states). Our descriptive and exploratory findings indicated that trait-situation and state-situation fits were sizable (overall more so than distinctive forms), and that there were substantial individual differences, which were only modestly stable during a short period and had some plausible nomological correlates (i.e., lower depression and neuroticism, but higher psychological well-being and happiness) that were driven mainly by normativity. Most findings replicated across measurement sources (self- vs. other-reports). Person-situation fit concepts, once further corroborated, could further personality-psychological research.
... providing some evidence for convergent validity. As noted earlier, trait visibility is an important consideration for self-and informant-report measures of personality (Vazire, 2010). Indeed, traits with high visibility are often best judged by an independent observer, whereas traits with low visibility are often better judged by the self (Vazire, 2010). ...
... As noted earlier, trait visibility is an important consideration for self-and informant-report measures of personality (Vazire, 2010). Indeed, traits with high visibility are often best judged by an independent observer, whereas traits with low visibility are often better judged by the self (Vazire, 2010). Given that cognitive empathy is a relatively internal process (i.e., as it involves thinking about what someone else is feeling), it might be more difficult for an informant to judge, and this might explain the poorer agreement between the self and the informant measures for cognitive relative to affective empathy. ...
Article
Empathy is a core component of social cognition that can be indexed via behavioral, informant-report, or self-report methods of assessment. However, concerns have been raised regarding the lack of convergence between these assessment approaches for cognitive empathy. Here, we provided the first comparison of all three measurement approaches for cognitive and affective empathy in a large adult sample ( N = 371) aged 18 to 101 years. We found that poor convergence was more of a problem for cognitive empathy than affective empathy. While none of the cognitive empathy measures correlated with each other, for affective empathy, self-report was significantly associated with both behavioral and informant-report assessments. However, for both cognitive and affective empathy, there was evidence for poor discriminant validity within the measures. Out of the three assessment approaches, only the informant-report measures were consistently associated with indices of social functioning. Importantly, age did not moderate any of the tested relationships, indicating that both the strengths and the limitations of these different types of assessment do not appear to vary as a function of age. These findings highlight the variation that exists among empathy measures and are discussed in relation to their practical implications for the assessment of empathy.
... When this is true, informants' Age Differences in Personality and Social Desirability 28 ratings should systematically underestimate these developmental patterns. Although the judgment of another person's personality characteristics may be a relatively simple task , some aspects of personality are known better to the self than to others, and vice versa (Vazire, 2010). According to the self-other knowledge asymmetry (SOKA) model, the self should be more accurate than others for traits low in observability (e.g., Neuroticism), whereas others should be more accurate than the self for traits high in evaluativeness (e.g., Agreeableness) (Vazire, 2010). ...
... Although the judgment of another person's personality characteristics may be a relatively simple task , some aspects of personality are known better to the self than to others, and vice versa (Vazire, 2010). According to the self-other knowledge asymmetry (SOKA) model, the self should be more accurate than others for traits low in observability (e.g., Neuroticism), whereas others should be more accurate than the self for traits high in evaluativeness (e.g., Agreeableness) (Vazire, 2010). ...
Article
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Little research has examined age differences by using more than one source of information. We compared age differences in Five-Factor Model (FFM) facets and nuances in self-reports and ratings by knowledgeable informants using samples from three countries (Estonia, Germany, and the Czech Republic; N=5,624). We hypothesized that age differences would be larger in self- than informant-reports, because of greater social desirability in self-descriptions with advancing age. Indeed, we found that age differences were systematically smaller in informant-reports compared to self-reports; this trend was stronger for traits independently rated as socially desirable. As age differences may be best approximated by average trends of self- and informant-reports, we provide meta-analytic age trends for multi-rater composite scores of the FFM facets and nuances.
... Although useful, informant-reports are also limited. Informant-and self-reports are based on different information (Vazire, 2010). For instance, Meagher et al. (2020) noted that informant ratings of humility were based on observable conciliatory behaviors, whereas self-ratings of humility were likely based more on knowledge about one's own thoughts; these types of discrepancies could lead to different behavioral correlates of peer-and self-rated humility. ...
... Additionally, Galen et al. (2014) argued that informant reports of relationships between religiousness and prosociality were based in part on stereotypes that religious individuals were more helpful. Vazire's (2010) selfother knowledge asymmetry model incorporates these and other explanations for degrees of selfother rating (dis)agreement. In contrast, Helzer et al. (2014) ruled out the heuristic confound in informant reports of moral character, and they found results suggesting that these informants were less subject to presentation biases. ...
... vignette target possessing multiple sets of undesirable traits (vulnerability in addition to grandiosity). Some vulnerable tendencies and emotions such as being bitter and reactive are indicative of low agreeableness and may be viewed as socially undesirable (Sun & Vazire, 2019;Vazire, 2010), such that vignette descriptions including vulnerability in addition to grandiosity could result in reductions in perceived likability and sympathy. Other vulnerable features that are more inwardly directed (e.g., feeling ashamed, fragile) overlap strongly with neuroticism, for which high trait levels are not described as particularly socially desirable or undesirable according to some models of self-other perception (Vazire, 2010). ...
... Some vulnerable tendencies and emotions such as being bitter and reactive are indicative of low agreeableness and may be viewed as socially undesirable (Sun & Vazire, 2019;Vazire, 2010), such that vignette descriptions including vulnerability in addition to grandiosity could result in reductions in perceived likability and sympathy. Other vulnerable features that are more inwardly directed (e.g., feeling ashamed, fragile) overlap strongly with neuroticism, for which high trait levels are not described as particularly socially desirable or undesirable according to some models of self-other perception (Vazire, 2010). A third possibility then is that the addition of vulnerability has little effect overall on perceived likability and sympathy, though we predicted it would result in some net increase for both likability and sympathy based on prior research directly studying attitudes toward narcissism as reviewed. ...
Article
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We used data from 444 undergraduates and 375 adults recruited online to evaluate lay raters’ perceptions of vignettes described as having high levels of narcissistic traits. Participants were presented with vignettes describing someone with grandiose narcissistic characteristics only (e.g., someone who is arrogant), followed by vignettes describing someone with both grandiose and vulnerable narcissistic features (e.g., feeling insecure). Our primary aims focused on determining the extent to which (a) lay raters viewed narcissistic grandiosity and vulnerability as interconnected and (b) how attitudes toward vignettes varied as a function of the vulnerable and grandiose characteristics in the vignette descriptions. We also examined associations between lay raters’ self-rated personality (assessed using the Narcissistic Admiration and Rivalry Questionnaire and the Big Five Inventory-2) and their vignette perceptions. Lay raters rated the vignette described as having only grandiose features as being prone to experiencing vulnerability. Furthermore, lay raters had more favorable views of the vignette including descriptions of both grandiose and vulnerable features (versus grandiose features alone). Likability and sympathy ratings did not vary based on the name used for vignettes (i.e., using the name “James” versus “Mary”). Finally, lay raters’ self-rated traits showed some interesting associations with their vignette perceptions, but generally associations were weak in magnitude. Collectively, our findings indicate that lay raters perceive grandiosity and vulnerability as overlapping, and co-occurring grandiosity and vulnerability (versus grandiosity alone) may represent a more sympathetic view of narcissism. Determining the extent to which these attitudes influence real-world interactions would be useful for extending our findings.
... Most, if not all, of these self-report scales can be adapted for observer ratings. And while the assumption is often that self-reports and observer reports should converge, which they do, they do not converge at a magnitude that would lead to the conclusion that they are redundant (Vazire, 2010). As both self-reports and observer ratings tend to be valid predictors of the outcomes of conscientiousness, such as achievement (Wagerman & Funder, 2007) and health behaviors (Lodi-Smith et al., 2010), yet only modestly related, they both tend to predict outcomes independent of one another. ...
Article
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Why does conscientiousness matter for education? How is conscientiousness conceptualized in the field of research on education? How do socio-emotional (SE) skills relate to conscientiousness? In an effort to help answer these questions, we review the current research on conscientiousness in education. Specifically, we examine (1) how conscientiousness is defined, (2) the assessment of conscientiousness, (3) the relation between conscientiousness and educational outcomes, (4) whether too much conscientiousness may be a bad thing, (5) the relation between conscientiousness and conceptually related educational constructs, (6) the changeability of conscientiousness and the importance of that fact to education, and (7) the challenges of assessing conscientiousness across cultures.
... Today, the advantages of multimethod measurement designs are well-known (Eid & Diener, 2006;Vazire, 2010;Vazire & Mehl, 2008) and are increasingly applied in many areas of psychology (e.g., Burns & Haynes, 2006;Connelly & Ones, 2010;Hawkins et al., 2014;Lance et al., 2008;Zald & Curtis, 2005). Furthermore, numerous confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) models have been proposed for analyzing longitudinal multirater designs over the last decades (Bohn et al., 2021;Courvoisier et al., 2008;Geiser et al. 2010;Holtmann, et al., 2017Holtmann, et al., , 2020Koch et al., 2014Koch et al., , 2017Koch et al., , 2020. ...
Article
Numerous models have been proposed for the analysis of convergent validity in longitudinal multimethod designs. However, existing multimethod models are limited to measurement designs with equally spaced time intervals. We present a new multirater latent state-trait model with autoregressive effects (MR-LST-AR) for designs with structurally different raters and individually varying time intervals. The new model is illustrated using the German Family Panel pairfam. By means of stochastic differential equations, we show how key coefficients of convergent and discriminant validity can be examined as a function of time. We compare the results from continuous and discrete time analysis and provide code to fit the new model in ctsem. Finally, the advantages and limitations of the model are discussed, and practical recommendations are provided.
... Empirical evidence demonstrates that increased frequency of interactions can increase the accuracy of other-reports of personality (Connelly & Ones, 2010), and self-and other-reports of observable personality traits are more strongly correlated than between otherreports (John & Robins, 1993). Moreover, observers are best for measuring specific types of personality traits (Vazire, 2010). So the answer is, yes, personality can be measured by using other-reports under specific conditions, with a central theme of those specific conditions being observability. ...
... Whereas previous studies on Instagram have assessed self-reports as measures of users' personality traits when analyzing relationships with Instagram content (Barry, Reiter, et al., 2019;Cooper et al., 2020;Ferwerda et al., 2016;Kim & Kim, 2018Kim et al., 2021;McCain et al., 2016;Moon et al., 2016), the way we judge ourselves might not necessarily have a strong correspondence with how we behave or how others see us (Vazire & Carlson, 2021). Self-reports and reports by knowledgeable informants (Vazire, 2006), which are moderately correlated (Connelly & Ones, 2010), each capture unique insights into people's personality, but also reveal limitations and blindspots (Back & Vazire, 2012;Vazire, 2010). That is, each source taps into different available information (McAbee & Connelly, 2016), with self-reports tapping into people's explicit self-views of their traits as part of their identities, and other reports reflecting how others see a target person as part of people's reputations (Hogan & Blickle, 2018). ...
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Objective: This study examined personality expression, impression formation, and the consensus and accuracy of zero-acquaintance personality judgments that were based on people's Instagram accounts. Method: Self- and informant reports of the Big Five personality traits, self-esteem, and narcissism were collected for 102 Instagram users. Screenshots were taken of Instagram users' profiles, including up to the 102 latest available Instagram posts. A number of Instagram cues were objectively retrieved, counted, and rated by independent trained cue coders from the screenshots. 100 unacquainted observers then judged the Big Five traits, self-esteem, and narcissism on the basis of Instagram screenshots only. Results: We identified Instagram account characteristics that were associated with users' personality traits (measured with self-reports, informant reports, and self-informant composites) and observers' zero-acquaintance personality judgments. Personality judgments that were based on Instagram accounts demonstrated consensus and significantly converged with Instagram users' Big Five traits, self-esteem, and narcissism across all three personality criteria. Averaged-observer accuracy correlations for self-informant composite scores ranged from r = .44 (p < .001) for extraversion to r = .25 (p = .013) for conscientiousness. Conclusions: Our findings provide insight into cue processes of online self-portrayal and impression formation on Instagram and the level of zero-acquaintance accuracy.
... Our models were based on the perceptions of the individual as key predictors for two reasons. First, self-reports typically provide a more accurate assessment of processes that are low in observability (such as mental construal; Vazire, 2010). Second, interpersonal theory emphasizes the situation as construed by the individuals participating in it (Kiesler, 1996). ...
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The predominant focus in attachment research on trait-like individual differences has overshadowed investigation of the ways in which working models of attachment represent dynamic, interpersonally responsive socio-affective systems. Intensive longitudinal designs extend previous work by evaluating to what extent attachment varies over social interactions and the functional processes that underlie its fluctuation. We examined momentary activation of attachment orientations in the stream of peoples' daily lives and how those patterns were linked to interpersonal behavior. Based on an event-contingent, ambulatory 7-day assessment protocol (N=263; 3,971 interactions) operationalized using Contemporary Integrative Interpersonal Theory, we examined whether contextually activated working models accounted for patterns of interpersonal (anti-)complementarity. Our analyses revealed that the situational activation of working models varied as a function of interpersonal perceptions of warmth, which were linked to greater state security and lower levels of anxious or avoidant expectations. These reactivity patterns, in turn, accounted for interpersonal complementarity. Avoidant attachment was linked to diminished and secure attachment to enhanced expressions of warmth. The analyses were robust even when controlling for momentary positive and negative affect and closeness of the relationship. Attachment expectations wax and wane across daily social interactions, and such fluctuations are reflective primarily of a process in which perceptions of others' warmth activate secure attachment expectations and lower insecure ones. Supplementary information: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s42761-022-00117-6.
... To corroborate this assumption, we additionally examined whether partners' self-rated communal behavior bears motivational relevance in its own right. Although the partner's self-rated behavior is no perfect indicator of the partner's rather objective, actual behavior, it may nonetheless capture certain aspects of the partner's behavior not accessible to the actor (Vazire, 2010). We therefore repeated all main analyses using partners' self-rated (instead of perceived) communal behavior as a predictor. ...
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This article presents an integrative conceptual model of motivational interdependence in couples, the MIC model. Based on theoretical tenets in motivation psychology, personality psychology, and research on interpersonal perception, the MIC model postulates that two partners' motive dispositions fundamentally interact in shaping their individual motivation and behavior. On a functional level, a partner's motivated behavior is conceptualized as an environmental cue that can contribute to an actor's motive expression and satisfaction. However, the partner's motivated behavior is considered to gain this motivational relevance only via the actor's subjective perception. Multilevel analyses of an extensive experience sampling study on partner-related communal motivation ( N = up to 60,803 surveys from 508 individuals nested in 258 couples) supported the MIC model. Participants, particularly those with strong communal motive dispositions, behaved more communally at moments when they perceived their partners to behave more communally. In addition, participants experienced momentary boosts in satisfaction when they behaved more communally and, at the same time, perceived their partners' behavior as similarly communal. Broader implications of the MIC model for research on romantic relationships are discussed.
... We recommend future studies to collect a larger, more diverse sample to be able to test for confounding or moderating effects of rater characteristics as, for example, women and men may put different weight on body characteristics when judging an opposite-sex body (which may also depend on mating interest; Confer et al., 2010). Furthermore, the assessment of targets' narcissistic admiration and rivalry was based on targets' self-reports and, thus, may be biased by socially desirable responding, or by relying on thoughts and feelings rather than behavior, which can harm the accuracy of self-reports for more interpersonal manifestations of narcissism (Vazire, 2010). Future investigations should follow a multi-method approach employing both self-reports and peer-reports or observer-ratings to examine whether results differ when using different sources of information regarding targets levels of narcissism . ...
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Narcissistic people are exceedingly successful in conveying positive first impressions to their social surrounding, yet, they appear to be the driving force behind unfavorable long-term social and romantic relationships. Hence, a quick identification of narcissistic people may be of adaptive value for their social partners. Narcissism perception research, however, is lacking evidence on human body morphology. In this study, N = 110 raters evaluated natural 3D body scans of unacquainted N = 307 target participants (152 men and 155 women) regarding narcissistic admiration and rivalry. Based on the Brunswikian lens model, multiple regression models revealed that bodily attractiveness (β = .54, 95% CI = [0.41; 0.66]), BMI (β = .32, 95% CI = [0.13; 0.51]), shoulder-to-hip ratio (β = .33, 95% CI = [0.20; 0.47]) and physical strength (β = .23, 95% CI = [0.07; 0.39]) were utilized in judging narcissistic admiration and rivalry. Shoulder-hip ratio showed small relationships with self-reported narcissistic admiration (β = .21, 95% CI = [0.03; 0.38]) and rivalry (β = .23, 95% CI = [0.07; 0.39]) that were not robust across all analyses. Correlations between self-reported and judged narcissism showed a significant positive association for narcissistic admiration (r = .17, 95% CI = [0.06; 0.28]). Results indicate a perceptual bias when judging narcissism, as perceivers used body cues to draw inferences about target’s levels of narcissism that were not significantly related to self-reported narcissistic admiration and rivalry (and can thus be seen as invalid). However, perceivers were able to somewhat accurately judge target’s levels of narcissistic admiration and rivalry, based on body morphology alone. Thus, people’s bodies might disclose social information at zero acquaintance, but different stimuli material with more information on the targets may lead to more accurate judgments.
... The benefits of other-reports include avoiding socially desirable reporting by the target and the ability to assess humility perceptions from multiple perspectives (e.g., superiors, peers, subordinates, family, significant others, friends). However, this approach is limited because such measures are resource-intensive, the responses are often relationship-and context-specific or -dependent, and such perceptions may not accurately assess the inner components of the target's humility (Vazire, 2010). ...
Article
Research on humility has burgeoned. However, behavioral assessments of humility that do not rely on self-reports have developed much more slowly. The purpose of this paper is to take stock of existing approaches to conceptualize and measure humility. Specifically, we provide a conceptual overview of humility, including the limitations of current methodological approaches to studying humility and the need for behavioral assessments. In addition, we argue that behavioral assessments of humility may inform broader measures of virtues by considering both the relevance of and the degree to which actual behaviors pertaining to that virtue are expressed. Understanding the current conceptual and methodological limitations of approaches to humility will better situate research efforts aimed at catalyzing behavioral measures of humility.
... For example, Festinger's (1954) theory of social comparison asserts that the validity of our personal beliefs depends upon shared belief by similar others. Similarly, research on reflected appraisals argues that people learn about themselves most directly from others rather than from introspection or self-observation (Vazire, 2010). Becker (1971), and later terror management theory (Greenberg et al., 1986;Routledge & Vess, 2019), argues that socially shared belief systems ultimately address core fundamental human concerns (e.g., How did I get here? ...
Chapter
Yalom (1980) identified three forms of isolation: intrapersonal, interpersonal, and existential. This chapter focuses primarily on existential isolation, both as an existential reality and as a subjective experience. Existential isolation refers to the inherent unbridgeable gap between any two beings and the impossibility of knowing with certainty how anyone else experiences the world. The chapter begins with discussion of existential isolation as an existential reality and how awareness of it can be threatening to a species that relies upon shared social validation for meaning and psychological security. The chapter then examines the consequences and potential benefits of confronting existential isolation, considers how existential isolation relates to other existential concerns, and reviews empirical research on the topic. The chapter concludes with a discussion of ways in which psychotherapy could help clients develop resources to manage the anxiety associated with awareness of existential isolation.KeywordsExistential isolationIdentityMeaningFreedomDeathTerror management theoryMeaning maintenanceExistential loneliness
... In terms of data validity for the measure of personality, several studies have shown significant cross-observer agreement -that is, external observers can rate the personality of other persons in a way that is consistent with the self-assessment of the latter (e. g, McCrae and Costa, 1987;Moshagen et al., 2019). Evidence suggests that external observers also tend to agree with each other rather consistently (Vazire, 2006(Vazire, , 2010. This should be especially likely for figures that are as constantly in the public spotlight as political leaders. ...
Article
The current study assesses the extent to which government leaders’ personality traits are related to divergent policy responses during the pandemic. To do so, we use data from the Oxford COVID-19 Government Response Tracker initiative (OxCGRT) to measure the speed and magnitude of policy responses across countries and NEGex, a dataset that maps the personality traits of current heads of government (presidents or prime ministers) in 61 countries. We find that world leaders scoring high on “plasticity” (extraversion, openness) were quicker to implement travel restrictions and provide financial relief as well as offered a stronger response in general (average overall response). Whereas, leaders scoring high on “stability” (conscientiousness, agreeableness, emotional stability) offered both quicker and stronger financial relief. Our findings underscore the need to account for the personality of decision-makers when exploring decision-making during the pandemic, and during similar crisis situations.
... This might be a key to understanding the previous debate: Cybervetting is a rating by others (i.e., recruiters, supervisors) and, thus, depends on particular traits' observability. Thus, the limited convergent validity of cybervetting might be due to the fundamentally different perspective between the self and others (Vazire, 2010). Thus, one might evaluate validity coefficients not only in comparison to self-ratings but also to valid other-ratings in personnel selection (e.g., interviews, assessment center; see Lievens & Van Iddekinge, 2016). ...
... 5), it is worth considering this possibility. Future work could use informant reports (e.g., Vazire, 2010) or other measures (such as charitable donations) to explore potential effects on actual behaviour. The relationship between memory and the self has long been recognized as a complex and important one, and we look forward to future studies that will illuminate it further. ...
Article
How do we know what sort of people we are? Do we reflect on specific past instances of our own behaviour, or do we just have a general idea? Previous work has emphasized the role of personal semantic memory (general autobiographical knowledge) in how we assess our own personality traits. Using a standardized trait empathy questionnaire, we show in four experiments that episodic autobiographical memory (memory for specific personal events) is associated with people's judgments of their own trait empathy. Specifically, neurologically healthy young adults rated themselves as more empathic on questionnaire items that cued episodic memories of events in which they behaved empathically. This effect, however, was diminished in people who are known to have poor episodic memory: older adults and individuals who have undergone unilateral excision of medial temporal lobe tissue (as treatment for epilepsy). Further, self-report ratings on individual questionnaire items were generally predicted by subjectively rated phenomenological qualities of the memories cued by those items, such as sensory detail, scene coherence, and overall vividness. We argue that episodic and semantic memory play different roles with respect to self-knowledge depending on life experience, the integrity of the medial temporal lobes, and whether one is assessing general abstract traits versus more concrete behaviours that embody these traits. Future research should examine different types of self-knowledge as well as personality traits other than empathy.
... Inter-rater reliability is not entirely a reflection of a test's psychometrics, however, but can also depend on what the test measures since some things are more observable to raters than others. For example, inter-rater reliability tends to be higher for tests of Extraversion (which is readily observable) than of Neuroticism (of which the individual being rated has a better sense than an external rater; for review Luft and Ingram, 1955;Vazire, 2010). Each of these forms of reliability has specific statistical tests associated with them, which are either directly or indirectly related to the correlation coefficient (e.g., the alpha that indicates internal consistency is a variation of a correlation). ...
Chapter
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Psychological testing is a core component of applied psychology. There are a number of different kinds of psychological tests (e.g., intelligence, diagnostic, personality, scholastic and vocational aptitude), which ideally have substantial evidence of validity and reliability. Psychological testing is somewhat distinct from psychological assessment, which tends to be a more involved and interpersonal endeavor. This article will address all of these issues.
... Therefore, students' judgments can be assumed to be subject to some degree of uncertainty, as students have to draw different inferences about teachers' behavior. Thus, personality psychology models, such as the "Self-Other Knowledge Asymmetry" model (Vazire, 2010) or the "Realistic Accuracy" model (Funder, 1995), are based on the assumption that the quality of information that comes from judges is impacted by the judges' susceptibility to biases (e.g., Göllner et al., 2018), their motivation, and the amount of objective information they have access to. Such influences could potentially lead to biases in student ratings. ...
Article
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Student ratings have become a standard way to assess teaching quality. However, little is known about whether using a we/us-addressee (“The teacher motivates us”) or an I/me-addressee (“The teacher motivates me”) makes a difference for the information that is obtained. In this study, we experimentally varied the addressee in teaching-quality items capturing six dimensions of teacher support in two school subjects. We investigated differences between the two addressee versions in mean levels, level of agreement, associations between dimensions using the same versus different addressees, and correlations with a variety of student outcome variables. We found that the item addressee was relevant for most psychometric properties in question, and differences were more pronounced for mathematics than for German language arts.
... For Study 2, longitudinal data were assessed, which in turn allowed me to examine how narcissism and friendship quality might shape each other over time. However, I solely relied on self-reports, which on the one hand allow for valuable insights into the inner states and perceptions of people, but on the other hand tend to be more distorted by ego-protective biases than observer ratings (e.g., Vazire, 2010). An assessment of egoprotective biases would be a relevant addition to the current work because of the link of narcissism and ego-protection (Hepper et al., 2010). ...
Thesis
Who is willing to be in a close relationship to an individual with high narcissism, and how do individuals with high narcissism perceive their friendships? Three aspects of narcissism were distinguished (agentic, antagonistic, neurotic) to determine their association with four aspects of friendship quality (appreciation, intimacy, conflict, dominance). In the first study, a dyadic perspective was taken to observe whether friendship quality differs depending on the dyadic narcissism level of friends. As hypothesized, individuals in dyads with higher narcissism perceived their friendship quality as lower, compared to individuals in dyads with lower narcissism. More conflicts were perceived across narcissism aspects. Dyads with high antagonistic narcissism also perceived lower appreciation and intimacy. Results were interpreted in favor of the assumption that maladaptive traits are tolerated by those who possess these traits themselves. In the second study, a longitudinal perspective was taken to examine interactional effects of narcissism and friendship quality across 4 measurement occasions. On a within-person level, individuals scoring lower than usual on narcissism were found to subsequently perceive higher appreciation, and those perceiving lower appreciation than usual subsequently increased in antagonistic narcissism. Results suggested that the effects found in relationship formation tend to generalize to relationship maintenance. Overall, this work expanded previous research on narcissism and social relationships by observing relationship quality in long-term friendships including a dyadic as well as a longitudinal perspective. To answer the question of who is willing to be friends with someone high in narcissism, results suggest that it would be individuals who also score high on narcissism. In regard to the question of how individuals with high narcissism perceive their friendships it was found that they tend to be willing to accept lower friendship quality.
... to R = .15) from previous studies (Vazire, 2010). Put differently, these white matter markers of Neuroticism perform at least as well and sometimes better than behavioral predictions of other people when estimating individual differences in Neuroticism. ...
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Extensive work in personality neuroscience has shown mixed results in the ability to localize reliable relationships between personality traits and neuroimaging measures. However, recent work in translational neuroimaging has recognized that multifaceted psychological dispositions are not represented in discrete, highly localized brain areas. As such, standard univariate neuroimaging analyses may not be well-suited for capturing broad personality traits supported by distributed networks. The present study uses an out-of-sample predictive modeling approach to identify multivariate signatures of Big Five personality traits within the structural integrity of the brain’s white matter pathways using diffusion magnetic resonance imaging. In Study 1 (N = 491), we trained a ridge regression model to predict each of the Big Five traits and tested these models in an independent hold-out subsample. We found that models for both Neuroticism and Openness were significantly related to predictive accuracy in the hold-out sample. Study 2 (N = 108) applied the predictive models from Study 1 to an independent set of data collected on a different scanner and using a different Big Five scale. Here, we found that the model for Neuroticism remained a significant predictor of individual difference, providing evidence that this white matter signature of Neuroticism generalizes across differences in measurement and samples.
... Notably, although all personality measures used in this meta-analysis had high-levels of internal-consistency reliability, interrater reliability of personality measures is substantially lower. When correlating personality with objectively assessed criteria such as intelligence, it is likely that it is the objective aspects of personality that infuse self-report ratings which drive correlations with objective criteria (for relevant theoretical perspectives, see Funder, 1995;McAbee & Connelly, 2016;Vazire, 2010). The capacity of self-report personality to assess objectively true personality is more modest as indicated by selfother agreement on personality measures, with meta-analytic estimates ranging from r = .32 ...
... Since response timing is a reflection of mental processing speed (von Hippel et al., 2016), observers may see response delays as indicative of slowed mental processing speed, and attribute this to responder nervousness. Perceived nervousness during a social interaction ratings of extroversion, participants' self-reports and other-reports (e.g., from friends or family) of extraversion show high levels of inter-rater agreement (Connelly & Ones, 2010;Vazire, 2010). could then be taken as a sign of general introversion (Briggs;1988;Coplan et al., 2004, Ebeling-Witte et al., 2007, as people may infer that introverted people are especially nervous in social situations. ...
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Personality inferences are fundamental to human social interactions and have far-reaching effects on various social decisions. Fourteen experiments (13 preregistered; total N = 5160; using audio, video, and text stimuli) involving British, U.S. American, Singaporean, and Australian participants show that people responding to a question immediately (vs. after a slight pause) are seen as more extraverted. This is because response delays are believed to signal nervousness and passivity, and hence introversion. This effect was consistently observed across a range of scenarios from everyday small-talk to mock job interviews, and for various types of response formats, including face-to-face, phone, and online conversations. We found that the effect was not influenced by apparent relationship closeness between the responder and questioner, but that it was influenced by whether observers believed that the responder was mentally occupied during the interaction. Importantly, our results also suggest that the effect of response timing on extraversion perceptions influences hiring decisions – job applicants are more likely to be hired by mock employers for job types congruent with their level of extraversion as exuded from their response timing. Finally, we found that observers typically expect that introverted individuals would pause for longer before responding to questions, as compared to extraverted individuals. Theoretical implications for the understanding of personality impression formation and response timing and practical implications for hiring and other interpersonal situations are discussed. Keywords: response timing, perceived extraversion, impression formation, personality inferences, response delay
... Notably, although all personality measures used in this meta-analysis had high-levels of internal-consistency reliability, interrater reliability of personality measures is substantially lower. When correlating personality with objectively assessed criteria such as intelligence, it is likely that it is the objective aspects of personality that infuse self-report ratings which drive correlations with objective criteria (for relevant theoretical perspectives, see Funder, 1995;McAbee & Connelly, 2016;Vazire, 2010). The capacity of self-report personality to assess objectively true personality is more modest as indicated by selfother agreement on personality measures, with meta-analytic estimates ranging from r = .32 ...
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This study provides a comprehensive assessment of the associations of personality and intelligence. It presents a meta-analysis (N = 162,636, k = 272) of domain, facet, and item-level correlations between personality and intelligence (general, fluid, and crystallized) for the major Big Five and HEXACO hierarchical frameworks of personality: NEO PI-R, Big Five Aspect Scales (BFAS), BFI-2, and HEXACO PI R. It provides the first meta-analysis of personality and intelligence to comprehensively examine (a) facet-level correlations for these hierarchical frameworks of personality, (b) item-level correlations, (c) domain- and facet-level predictive models. Age and sex differences in personality and intelligence, and study-level moderators, are also examined. The study was complemented by four of our own unpublished datasets (N = 26,813) which were used to assess the ability of item-level models to provide generalizable prediction. Results showed that openness (ρ = .20) and neuroticism (ρ = -.09) were the strongest Big Five correlates of intelligence and that openness correlated more with crystallized than fluid intelligence. At the facet-level, traits related to intellectual engagement and unconventionality were more strongly related to intelligence than other openness facets, and sociability and orderliness were negatively correlated with intelligence. Facets of gregariousness and excitement seeking had stronger negative correlations, and openness to aesthetics, feelings, and values had stronger positive correlations with crystallized than fluid intelligence. Facets explained more than twice the variance of domains. Overall, the results provide the most nuanced and robust evidence to date of the relationship between personality and intelligence.
... Targets and informants showed some agreement on growth in new possibilities, spiritual change, and appreciation of life and on depreciation in all domains except personal strength. Though some domains might be more outwardly visible and thus more amenable to corroboration (following Vazire, 2010), the overall magnitudes and inconsistency of agreement across domains raises questions about whether informants reliably validate targets' domain-specific reports of posttraumatic change (Table 3). ...
Article
Though research on assessing posttraumatic growth has been severely critiqued, some evidence suggests close others can observe and report changes in individuals following traumatic life events and are sensitive to idiosyncratic ways in which changes manifest. We extended these findings by investigating corroboration of self-perceived posttraumatic growth (PTG) and depreciation (PTD) as measured by the Posttraumatic Growth Inventory-42 (PTGI-42) among Sri Lankan Tamil war survivors (n = 200). Informants slightly corroborated overall levels of PTG and PTD, while a more nuanced profile analysis procedure revealed overall-but not distinctive-profile agreement. This suggests self-other agreement is modest and may partly reflect shared narratives and collective cultural understandings about how people change after trauma. Results demonstrate further that informants were not sensitive to idiosyncratic ways in which target individuals had changed. Together, the lack of validity evidence suggests that the PTGI-42 may be inadequate in some cross-cultural contexts as a measure of nuanced posttraumatic change (i.e., as a measure of specific changes in the five theorized domains of growth and depreciation). Future work should emphasize culture- and context-sensitive measurement of posttraumatic change, particularly focusing on methods other than retrospective self-reports, such as prospective longitudinal designs. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved).
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Fluid intelligence and conscientiousness are important predictors of students' academic performance and competence gains. Although their individual contributions have been widely acknowledged, less is known about their potential interplay. Do students profit disproportionately from being both smart and conscientious? We addressed this question using longitudinal data from two large student samples of the German National Educational Panel Study. In the first sample, we analyzed reading and mathematics competencies of 3778 fourth graders (Mage = 9.29, 51% female) and gains therein until grade 7. In the second sample, we analyzed the same competencies in 4942 seventh graders (Mage = 12.49, 49% female) and gains therein until grade 9. The results of (moderated) latent change score models supported fluid intelligence as the most consistent predictor of competence levels and gains, whereas conscientiousness predicted initial competence levels in mathematics and reading as well as gains in mathematics (but not reading) only in the older sample. There was no evidence for interaction effects between fluid intelligence and conscientiousness. We found only one statistically significant synergistic interaction in the older sample for gains in reading competence , which disappeared when including covariates. Although our findings point to largely independent effects of fluid intelligence and conscientiousness on competence gains, we delineate avenues for future research to illuminate their potential interplay.
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Is what is beautiful good and more accurately understood? Lorenzo et al. (2010) explored this question and found that more attractive targets (as per consensus) were judged more positively and accurately. Perceivers’ specific (idiosyncratic) ratings of targets’ attractiveness were also related to more positive and accurate impressions, but the latter was only true for highly consensually attractive targets. With a larger sample (N=547), employing a round-robin study design, we aimed to replicate and extend these findings by 1) using a more reliable accuracy criterion, 2) using a direct measure of positive personality impressions, and 3) exploring attention as a potential mechanism of these links. We found that targets’ consensual attractiveness was not significantly related to the positivity or the accuracy of impressions. Replicating the original findings, idiosyncratic attractiveness was related to more positive impressions. The association between idiosyncratic attractiveness and accuracy was again dependent on consensual attractiveness, but here, idiosyncratic attractiveness was associated with lower accuracy for less consensually attractive targets. Perceivers’ attention helped explain these associations. These results partially replicate the original findings while also providing new insight: What is beautiful to the beholder is good but is less accurately understood if the target is consensually less attractive.
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Personality changes across the lifespan, but strong evidence regarding the mechanisms responsible for personality change remains elusive. Studies of personality change and life events, for example, suggest that personality is difficult to change. But there are two key issues with assessing personality change. First, most change models optimize population-level, not individual-level, effects, which ignores heterogeneity in patterns of change. Second, optimizing change as mean-levels of self-reports fails to incorporate methods for assessing personality dynamics, such as using changes in variances of and correlations in multivariate time series data that often proceed changes in mean-levels, making variance change detection a promising technique for the study of change. Using a sample of N = 388 participants (total N = 21,790) assessed weekly over 60 weeks, we test a permutation-based approach for detecting individual-level personality changes in multivariate time series and compare the results to event-based methods for assessing change. We find that a non-trivial number of participants show change over the course of the year but that there was little association between these change points and life events they experienced. We conclude by highlighting the importance in idiographic and dynamic investigations of change.
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Chapter
We are constantly forming impressions about those around us. Social interaction depends on our understanding of interpersonal behavior - assessing one another's personality, emotions, thoughts and feelings, attitudes, deceptiveness, group memberships, and other personal characteristics through facial expressions, body language, voice and spoken language. But how accurate are our impressions and when does such accuracy matter? How is accuracy achieved and are some of us more successful at achieving it than others? This comprehensive overview presents cutting-edge research on this fast-expanding field and will be essential reading for anyone interested in the psychology of interpersonal perception. A wide range of experts in the field explore topics including age and gender effects, psychopathology, culture and ethnicity, workplaces and leadership, clinicians' skills, empathy, meta-perception, and training people to be more accurate in their perceptions of others.
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Previous studies have noticed that depression, neuroticism, extraversion, and mood can leave linguistic fingerprints, particularly on pronoun use. The first aim of the present study was to examine the linguistic associations and impacts of these psychological constructs among Iranian native speakers of Farsi. Secondly, the linguistic correlates of depression, neuroticism, and extraversion were investigated in English, as a foreign language. For these goals, 220 Iranian adults (58.2% female, Mage = 25.2; SD = 5.19) participated and were assigned to four different groups (positive, neutral, and negative Farsi mood groups and a neutral English group). As expected, depression correlated with I-talk in Farsi (r = 0.217, p < 0.05). It was also associated with more negative emotion words (r = 0.355, p < 0.05), less positive emotion words (r = 0.421, p < 0.05), and less we-talk (r = 0.22, p < 0.05). Nonetheless, the results were not supportive of the association between I-talk and neuroticism or extraversion. Consistent with former observations, induced negative mood decreased self-referential language. The English responses showed that speaking in one's foreign versus native language can strongly diminish the linguistic effects of the psychological constructs.
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Patient-reported outcome (PRO) refers to measures that emphasize the subjective view of patients about their health-related conditions and behaviors. Typically, PROs include self-report questionnaires and clinical interviews. Defining PROs for borderline personality disorder (BPD) is particularly challenging given the disorder's high symptomatic heterogeneity, high comorbidity with other psychiatric conditions, highly fluctuating symptoms, weak correlations between symptoms and functional outcomes, and lack of valid and reliable experimental measures to complement self-report data. Here, we provide an overview of currently used BPD outcome measures and discuss them from clinical, psychometric, experimental, and patient perspectives. In addition, we review the most promising leads to improve BPD PROs, including the DSM-5 Section III, the Recovery Approach, Ecological Momentary Assessments, and novel experimental measures of social functioning that are associated with functional and social outcomes.
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Reviews previous attempts to establish the relative importance of dispositional constructs in personality psychology, which have been anchored in 1 of 3 rationales or some combination of them: theoretical derivation, statistical analysis, or lexical analysis. An alternative set of criteria based on the act frequency approach to personality is suggested. These alternative criteria include reference to the domains of acts encompassed by dispositional constructs, the uniqueness or nonredundancy of those domains, agreement about act–disposition linkages, agreement about within-category prototypicality status, degree of temporal stability, and magnitude of manifested performance base rate. It is argued that previous, more stringent, exclusion criteria have tended to remove from consideration important classes of acts about which the field is centrally concerned. Five previous empirical studies by the authors published between 1980 and 1984 illustrate the application of these new criteria to a previously neglected dispositional construct: calculating. Discussion focuses on the implications of a more expansive view of the taxonomic task that faces personality psychology. (47 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Four studies with 131 college students demonstrated that (a) when measures of behavior were averaged over an increasing number of events stability coefficients increased to high levels for all kinds of data, including objective behavior, self-ratings, and ratings by others, and (b) objective behavior was then reliably related to self-report measures, including standard personality inventories (e.g., Guilford-Zimmerman Temperament Survey, Eysenck Personality Inventory, Epstein-Fenz Manifest Anxiety scales, Epstein Hostility scales, and Epstein-O'Brien Self-Esteem scale). It is concluded that the observation that it is possible to predict behavior averaged over a sample of situations and/or occasions, rather than from single instances, has important implications not only for the study of personality but for psychological research in general. (92 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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When people are asked to compare their abilities to those of their peers, they predominantly provide self-serving assessments that appear objectively indefensible. This article proposes that such assessments occur because the meaning of most characteristics is ambiguous, which allows people to use self-serving trail definitions when providing self-evaluations. Studies 1 and 2 revealed that people provide self-serving assessments to the extent that the trait is ambiguous, that is, to the extent that it can describe a wide variety of behaviors. Study 3 more directly implicated ambiguity in these apraisals. As the number of criteria that Ss could use in their evaluations increased, Ss endorsed both positive and negative characteristics as self-descriptive to a greater degree. Study 4 demonstrated that the evidence and criteria that people use in self-evaluations is idiosyncratic. Asking Ss explicitly to list the evidence and criteria they considered before providing self-evaluations did not influence their self-appraisals. However, requiring Ss to evaluate themselves using a list generated by another individual caused them to lower their self-appraisals. Discussion centers on the normative status of these self-serving appraisals, and on potential consequences for social judgment in general.
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This paper aims to show that widespread, serious errors in the self-assessment of affect are a genuine possibility—one worth taking very seriously. For we are subject to a variety of errors concerning the character of our present and past affective states, or “affective ignorance.” For example, some affects, particularly moods, can greatly affect the quality of our experience even when we are unable to discern them. I note several implications of these arguments. First, we may be less competent pursuers of happiness than is commonly believed, raising difficult questions for political thought. Second, some of the errors discussed ramify for our understanding of consciousness, including Ned Block's controversial distinction between access consciousness and phenomenal consciousness. Third, empirical results based on self-reports about affect may be systematically misleading in certain ways.
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This article compiles results from a century of social psychological research, more than 25,000 studies of 8 million people. A large number of social psychological conclusions are listed alongside meta-analytic information about the magnitude and variability of the corresponding effects. References to 322 meta-analyses of social psychological phenomena are presented, as well as statistical effect-size summaries. Analyses reveal that social psychological effects typically yield a value of r equal to .21 and that, in the typical research literature, effects vary from study to study in ways that produce a standard deviation in r of .15. Uses, limitations, and implications of this large-scale compilation are noted. In 1898 Norman Triplett published an early experiment in social psychology, about an ef-fect of the presence of others on task perfor-mance. In the 100 years since Triplett's inves-tigation, many social psychological effects have been documented. The current article summa-rizes the best established of these findings, with data from more than 25,000 research studies and 8 million people. Our goal is to quantify the magnitude and variability of social psychologi-cal effects. We begin by considering previous summaries of social psychology, note some un-resolved issues, and review developments that permit a century of scholarly work to be quan-titatively described. For present purposes, we follow Manstead and Hewstone (1995) in re-garding social psychology as the study of "the reciprocal influence of the individual and his or her social context" (p. 588).
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Would people still see themselves through rose-colored glasses if they had the same perspective as others do? We contrast predictions from narcissism theory with cognitive-informational accounts of self-perception bias. Study 1 showed that narcissists enjoy situations in which they can view themselves from an external perspective, and report that such situations boost their self-confidence. In Study 2, subjects evaluated their performance in a group task from the normal visual perspective of the self and from a "reversed" perspective (manipulated via videotape). Narcissists overestimated their performance, and reversing visual perspective did not reduce this self-enhancement bias. Instead, we found a person-situation interaction: Narcissists became even more positively biased in the reversed-perspective condition, whereas nonnarcissists showed even less bias. Thus, allowing narcissistic individuals to observe themselves on videotape further increased their self-admiration, just as the mythical Narcissus admired his reflection in the pond.
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The authors compared the Big 5 factors of personality with the facets or traits of personality that constitute those factors on their ability to predict 40 behavior criteria. Both the broad factors and the narrow facets predicted substantial numbers of criteria, but the latter did noticeably better in that regard, even when the number of facet predictors was limited to the number of factor predictors. Moreover, the criterion variance accounted for by the personality facets often included large portions not predicted by the personality factors. The narrow facets, therefore, were able to substantially increase the maximum prediction achieved by the broad factors. The results of this study are interpreted as supporting a more detailed approach to personality assessment, one that goes beyond the measurement of the Big 5 factors alone.
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“Know yourself” is one of the most ancient of all injunctions. Although some primates possess the ability to recognize their own faces, and therefore must possess a rudimentary sense of self (Gallup, 1977), humans appear to be unique among animals in their ability to know themselves. What is the nature of this ability? How did it evolve, and why? How effective are the processes through which people acquire self-knowledge, and how valid are the story by telling its end, we will conclude that it often is maladaptive to perceive oneself accurately, that people are at least as adept at self-serving way, and that people are at least as adept at self-deception as they are at self-perception.
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What was noted by E. J. Langer (1978) remains true today; that much of contemporary psychological research is based on the assumption that people are consciously and systematically processing incoming information in order to construe and interpret their world and to plan and engage in courses of action. As did E. J. Langer, the authors question this assumption. First, they review evidence that the ability to exercise such conscious, intentional control is actually quite limited, so that most of moment-to-moment psychological life must occur through nonconscious means if it is to occur at all. The authors then describe the different possible mechanisms that produce automatic, environmental control over these various phenomena and review evidence establishing both the existence of these mechanisms as well as their consequences for judgments, emotions, and behavior. Three major forms of automatic self-regulation are identified: an automatic effect of perception on action, automatic goal pursuit, and a continual automatic evaluation of one's experience. From the accumulating evidence, the authors conclude that these various nonconscious mental systems perform the lion's share of the self-regulatory burden, beneficently keeping the individual grounded in his or her current environment.
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People, it is hypothesized, show an asymmetry in assessing their own interpersonal and intrapersonal knowledge relative to that of their peers. Six studies suggested that people perceive their knowledge of their peers to surpass their peers’ knowledge of them. Several of the studies explored sources of this perceived asymmetry, especially the conviction that while observable behaviors (e.g., interpersonal revelations or idiosyncratic word completions) are more revealing of others than self, private thoughts and feelings are more revealing of self than others. Study 2 also found that college roommates believe they know themselves better than their peers know themselves. Study 6 showed that group members display a similar bias—they believe their groups know and understand relevant out-groups better than vice versa. The relevance of such illusions of asymmetric insight for interpersonal interaction and our understanding of "naive realism" is discussed.
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In this article, I argue that the basic building blocks of social cognition, the schemata people possess of social traits and concepts, are shaped by motivations to retain flattering images of the self As such, motivational influences on social cognition are more subtle and pervasive than usually acknowledged in the social cognitive literature. I review research showing that people possess self-flattering schemata of social concepts. I describe experimental work demonstrating that it is, indeed, the motivation to maintain self-worth prompting the self-serving nature of these schemata, detailing how these studies withstand the usual cognitive reinterpretations offered for motivational findings. Finally, I suggest that the field of social cognition reconsider the issues and insights of the New Look tradition, which concerned itself first and foremost with how people reconciled incoming social information with the perceiver's goals, wishes, fears, and desires.
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People base thousands of choices across a lifetime on the views they hold of their skill and moral character, yet a growing body of research in psychology shows that such self-views are often misguided or misinformed. Anyone who has dealt with others in the classroom, in the workplace, in the medical office, or on the therapist's couch has probably experienced people whose opinions of themselves depart from the objectively possible. This book outlines some of the common errors that people make when they evaluate themselves. It also describes the many psychological barriers - some that people build by their own hand - that prevent individuals from achieving self-insight about their ability and character. The first section of the book focuses on mistaken views of competence, and explores why people often remain blissfully unaware of their incompetence and personality flaws. The second section focuses on faulty views of character, and explores why people tend to perceive they are more unique and special than they really are, why people tend to possess inflated opinions of their moral fiber that are not matched by their deeds, and why people fail to anticipate the impact that emotions have on their choices and actions. The book will be of great interest to students and researchers in social, personality, and cognitive psychology, but, through the accessibility of its writing style, it will also appeal to those outside of academic psychology with an interest in the psychological processes that lead to our self-insight.
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In this article we compare the accuracy of personality judgments by the self and by knowledgeable others. Self- and acquaintance judgments of general personality attributes were used to predict general, videotaped behavioral criteria. Results slightly favored the predictive validity of personality judgments made by single acquaintances over self-judgments, and significantly favored the aggregated personality judgments of two acquaintances over self-judgments. These findings imply that the most valid source for personality judgments that are relevant to patterns of overt behavior may not be self-reports but the consensus of the judgment of the community of one's peers.
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Twenty-four perceivers saw portraits of unacquainted persons for either 150ms, 100ms, or 50ms, and rated their personality on adjective scales. Moreover, stimulus persons described themselves on these scales and the NEO Five-Factor Inventory. Consensus among perceivers and self-other agreement were not systematically related to exposure time, but self-other agreement differed strongly between traits, being highest for extraversion. Even ratings of extraversion by single perceivers were related to the stimulus persons’ self-reports. Particularly strong were correlations between perceived extraversion and self-reports on items measuring the extraversion facets excitement seeking and positive emotions. Self-other agreement for extraversion was mostly mediated by cheerfulness of facial expressions that was related to self-reports of extraversion but not of the other personality traits.
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Seven basic research questions in interpersonal perception are posed concerning issues of consensus, assimilation, reciprocity, accuracy, congruence, assumed similarity and self—other agreement. All questions can be addressed at the individual level, and three at the dyadic level. It is shown how the Social Relations Model can be used to answer the questions.
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Psychology calls itself the science of behavior, and the American Psychological Association's current "Decade of Behavior" was intended to increase awareness and appreciation of this aspect of the science. Yet some psychological subdisciplines have never directly studied behavior, and studies on behavior are dwindling rapidly in other subdisciplines. We discuss the eclipse of behavior in personality and social psychology, in which direct observation of behavior has been increasingly supplanted by introspective self-reports, hypothetical scenarios, and questionnaire ratings. We advocate a renewed commitment to including direct observation of behavior whenever possible and in at least a healthy minority of research projects. © 2007 Association for Psychological Science.
Research from numerous corners of psychological inquiry suggests that self-assessments of skill and character are often flawed in substantive and systematic ways. We review empirical findings on the imperfect nature of self-assessment and discuss implications for three real-world domains: health, education, and the workplace. In general, people's self-views hold only a tenuous to modest relationship with their actual behavior and performance. The correlation between self-ratings of skill and actual performance in many domains is moderate to meager—indeed, at times, other people's predictions of a person's outcomes prove more accurate than that person's self-predictions. In addition, people overrate themselves. On average, people say that they are “above average” in skill (a conclusion that defies statistical possibility), overestimate the likelihood that they will engage in desirable behaviors and achieve favorable outcomes, furnish overly optimistic estimates of when they will complete future projects, and reach judgments with too much confidence. Several psychological processes conspire to produce flawed self-assessments. Research focusing on health echoes these findings. People are unrealistically optimistic about their own health risks compared with those of other people. They also overestimate how distinctive their opinions and preferences (e.g., discomfort with alcohol) are among their peers—a misperception that can have a deleterious impact on their health. Unable to anticipate how they would respond to emotion-laden situations, they mispredict the preferences of patients when asked to step in and make treatment decisions for them. Guided by mistaken but seemingly plausible theories of health and disease, people misdiagnose themselves—a phenomenon that can have severe consequences for their health and longevity. Similarly, research in education finds that students' assessments of their performance tend to agree only moderately with those of their teachers and mentors. Students seem largely unable to assess how well or poorly they have comprehended material they have just read. They also tend to be overconfident in newly learned skills, at times because the common educational practice of massed training appears to promote rapid acquisition of skill—as well as self-confidence—but not necessarily the retention of skill. Several interventions, however, can be introduced to prompt students to evaluate their skill and learning more accurately. In the workplace, flawed self-assessments arise all the way up the corporate ladder. Employees tend to overestimate their skill, making it difficult to give meaningful feedback. CEOs also display overconfidence in their judgments, particularly when stepping into new markets or novel projects—for example, proposing acquisitions that hurt, rather then help, the price of their company's stock. We discuss several interventions aimed at circumventing the consequences of such flawed assessments; these include training people to routinely make cognitive repairs correcting for biased self-assessments and requiring people to justify their decisions in front of their peers. The act of self-assessment is an intrinsically difficult task, and we enumerate several obstacles that prevent people from reaching truthful self-impressions. We also propose that researchers and practitioners should recognize self-assessment as a coherent and unified area of study spanning many subdisciplines of psychology and beyond. Finally, we suggest that policymakers and other people who makes real-world assessments should be wary of self-assessments of skill, expertise, and knowledge, and should consider ways of repairing self-assessments that may be flawed.
Article
Used a Monte Carlo study to investigate the magnitude of various relations among behaviors and traits in the context of a multiple-determinant framework (MDF). It was found that when only 3 traits determined each of 2 behaviors and the 2 behaviors were influenced by only 1 common trait, there was an upper bound correlation of about .30 between the 2 behaviors; there was also an upper bound correlation of about .50 between measures of the common trait and the behaviors. When only 4 traits determined each of the 2 behaviors with both behaviors being influenced by 1 common trait, there was an upper bound correlation of about .25 between the 2 behaviors and an upper bound correlation of about .45 between measures of the common trait and the behaviors. It is argued that researchers should abandon the implicit assumption of a one-to-one relation between traits and behavioral consequences and instead adopt an MDF in the study of behavior, focusing not only on the additive effects of multiple determinants but also on the interactions between these determinants. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Explored the social perceptions of 60 undergraduate observers exposed to tape-recorded interviews in which 20 undergraduate speakers described themselves, either emphasizing past thoughts and feelings, past behaviors, or whatever mix of these speakers perceived as appropriate. Observers' subsequent impressions of speakers were measured using Q-sort ratings and various affective and behavioral predictions, which both speakers and speakers' close friends ( n = 20) had previously completed. It was found that the cognitive/affective interviews produced more accurate social impressions, or at least impressions that were more in accord with speakers' self-assessments prior to the interviews and with the assessments made by their close friends, than did the behavioral or the mixed interviews. This greater congruence was shown to result both from real and from stereotyped accuracy. The relevance of these findings to theory and research on self-perception is discussed. (52 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
focuses on the meanings behind the words people use to describe themselves and other people / examines what people specifically imply when they characterize themselves as "intelligent" or "creative," or when they describe someone else as a "good leader" or "a dominant kind of individual" / when invoking such words, what particular behaviors are people referring to / what concrete attributes do they have in mind / central tenet guiding the discussion is that people are often not referring to the same actions and characteristics when invoking the same word or concept reviews evidence that people tend to possess idiosyncratic, self-aggrandizing definitions of social concepts and categories / outlines some of the consequences of these definitions for self and social judgment / closes with a treatment of factors that may prompt the development of these egocentric trait definitions (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
To satisfy the need in personality research for factorially univocal measures of each of the 5 domains that subsume most English-language terms for personality traits, new sets of Big-Five factor markers were investigated. In studies of adjective-anchored bipolar rating scales, a transparent format was found to produce factor markers that were more univocal than the same scales administered in the traditional format. Nonetheless, even the transparent bipolar scales proved less robust as factor markers than did parallel sets of adjectives administered in unipolar format. A set of 100 unipolar terms proved to be highly robust across quite diverse samples of self and peer descriptions. These new markers were compared with previously developed ones based on far larger sets of trait adjectives, as well as with the scales from the NEO and Hogan personality inventories. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
What was noted by E. J. Langer (1978) remains true today: that much of contemporary psychological research is based on the assumption that people are consciously and systematically processing incoming information in order to construe and interpret their world and to plan and engage in courses of action. As did Langer, the authors question this assumption. First, they review evidence that the ability to exercise such conscious, intentional control is actually quite limited, so that most of moment-to-moment psychological life must occur through nonconscious means if it is to occur at all. The authors then describe the different possible mechanisms that produce automatic, environmental control over these various phenomena and review evidence establishing both the existence of these mechanisms as well as their consequences for judgments, emotions, and behavior. Three major forms of automatic self-regulation are identified: an automatic effect of perception on action, automatic goal pursuit, and a continual automatic evaluation of one's experience. From the accumulating evidence, the authors conclude that these various nonconscious mental systems perform the lion's share of the self-regulatory burden, beneficently keeping the individual grounded in his or her current environment. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
provides a review and integration of current theory and research on self-perception accuracy in personality and social psychology / address 2 broad conceptual issues in the study of self-perception accuracy: (a) what is accuracy and how should it be measured and (b) what psychological processes are involved in self-perception discuss 2 conceptual frameworks / the 1st defines the various criteria researchers have used to measure accuracy and classifies them into 6 broad categories: operational, social consensus, functional/pragmatic, normative models, information processing, and internal consistency / the 2nd framework characterizes the self-perception process from 4 different theoretical perspectives and uses a metaphor to capture the essence of each perspective: the Scientist, the Consistency Seeker, the Politician, and the Egoist / illustrate the heuristic value of these metaphors by applying them to our own research on self-enhancement bias / discuss the implications of accurate self-perception for mental health (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
do other people view you the same way you view yourself / most people find this to be an interesting question, for 2 basic reasons / 1st, the self that a person presents to others, and the way that self is perceived by others, importantly influences how those others treat him or her and how the person views him or herself / whether one is viewed positively or negatively, it is probably strategically useful to have an accurate idea of how one is regarded by the others in one's social world / 2nd, the opinions of others are a useful source of information about what a person might really be like the question of self-other agreement / analyses of absolute (mean) agreement (self-enhancement biases, the actor–observer effect, internal vs external traits) / correlational analyses of agreement (methodological issues: "L. J. Cronbach's complaint," substantive issues) / conceptual issues (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Book
This completely rewritten classic text features many new examples, insights, and topics including mediational, categorical, and multilevel models. Substantially reorganized, this edition provides a briefer, more streamlined examination of data analysis. Noted for its model comparison approach and unified framework based on the general linear model, the book provides readers with a greater understanding of a variety of statistical procedures. This consistent framework, including consistent vocabulary and notation, is used throughout to develop fewer but more powerful model building techniques. The authors show how all analysis of variance and multiple regression can be accomplished within this framework. The model comparison approach provides several benefits: It strengthens the intuitive understanding of the material, thereby increasing the ability to successfully analyze data in the future; It provides more control in the analysis of data so that readers can apply the techniques to a broader spectrum of questions; It reduces the number of statistical techniques that must be memorized; It teaches readers how to become data analysts instead of statisticians. The book opens with an overview of data analysis. All the necessary concepts for statistical inference used throughout the book are introduced in Chapters 2 through 4. The remainder of the book builds on these models. Chapters 5-7 focus on regression analysis, followed by analysis of variance (ANOVA), mediational analyses, nonindependent or correlated errors, including multilevel modeling, and outliers and error violations. The book is appreciated by all for its detailed treatment of ANOVA, multiple regression, nonindependent observations, interactive and nonlinear models of data, and its guidance for treating outliers and other problematic aspects of data analysis. Intended for advanced undergraduate or graduate courses on data analysis, statistics, and/or quantitative methods taught in psychology, education, or other behavioral and social science departments, this book also appeals to researchers who analyze data. A protected website featuring additional examples and problems with datasets, lecture notes, PowerPoint presentations, and class-tested exam questions is available to adopters. This material uses SAS but can easily be adapted to other programs. A working knowledge of basic algebra and any multiple regression program is assumed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Conducted a peer rating study ( N = 111) to determine the effects of (a) level of acquaintanceship between rater and target and (b) degree of public observability of rated personality traits on peers' perceptions of target personality characteristics. As hypothesized, I found the agreement between peer ratings and target self-ratings to vary linearly and directly with acquaintanceship. In addition, acquaintanceship interacted with observability such that the public visibility of the behavior domain being judged was an important determinant of agreement for low to moderately acquainted peer dyads but not for highly acquainted dyads. Contrary to expectations, however, trait observability did not show a main effect with regard to self–peer agreement. The basis of the study is described with reference to the lens model of inferential behavior, and implications of the results are discussed with reference to past and future attempts at evaluating consensus and accuracy in person perception. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Several difficulties are noted with general questions psychologists have been asking about human accuracy, such as whether people are typically accurate or inaccurate, what the boundary conditions for accuracy are, or the general process whereby accuracy may be improved. Instead, a situationally specific approach to accuracy is adopted in which a central role is assigned to the judgmental process. Accordingly, two general paradigms are distinguished addressing accuracy from realistic and phenomenal perspectives. The realist paradigm focuses on Ss' judgments and the degree to which these correspond to an external criterion. The phenomenal paradigm focuses on Ss' internal criterion as well as their perceptions of the target judgment and the judgment-to-criterion correspondence. Research possibilities in each paradigm are noted. It is suggested that attention to judgmental factors may extend accuracy work in previously unexplored directions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
ABSTRACT Research on accuracy and consensus in interpersonal perception has become a major topic in the social sciences. Key methodological issues in this research are research design, statistical measures of agreement, unit of analysis, and data aggregation. I discuss the twelve articles devoted to these topics in this special issue in terms of moderators of agreement, the weighted average model of consensus and accuracy (Kenny, 1991), and methodological innovations.
Article
Subjects' descriptions of their own personalities were found to correlate quite well with descriptions contributed by their peers, especially on traits high in social desirability. As would be predicted from attribution research, subjects tend to rate themselves higher than do their peers on traits pertaining to inner states (e.g., “is introspective”), while peers tend to rate them higher on traits pertaining to behaviors especially salient to an external observer (e.g., “is personally charming”). But in general, self and peer ratings exhibit a considerable degree of covariance. It is concluded that self and peer trait attributions, since they tend to agree, must inevitably have an important impact on a person's life, and therefore are important to the understanding of personality.