Article

When Helping Helps: Autonomous Motivation for Prosocial Behavior and Its Influence on Well-Being for the Helper and Recipient

Authors:
  • Australian Catholic University North Sydney
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the authors.

Abstract

Self-determination theory posits that the degree to which a prosocial act is volitional or autonomous predicts its effect on well-being and that psychological need satisfaction mediates this relation. Four studies tested the impact of autonomous and controlled motivation for helping others on well-being and explored effects on other outcomes of helping for both helpers and recipients. Study 1 used a diary method to assess daily relations between prosocial behaviors and helper well-being and tested mediating effects of basic psychological need satisfaction. Study 2 examined the effect of choice on motivation and consequences of autonomous versus controlled helping using an experimental design. Study 3 examined the consequences of autonomous versus controlled helping for both helpers and recipients in a dyadic task. Finally, Study 4 manipulated motivation to predict helper and recipient outcomes. Findings support the idea that autonomous motivation for helping yields benefits for both helper and recipient through greater need satisfaction. Limitations and implications are discussed.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the authors.

... The general satisfaction and frustration of psychological needs in SDT is further qualified by providers' motives for helping in specific contexts. SDT conceptualizes helping motivation along a self-determined continuum from highly autonomous to highly controlled reasons for helping (Kim, Carver, Deci, & Kasser, 2008;Kindt et al., 2015;Weinstein & Ryan, 2010). ...
... Past research has shown that autonomous motivation to help is associated with greater psychological benefits for both providers and recipients across various relational contexts, from support in close relationships (Blais, Sabourin, Boucher, & Vallerand, 1990;Deci, La Guardia, Moller, Scheiner, & Ryan, 2006;Hadden, Rodriguez, Knee, & Porter, 2015;Knee, Patrick, Vietor, Nanayakkara, & Neighbors, 2002;La Guardia & Patrick, 2008;Patrick, Knee, Canevello, & Lonsbary, 2007) to prosocial behaviours toward strangers (Gagné, 2003;Hui & Kogan, 2018;Nelson et al., 2015;Weinstein & Ryan, 2010). There have also been clinical applications of helping motivation and need satisfaction among caregivers of individuals with cancer (Kim et al., 2008) and chronic pain (Kindt et al., 2015). ...
... We assessed participants' motivation to help depressed targets with an adapted version (Kindt et al., 2015) of the Motivation to Help Scale (MTHS; Weinstein & Ryan, 2010). Compared to the original MTHS, the adapted version of the MTHS demonstrated stronger psychometric properties and consisted of additional subscales to reflect the dimensional nature of motivation in SDT (Kindt et al., 2015). ...
Thesis
Full-text available
Depression occurs within an interpersonal context. Research has shown that depressed individuals perceive significant others as rejecting and unsupportive; however, the thoughts, feelings and behaviours of significant others are often underexamined. Guided by interpersonal theory and self-determination theory, this thesis examined the associations between significant others' basic psychological needs, helping motivations, and interpersonal behaviours toward depressed individuals in an undergraduate sample (Study 1) and a community sample (Study 2). Need satisfaction and autonomous motivation to help were generally associated with more dominant and loving support (i.e., directive and nurturing) whereas need frustration and controlled motivation to help predicted less helpful forms of support (i.e., critical and avoidant). Autonomous motivation to help further interacted with basic psychological needs to predict supportive behaviours. When autonomous motivation to help was low, frustrated providers were more critical and avoidant toward depressed individuals. Significant others who were generally satisfied with their needs, on the other hand, provided more directiveness and nurturance despite lacking autonomous motivation to help. The moderated findings differed for North American and non-North American participants in Study 2. These studies highlighted the interpersonal and motivational aspects of support provided to depressed individuals from the perspective of significant others.
... Helping behaviors, like any other intentional behavior, can vary on a continuum of volition or self-determination (Deci & Ryan, 2000). As such, while some helping acts might be more voluntary or autonomously motivated, others might be more pressured or controlled (Weinstein & Ryan, 2010). When helping is predominantly driven by autonomous motivation, helpers feel greater freedom and volition because they experience the behavior as personally meaningful or as congruent with their true self, reflecting their personal values and goals (Gagné & Deci, 2005). ...
... Additionally, they impact how helpers experience a given helping episode. Prior research has shown consistent evidence that prosocial acts have more positive consequences for helpers' well-being (i.e., greater subjective well-being, vitality, and selfesteem) when driven by autonomous reasons than when driven by controlled reasons (Nelson et al., 2015;Weinstein & Ryan, 2010). Findings from these studies have shown that autonomous prosocial acts lead to greater satisfaction of basic psychological needs, which in turn leads to greater well-being. ...
... More importantly, we argue that the positive effects of the quality of gratitude expressions depend on the underlying motives of a helping behavior. As high autonomous motivation to help reflects an intrinsic desire to help others and has a more internal perceived causality (Weinstein & Ryan, 2010), its effects on subsequent helping behavior would be less affected by external rewards. That is, because engaging in acts that are in accordance with one's true self and expressing one's personal goals and values is rewarding in itself, helpers with high autonomous motivation will be willing to engage in subsequent helping, regardless of the quality of the gratitude expressed by beneficiaries in the previous helping episode. ...
Article
Moral identity has been considered an important predictor of prosocial behavior. This article extends prior research by investigating how and when moral identity predicts helping behavior. Specifically, we examine the mediating effect of episodic autonomous motivation on the relationship between moral identity and future helping intentions. We also test the moderating effect of an important contextual factor in helping episodes: the quality of the gratitude expression received by helpers. In two studies using autobiographical recall tasks with different samples (Study 1: N = 134, college students; Study 2: N = 192, adult workers), we found convergent evidence that helpers with high moral identity experience higher autonomous motivation in a helping episode, which in turn increases their willingness to help the same beneficiary in the future. We further found support for the interactive effects between autonomous motivation and gratitude quality on future helping intentions. High-quality gratitude expressions are particularly important in predicting subsequent helping for helpers with low episodic autonomous motivation. In this case, high-quality gratitude expressions can compensate for the lack of intrinsic motivation in a helping episode and increase future help provision.
... Similar findings were reported at the within-person level of analysis: positive relationships with subjective well-being have been found for autonomous motivation to help but not controlled motivation (Lin, Savani, & Ilies, 2019;Weinstein & Ryan, 2010); further, Lin et al. (2019) found that experienced positive affect mediated the effect of autonomous helping motivation on subsequent helping behavior. ...
... Self-determination theory posits that autonomy is a fundamental psychological need that, when satisfied, enhances wellbeing Van den Broeck, Ferris, Chang, & Rosen, 2016). When individuals are motivated to engage in prosocial actions at their discretion, their need for autonomy is more likely to be satisfied, leading to higher levels of well-being (Gebauer et al., 2008;Lin et al., 2016;Weinstein & Ryan, 2010). In contrast, those with high obligatory prosocial motivation are likely to perceive a lack of free will in taking prosocial actions. ...
... Therefore, they are more likely to experience motivational conflict that taxes regulatory resources and, in turn, lowers well-being. Consistent with this rationale, existing research has reported that obligatory prosocial motivation is less likely to lead to a satisfying effect that comes from discretionary prosocial motivation (e.g., Gebauer et al., 2008;Lin et al., 2016;Weinstein & Ryan, 2010). ...
Article
Full-text available
In recent years, a rapidly growing literature has shed light on important costs and benefits of prosocial motivation in the workplace. However, researchers have studied prosocial motivation using various labels, conceptualizations, and operationalizations, leaving this body of knowledge fragmented. In this study, we contribute to the literature by providing an integrated framework that organizes extant constructs and measures of prosocial motives along two dimensions: level of autonomy (discretionary/obligatory) and level of generality (global/contextual/positional). Drawing upon this framework, we conducted a meta-analysis with 252 samples and 666 effect sizes to examine the effects of prosocial motivation on workplace outcomes. Moderator analyses were performed to resolve inconsistencies in the empirical literature and understand the context under which prosocial motivation had the strongest or weakest effect. We found that prosocial motivation, in general, was beneficial for employee well-being (𝜌̅ = .23), prosocial behavior (𝜌̅ = .35), job performance (𝜌̅ = .20), and career success (𝜌̅ = .06). The direction and magnitude of these effects depended on the autonomy, generality, and measurement of prosocial motivation, the nature of the outcome (i.e., type of prosocial behavior, subjectivity of performance measures, and forms of career success), as well as the cultural context. Importantly, prosocial motivation had incremental validity above and beyond general cognitive ability and Big Five personality traits for predicting all four outcomes. We discuss the theoretical, methodological, and practical implications from these findings and offer a guiding framework for future research efforts.
... Second, the present research sought to determine if prosociality was uniquely associated with both happiness and meaning, or whether it was more relevant toward one form of well-being over the other. Third, we used 'half-lagged' multi-level models to test if prosociality was associated with increases in well-being compared to the previous day (Kalokerinos et al., 2019;Weinstein & Ryan, 2010). We examined these questions across two diary studies that both drew on different samples (i.e., undergraduates vs. Mechanical Turk workers) and different measures of prosociality (i.e., subjective sense of prosocial impact vs. self-reported prosocial acts). ...
... Second, to account for any effects associated with the passage of time, we included a 'day' variable which indexed the 13 days of the measurement period. Third, each model controlled for autoregression by controlling for scores on the well-being variable from the previous day (i − 1; Bolger & Laurenceau, 2013;Kalokerinos et al., 2019;Weinstein & Ryan, 2010). This use of a 'half-lag' allowed us to model change in the model's well-being variable (from i-1 to i) as a function of prosociality. ...
... We measured the incidence of daily prosocial acts using a self-report measure adapted from Weinstein and Ryan (2010). In each daily survey, participants were asked "Did you do anything prosocial today?" (0 = no; 1 = yes) while being provided with a definition of a prosocial act. ...
Article
Full-text available
Prosocial behaviors benefit others, but what benefits do they hold for those who enact them? Prosociality can enhance the actor’s well-being, yet whether it is one’s sense of happiness or meaning that is impacted, and how this plays out in everyday life, has received limited attention. We address this gap in knowledge by examining how prosociality is related to daily meaning and happiness across two large daily diary studies in two countries. Study 1 (N = 1140) revealed that changes in one’s subjective sense of prosociality was uniquely associated with both daily meaning and happiness. Study 2 (N = 217) found that self-reported prosocial behavior was also clearly linked to increases in daily meaning, and modestly associated with daily happiness. Altogether, our findings suggest that the subjective sense of prosociality is associated with meaning and happiness, and that performing prosocial acts may be particularly relevant to experiencing meaning.
... Regardless of what motivates interpersonal helping, it is still an ongoing scholarly debate concerning the bright and dark side of interpersonal helping. On the one hand, helping others may allow one to experience improved job performance (Hu & Liden, 2011), fulfill basic psychological needs (Weinstein & Ryan, 2010), develop a sense of efficacy (Tang & Ibrahim, 1998), and boost self-perception (Somech & Drach-Zahavy, 2000). On the other hand, helping others can interfere with one's in-role responsibilities and, therefore, trigger role overload, job stress, and work-related strain (Bolino & Turnley, 2005;Somech & Drach-Zahavy, 2013). ...
... One possible explanation for the lack of scholarly attention may be the implicit assumption made by previous research that the extent of help provided is always equivalent to the extent of help received. In this study, we challenge this assumption because the recipient's experience in a helping relationship might not be equivalent to that of the helper (Chou & Chang, 2017;Weinstein & Ryan, 2010). For instance, the helper generally experiences positive outcomes when giving help (Duan et al., 2019;Lin et al., 2020;Van Dyne & LePine, 1998).). ...
... For instance, interpersonal helping often generates other positive outcomes at the organizational level such as performance quality and quantity (e.g., Podsakoff et al., 1997), organizational innovation (e.g., Pearce & Ensley 2004), and customer loyalty (e.g., Barroso Castro et al., 2004). Furthermore, interpersonal helping can result in various positive consequences experienced by the helper such as increased managerial performance ratings (e.g., Rosopa et al., 2013), improved individual well-being (e.g., Weinstein & Ryan 2010), boosted satisfaction at work (e.g., Chou & Pearson 2012), and an enhanced self-perception (Somech & Drach-Zahavy, 2000). ...
Article
Full-text available
Since its inception, interpersonal helping has been conceptualized predominantly from the helper’s perspective. Additionally, scales used to measure the extent of interpersonal helping provided have been developed, allowing scholars to assess the consequences of helping others. In this study, we synergize extant literature and conceptualize receipt of help as receipt of suitable help that the recipient depends on to improve task performance. Moreover, we perform exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses using different sets of samples and establish a three-factor, 14-item scale for measuring the extent of help received. Furthermore, we test the nomological validity of the receipt of help scale. Evidence illustrates that the three-factor, 14-item scale demonstrates an adequate level of reliability and nomological validity.
... A plethora of studies found a positive link between various prosocial behaviors and well-being, including correlational and longitudinal studies (Hui, Ng, Berzaghi, Cunningham-Amos, & Kogan, 2020). Previous studies mostly focused on the relationship between prosocial behavior and well-being between strangers (Weinstein & Ryan, 2010;Wilson, 2000), even though most prosocial behaviors occur within close social ties (Amato, 1990). When prosocial behavior was assessed within strangers, most studies showed a positive relation between prosocial behavior and well-being (Aknin et al., 2010;von Bonsdorff & Rantanen, 2010). ...
... Consistent with the self-determination theory, this relationship was mediated by a higher need satisfaction (Gagné, 2003). Similarly, a study on autonomous helping and well-being found that acting prosocially was only related to higher well-being when it was experienced as being a choice and not as an obligation (Weinstein & Ryan, 2010). Additionally, a study found that individuals who feel that they have control, by choosing their acts of kindness, demonstrate greater improvements in well-being compared to individuals who were instructed to act kindly (Sheldon, Boehm, & Lyubomirsky, 2013). ...
... Corresponding to our hypothesis, our analyses showed that the feeling of choice when acting prosocially was associated with better well-being and that feeling obliged to act prosocially showed a negative association with well-being. These results are in line with previous studies and the self-determination theory, that underline the importance of autonomy for experiencing well-being (Weinstein & Ryan, 2010;Nelson et al., 2015). Feeling in control of one's own behavior is a fundamental human need whose satisfaction fosters well-being. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background Prosocial behavior represents an evolutionary advantage for individuals. In line with this claim, several studies showed a positive relation between prosocial behavior and well-being. However, negative relations were also reported in the literature. Methods This study aimed to assesses the relation between prosocial behavior and well-being using an event sampling methodology. Further, we were interested in two contextual factors (closeness of the receiver and autonomy) that are believed to impact this relationship. Ninety couples (180 individuals) answered questions about their helping behavior and well-being during one week. Results Overall, prosocial behavior was not associated with well-being and this association was also not observed when the recipient was a close rather than a distant individual. However, prosocial behavior was positively related to well-being when individuals experienced a sense of autonomy when deciding to act prosocially. Conclusions Interventions aiming to promote prosocial behavior should ensure that behaviors are autonomously implemented.
... Specifically, if a benefactor received gratitude expressed by a beneficiary, the benefactor felt socially valued, and that lead to his or her prosocial behaviour toward the beneficiary. The sense of being valued by others is called social worth (Weinstein & Ryan, 2010). However, it is unclear why benefactors who experience higher levels of social worth are motivated to offer help to a beneficiary. ...
... In this study, a POV is expected to mediate the effect of social worth on outcomes such as prosocial behaviour and self-disclosure. A POV is a concept distinct from social worth in that while social worth is the degree to which an individual feels valued by someone (Weinstein & Ryan, 2010), a POV is the degree to which an individual predicts a value associated with an interpersonal relationship with someone (Sunnafrank, 1986). That is, social worth is a social value an individual feels within themselves, but a POV is a value people expect within a relationship with others. ...
Article
The core idea of the find‐remind‐and‐bind theory articulated by (Algoe, 2012, Social and Personality Psychology Compass, 6, 455) is that receiving expressed gratitude facilitates positive attitudes toward the expressor such as increased prosocial behaviour. The current study tries to observe the phenomena in Japan where apologies are sometimes used when people express gratitude. In this experimental study, 671 Japanese participants received expressions of gratitude, apologies, both, or neither (control condition) in exchange for their help. The results showed that expressed gratitude had the most positive effect compared to the control, apology and both conditions; that is, expressed gratitude most strongly facilitated the message receiver's prosocial behaviour, self‐disclosure, predicted outcome values, and social worth. Expressed apologies showed a limited positive effect. A structural equation model further indicated that predicted outcome values and social worth functioned in unique ways to mediate the link between expressed gratitude and prosocial behaviour as well as self‐disclosure.
... Selfless acts such as these can provide immeasurable assistance to recipients, but do helpers benefit from enacting prosocial behavior? A mounting body of evidence suggests that engaging in various forms of prosocial behavior can promote emotional wellbeing, which may stem from the positive experiences uniquely afforded by prosocial behavior, such as increased social connectedness and meaningfulness (Aknin et al., 2013;Dunn et al., 2008;Dunn et al., 2014;Klein, 2017;Nelson et al., 2016;Poulin et al., 2013;Weinstein & Ryan, 2010; see Curry et al., 2018;Hui et al., 2020 for meta-analyses). Despite this evidence, it is possible that the COVID-19 pandemic could undermine the positive relationship between prosocial behavior and emotional well-being. ...
... Similar to Hanniball et al. (2019), participants could opt-out from making a purchasing choice in all four conditions and keep the cash value (5 cents) for themselves (credited to their Prolific account). The opportunity to opt-out of making a purchase was provided to encourage a sense of volition, which past research shown to be critical for experiencing the emotional reward of prosocial behavior (Weinstein & Ryan, 2010). The higher monetary value gained by making a $1 purchase over claiming 5 cents was intentionally used here to encourage participants to engage in similar purchasing behavior across conditions (see Hanniball et al., 2019 for similar study design). ...
Article
Full-text available
The COVID-19 pandemic has raised concerns about humans' physical and mental well-being. In response, there has been an urgent "call to action" for psychological interventions that enhance positive emotion and psychological resilience. Prosocial behavior has been shown to effectively promote well-being, but is this strategy effective during a pandemic when ongoing apprehension for personal safety could acutely heighten self-focused concern? In two online preregistered experiments (N = 1,623) conducted during the early stage of pandemic (April 2020), we examined this question by randomly assigning participants to engage in other- or self-beneficial action. For the first time, we manipulated whether prosocial behavior was related to the source of stress (coronavirus disease 2019 [COVID-19]): Participants purchased COVID-19-related (personal protective equipment, PPE) or COVID-19-unrelated items (food/writing supplies) for themselves or someone else. Consistent with preregistered hypotheses, prosocial (vs. non-pro-social or proself) behavior led to higher levels of self-reported positive affect, empathy, and social connectedness. Notably, we also found that psychological benefits were larger when generous acts were unrelated to COVID-19 (vs. related to COVID-19). When prosocial and proself spending involved identical COVID-19 PPEs items, prosocial behavior's benefits were detectable only on empathy and social connectedness, but not on posttask positive affect. These findings suggest that while there are boundary conditions to be considered, generous action offers one strategy to bolster well-being during the pandemic. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved).
... However, few studies have considered the extent to which these associations translate to the socialemotional domains and findings remain mixed. For example, Wentzel et al. (2007) demonstrated that perceived social competence was not uniquely associated with prosocial behavior among adolescents, whereas other studies among adults have provided support for these associations (e.g., Gagné, 2003;Weinstein & Ryan, 2010). Clearly, more research is needed. ...
... For example, secondary school students who report higher levels of autonomous prosocial motivation engage in fewer disruptive behaviors (Aelterman et al., 2019) and engage in fewer bullying behaviors (Roth et al., 2011). Researchers have also demonstrated the positive association between prosocial motivation and emotional well-being among adults (Weinstein & Ryan, 2010). There are mixed findings among students, however. ...
Article
Full-text available
This study investigated the extent to which students' social-emotional basic psychological need satisfaction (of social-emotional autonomy, social competence, relatedness with students, and relatedness with teachers) is associated with their prosocial motivation and, in turn, behavioral and emotional well-being outcomes. For motivation, autonomous prosocial motivation and controlled prosocial motivation (by way of introjected and external regulation) were examined. Behavioral outcomes comprised prosocial behavior and conduct problems reported by parents/carers, and emotional well-being were positive and negative affect reported by students. With data from 408 secondary school students (and their parents/carers), structural equation modeling showed that perceived autonomy was associated with lower negative affect. Perceived social competence was associated with greater autonomous prosocial motivation, lower external prosocial regulation, greater positive affect, and lower negative affect. Relatedness with teachers was associated with greater autonomous prosocial motivation. In turn, autonomous prosocial motivation was associated with greater prosocial behavior, whereas external prosocial regulation was associated with lower prosocial behavior. Introjected prosocial regulation was only associated with greater negative affect. The results hold implications for promoting social and emotional competence among students. Supplementary information: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s11218-022-09691-w.
... Pro-social behavior has been considered an essential contributor to social welfare (Piliavin et al., 1981;Batson and Powell, 2003;Weinstein and Ryan, 2010;Wittek and Bekkers, 2015;Smith, 2019). Its role in generating interpersonal and societal wellbeing has been shown at the individual (Henrich et al., 2001;Weinstein and Ryan, 2010), group (Busching and Krahé, 2020), and societal levels April 2022 | Volume 13 | Article 748298 Gavreliuc et al. ...
... Pro-social behavior has been considered an essential contributor to social welfare (Piliavin et al., 1981;Batson and Powell, 2003;Weinstein and Ryan, 2010;Wittek and Bekkers, 2015;Smith, 2019). Its role in generating interpersonal and societal wellbeing has been shown at the individual (Henrich et al., 2001;Weinstein and Ryan, 2010), group (Busching and Krahé, 2020), and societal levels April 2022 | Volume 13 | Article 748298 Gavreliuc et al. To Steal or Not (Levine et al., 2001;Knafo et al., 2009;Smith, 2019). ...
Article
Full-text available
Previous research showed that acting immorally on one occasion can determine a greater availability for pro-social behavior on a subsequent occasion. Nevertheless, moderating factors for this effect, such as financial interest remained largely unexplored. The present field experiment (N = 587) was organized in an urban setting, in a post-communist society (Romania), in a context of public anonymity and examined passersby's pro-social behavior on two consecutive occasions. The procedure involved a confederate "losing" a banknote of different values (1, 10, 50, 100, or 500 RON), which invited passersby's pro-social behavior to return it (or not). Participants who decided to steal the banknote were approached by a second confederate and asked politely to return the banknote. Our research was articulated mainly as a quantitative approach by measuring participants' pro-social behavior toward the person who lost the banknote, their subsequent pro-social behavior toward the confederate who exposed their behavior and the number of words they produced during a post-experimental interview in which they could justify their behavior. At the same time, we also performed a qualitative approach, through which we explored the themes evoked in their justifications and their relation with their previous behavior. Results indicate a moderating effect of economic interest on pro-social behavior toward the confederate who lost the banknote, as well as on their subsequent pro-social behavior toward the second confederate. Participants who stole the banknote also used significantly more words to justify their behavior, and this tendency could be observed especially in the case for higher values of the banknote. Results are critically discussed in a context dominated by an inherited pattern of distrust and social cynicism.
... Selfdetermination theory (SDT) states that there are two types of motivation: autonomous motivation, which means that individuals behave with a full sense of choice and volition, and controlled motivation, which indicates that individuals engage in activities under pressure or to claim control (Deci, Koestner, and Ryan, 1999). Previous research on the application of SDT shows that autonomous motivation results in optimal employee performance, such as effort, performance, and persistence, while controlled motivation results in suboptimal outcomes (Deci and Ryan, 2008;Weinstein and Ryan, 2010). Although the relationship between autonomous motivation and employee outcomes is well-established in domestic literature, very few studies have examined the effect of autonomous motivation on SIEs' work outcomes (Chen and Shaffer, 2017). ...
... SIEs who are autonomously motivated have more resources and energy to achieve optimal performance (Chen and Shaffer, 2017). Employees who are driven by autonomous motivation generate more creative ideas and are more likely to engage in innovative work behavior (Weinstein and Ryan, 2010). Subsequently, SIEs who have controlled motivation might feel that they do not have enough resources (Chen and Shaffer, 2017). ...
Article
Purpose Drawing upon the cross-cultural adjustment (CCA) model and self-determination theory, this study investigated the influence of CCA (work, interactional, and general adjustment) and motivation (autonomous and controlled) on the innovative work behavior of self-initiated expatriates (SIEs). Design/methodology/approach Multi-source data were collected from 213 SIEs and their supervisors working in the United Arab Emirates to provide an understanding of the role of SIEs' CCA and motivation and their innovative work behavior. Findings Findings indicated that work, interactional, and general adjustment are positively related to innovative work behavior. Autonomous motivation positively predicts innovative work behavior, while controlled motivation does not. Additionally, autonomous motivation moderated the effects of work adjustment and interactional adjustment on SIEs' innovative work behavior, whereas controlled motivation moderates the effect of general adjustment on SIEs' innovative work behavior. Originality/value SIEs are regarded as talents that have the skills and valuable knowledge gained from their international experience and can be utilized in organizations to perform innovative work behaviors. However, SIEs face adjustment challenges that may hinder their ability to be innovative. Despite their potential as innovation drivers in organizations, there are few studies on the factors that affect SIEs' innovative behavior. This study contributes to the literature by examining the effects of adjustment and motivation on SIEs' innovative work behavior.
... It was found that loving rather than being loved contributed more to human happiness (Dolan et al., 2008). Prosocial behavior is linked to a variety of benefits for those who assist others, including improved well-being (Ryan & Weinstein, 2010). Conceptualization from previous researches stated that gratitude is considered to be strongly related to mental health outcomes. ...
... This view has been supported by a number of empirical studies. Prosocial behavior is related significantly to a number of benefits for helpers, including greater well-being (Weinstein & Ryan 2010), personal happiness and life satisfaction and less frequent reports of depression (Sun et al., 2020). Previous studies also stated that gratitude may influence people to repay a favor by engaging in prosocial behavior. ...
Article
Full-text available
The present study aimed to examine the mediating influence of prosocial behavior between gratitude and mental health among adults. Sample size was justified from A-priori sample size calculator for structural equation modeling (Soper, 2021). The sample comprised of 420 adults who were purposefully selected with an age range of 18-26 years. Data were collected from major cities of Punjab (Lahore, Multan and Faisalabad) through online google form survey.
... Further, gratitude contributes to better academic achievement (Wen et al., 2010). It promotes subjective well-being in adolescents (Tian et al., 2016), further stimulating the benefactor's prosocial behaviour (Weinstein & Ryan, 2010). Research suggests that gratitude reduces stress among adolescents over time (Krause, 2006;You et al., 2018). ...
... Interestingly, engaging in prosocial behaviour (a recurring response in student journals) emerges during early adolescence development (Brownell, 2013) and links to gratitude . Weinstein and Ryan (2010) contend that gratitude could, in turn, motivate the benefactor's prosocial behaviour. ...
Chapter
This chapter focuses on positive adolescent development and the role of gratitude in particular in promoting adolescent well-being. A global view on the subject is offered, with a specific focus on the Indian cultural context. The chapter consists of three main sections. The first section offers various perspectives on adolescent development, emphasizing a strengths-based approach. It highlights empirical findings on how gratitude benefits adolescents. This section also presents the cross-cultural and indigenous Indian aspects of gratitude. The second part describes an empirical study involving gratitude journaling among Indian adolescents. Study findings and implications are discussed. The third and final section of this chapter presents both Indian and international scenarios towards positive adolescent development and concludes by proposing future recommendations.
... Selfdetermination theory (SDT) states that there are two types of motivation: autonomous motivation, which means that individuals behave with a full sense of choice and volition, and controlled motivation, which indicates that individuals engage in activities under pressure or to claim control (Deci, Koestner, and Ryan, 1999). Previous research on the application of SDT shows that autonomous motivation results in optimal employee performance, such as effort, performance, and persistence, while controlled motivation results in suboptimal outcomes (Deci and Ryan, 2008;Weinstein and Ryan, 2010). Although the relationship between autonomous motivation and employee outcomes is well-established in domestic literature, very few studies have examined the effect of autonomous motivation on SIEs' work outcomes (Chen and Shaffer, 2017). ...
... SIEs who are autonomously motivated have more resources and energy to achieve optimal performance (Chen and Shaffer, 2017). Employees who are driven by autonomous motivation generate more creative ideas and are more likely to engage in innovative work behavior (Weinstein and Ryan, 2010). Subsequently, SIEs who have controlled motivation might feel that they do not have enough resources (Chen and Shaffer, 2017). ...
Article
Purpose – Drawing upon the cross-cultural adjustment model and self-determination theory, this study investigated the influence of cross-cultural adjustment (CCA: work, interactional, and general adjustment) and motivation (autonomous and controlled) on the innovative work behavior of self-initiated expatriates (SIEs). Design/methodology/approach – Multi-source data were collected from 213 SIEs and their supervisors working in the United Arab Emirates to provide an understanding of the role of SIEs’ cross-cultural adjustment and motivation and their innovative work behavior. Findings – Findings indicated that work, interactional, and general adjustment are positively related to innovative work behavior. Autonomous motivation positively predicts innovative work behavior, while controlled motivation does not. Additionally, autonomous motivation moderated the effects of work adjustment and interactional adjustment on SIEs’ innovative work behavior, whereas controlled motivation moderates the effect of general adjustment on SIEs’ innovative work behavior. Originality/value – Self-initiated expatriates (SIEs) are regarded as talents that have the skills and valuable knowledge gained from their international experience and can be utilized in organizations to perform innovative work behaviors. However, SIEs face adjustment challenges that may hinder their ability to be innovative. Despite their potential as innovation drivers in organizations, there are few studies on the factors that affect SIEs’ innovative behavior. This study contributes to the literature by examining the effects of adjustment and motivation on SIEs’ innovative work behavior.
... Applying insights from Self-Determination Theory (SDT; Ryan & Deci, 2000)-a general and widely accepted theory of optimal human flourishing and motivation-researchers have found that prosocial spending is most likely to lead to happiness when giving is, (a) autonomous (i.e. freely chosen, not forced; Weinstein & Ryan, 2010), (b) facilitates social connection and affiliation (i.e. builds or strengthens social relationships; Aknin et al., 2012;Titova & Sheldon, 2021), and (c) allows givers to feel like they have made a difference (i.e. ...
... With this possibility, the present findings converge with past experimental research demonstrating the importance of volition and impact for reaping emotional rewards from prosocial action. As noted above, previous research has shown that people randomly assigned to give in ways that are freely chosen or have a clear positive impact on others report higher levels of happiness afterward than people randomly assigned to give in ways that are pre-determined or have unclear benefits for others (e.g., Aknin et al., 2013;Weinstein & Ryan, 2010). Similarly, these findings align with previous recollection experiments in which participants report greater happiness after recalling a prosocial act that was freely chosen or clearly helped others then when recalling a prosocial act that was required or ineffective . ...
Article
Full-text available
People frequently spend money on others and research shows that such prosocial spending often promotes the benefactor’s happiness, even sometimes when reflecting upon past prosocial purchases. But on whom and what do people generally spend their money? And what features of prosocial spending memories are associated with greater post-recall happiness? In a pre-registered examination, human coders and a text analysis software coded over 2,500 prosocial spending recollections for information regarding the target, content, and presence of five theoretically motivated dimensions: affiliation, volition, impact, authenticity, and level of detail. Exploratory analyses revealed that people often recalled buying gifts or food and typically spent money on significant others, friends, or children. Consistent with the pre-registered hypotheses, higher levels of volition and impact were associated with greater post-recall happiness (rs: .05 – .07), controlling for pre-recall happiness. However, in contrast to the pre-registered hypotheses, affiliation, authenticity, and level of detail did not predict greater happiness. These findings illuminate some key characteristics of prosocial purchases and the most rewarding features of people’s prosocial spending recollections.
... Such social exchange includes a broad range of prosocial behaviors (Belk & Coon, 1993;Sherry, 1983). For example, donating money (Frey & Meier, 2004), engaging in volunteer work (Freeman, 1997), or donating blood (Piliavin & Callero, 1991) can be regarded as forms of gift giving because these prosocial behaviors involve a social exchange process that involves helping or benefiting others (Weinstein & Ryan, 2010). ...
... For example, donors were found to be less satisfied following mandatory donations for public goods than voluntary donations (Harbaugh et al., 2007). When people's prosocial behaviors (e.g., helping others) are not autonomous (e.g., when they emanate from external or self-imposed pressures), psychological benefits and subjective well-being associated with these actions are eliminated (Weinstein & Ryan, 2010). People who engage in prosocial actions "instrumentally" (e.g., expecting external benefits or payoffs) do not experience the warm glow of giving, whereas those who engage in these actions simply to help others are happier (Meier & Stutzer, 2008). ...
Article
Consumers may self-indulge in luxury for several reasons. This research examines the effect of giving a gift on the giver’s subsequent indulgence in affordable luxury and finds that the motivation underlying gift giving matters: Consumers giving with an altruistic motivation (i.e., to voluntarily make the gift recipient happy) are more likely to self-indulge in affordable luxury than consumers giving with a normative motivation (i.e., to follow a social norm). This effect depends on perceived morality of indulgences, such that willingness to indulge increases to the extent that altruistic gift givers perceive indulgences to be more morally acceptable.
... However, empirical studies on choice have found mixed results regarding its effect on motivation (Patall et al., 2008). While some studies found positive effects (e.g., Cordova and Lepper, 1996;Weinstein and Ryan, 2010), others found either a few positive effects (Flowerday and Schraw, 2003), negative effects (Flowerday et al., 2004), or no effects (Overskeid and Svartdal, 1996;Reeve et al., 2003) on motivation and other related performance outcomes. ...
Article
Full-text available
One of the challenges in the motivation literature is examining the simultaneous effect of different motivational mechanisms on overall motivation and performance. The motivational congruence theory addresses this by stipulating that different motivational mechanisms can reinforce each other if they have similar effects on the perceived locus of causality. Reward salience and choice are two motivational mechanisms which their joint effects have been long debated. Built upon the motivational congruence effect, a recent empirical study affirms that a salient reward in a condition characterized by lack of choice and a non-salient reward in a condition characterized by provision of choice both increase overall motivation and performance. In this study, we examine the effect of reward salience and choice on overall motivation and performance in a controlling context, an effect which has not been studied before. A 2 (choice: present, absent) × 3 (reward: salient, non-salient, none) factorial design was conducted to examine research hypotheses. The results show that under controlling conditions, salient reward improves overall motivation and performance compared to non-salient and no-reward conditions.
... Children given rewards for helping were subsequently less likely to engage in helping behaviours than those in either of the other conditions. Contingent positive rewards had undermined the intrinsic motivation that otherwise was present for doing good (see also Weinstein & Ryan, 2010). ...
... Being helpful or showing altruistic behavior is a distinct feature of a collectivistic society (Datu & Valdez, 2012),which increases through the teenage years (Fuligni, 2019). According to Self-Determination Theory (SDT;Deci&Ryan,1980), helping others is a means to fulfill adolescents' need for autonomy, relatedness, and competence (Martela and Ryan, 2016;Ryan, Huta and Deci, 2008;Weinstein and Ryan, 2010). ...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of this study is to identify the difficulties of understanding and writing the graphical representation among rural undergraduate students at Bharathidasan university affiliated colleges in Tiruchirappalli region. It has adopted descriptive qualitative and quantitative research method. The subjects were 109 rural undergraduate students of English department at final year. They were instructed to understand the graphical representation and answer the following questions in one or two sentences. After investigating students’ writing product, the result of the research revealed that the rural students faced some difficulties in both understanding and writing the graphical representation. It was suggested that provide specific descriptions for understand the graphical representation and writing to improve students’ writing.
... For example, volunteering has been repeatedly linked to improvements in mental health. The effect is greater than the social interactions themselves would predict, and is greatest when the motivation is one of genuinely helping others (Hunter and Linn 1981, Schwartz 2007, Weinstein and Ryan 2010. In a similar vein, forcing oneself to do one kind act a day has positive effects for mental health, even for socially anxious individuals (Alden and Trew 2013). ...
Article
Full-text available
Mencius 孟子 is famous for arguing that human nature is good (xingshan 性善). In this article, I offer a reading of Mencius’ argument which can be evaluated in terms of empirical psychology. In this reading, Mencius’ argument begins with three claims: (1) humans naturally have prosocial inclinations, (2) prosocial inclinations can be cultivated into mature forms of virtue, and (3) the growth of prosocial inclinations is more natural than the growth of their alternatives. I also argue that each of these claims is well supported by empirical psychology. The relevant studies demonstrate, for example, that humans’ prosocial inclinations are not merely products of social conditioning or egoistic concerns; that prosocial inclinations can be cultivated by environmental factors and personal effort; that humans—even preverbal infants—have a natural inclination to prefer prosociality over its alternatives; and that growth in prosociality is positively associated with human health. Finally, I suggest we interpret Mencius’ expression “human nature is good” as a rhetorical tool to capture the totality of such empirically minded claims.
... As participant IVE-6 states, "if their [participants'] emotions are aroused, then they can actually go ahead to move forward and help [others]." Considering that greater motivation to help others does result in helping behaviours in real life (Weinstein & Ryan, 2010), the increased motivation to aid others that participants in the IVE condition experienced may consequently translate to actual helping behaviours. While P&P seems more successful in encouraging a greater proportion of participants to make responsible decisions, IVE complements with the possibility of translating participants' responsible decisions to actual, real-life helping behaviours. ...
Article
Full-text available
There has been increasing use of interactive technologies in the classroom today and a rising popularity of employing virtual environments as a means to engage students in sensorially rich contexts for more embodied forms of experiential learning. In particular, virtual reality (VR) or immersive virtual environments (IVEs) facilitated by head-mounted displays (HMDs) have been used in the teaching of subject content such as history, geography and science. This article presents the findings of an exploratory study of immersive technology, specifically immersive virtual environments (IVES), for the purpose of social and emotional learning (SEL), in the context of Character and Citizenship lessons in the Singapore classroom. The social and emotional competencies (SECs) examined in this project were specifically empathy and perspective-taking, and responsible decision-making. The study involved a sample of n = 75 students from a cohort of students in a Singapore school, averaged at 15 years of age. Students were randomly divided into three treatment conditions: IVEs, pen-and-paper mental simulation and video-viewing. Each treatment contained a problem scenario, told from a first-person perspective, involving a social and ethical dilemma young people today face. A quasi-experimental, pre-test post-test, non-equivalent group design was employed, and the study adopted a mixed-method approach to data collection. The findings reveal that IVEs are not necessarily more effective than the “pen-and-paper” and video viewing approaches to teaching SECs but they can better facilitate perspective-taking and empathy for a higher percentage of students.
... As mentioned previously, we define a member need as 'a description of a job, which addresses innate psychological nutriments that are essential for ongoing psychological growth, integrity, and well-being, to be fulfilled by the product or service.' For the definition of motivation, we follow Weinstein and Ryan (2010) who defined it as "the quality of experience that energizes behavior" (p. 223) For preference, we refer to it as "a greater liking for one alternative over another or others" as in the Oxford Dictionary of English. ...
Article
Full-text available
Coworking spaces represent a new trend for future workplaces. As more building owners are interested in running coworking space businesses, it becomes important to understand both why a potential member chooses one space over another and how to keep existing members at a coworking site. A sound understanding of member needs can make a difference. Unfortunately, very few studies have been conducted as to understanding a member’s basic needs in coworking spaces. In this paper, we aim to identify member’s needs in three coworking spaces in Sweden. Participant observations, immersion, and interviews were used for data collection. The member needs are categorized and structured through the lens of self-determination theory. In total, we uncovered, formulated, and categorized 21 member needs. We found that the fulfillment of one need may lead to the inhibition of another, thus creating tensions between and within coworking members. This research contributes to the literature by addressing the importance and definition of member needs for coworking as well as the created tensions related to these needs, which have been lacking in coworking studies.
... Prosocial behaviors support the functioning of relationships (Thielmann et al., 2020) in dyads (Murray & Holmes, 2009;Rusbult & Van Lange, 2003), groups (Fehr et al., 2002), and societies (Nowak, 2006), ultimately yielding economic benefits and improving the well-being of individuals and society at a large (Martin-Raugh et al., 2016). Such behavior is associated with increased life satisfaction (Wheeler et al., 1998), self-esteem (Newman et al., 1985), quality of interactions (Weinstein & Ryan, 2010), as well as decreased depression (Wilson & Musick, 1999). ...
Thesis
Full-text available
As a result of social, environmental, and economic crises, demand for public donations has increased drastically, putting charitable organizations in tough competition with each other. In these uncertain times, when every penny counts, researchers and practitioners have identified several antecedents, drivers, and mechanisms of individual donations. Nevertheless, social norms remain one of the most important influencers of individuals’ attitudes, intentions, and behaviors. Despite their importance, norms as drivers of charitable intentions and behavior have not been thoroughly studied. This dissertation addresses the gaps in the literature and explores the influence of injunctive (what others approve of) and descriptive (what others do) norms on individuals’ charitable intentions and behavior. Across four studies reported in three articles, my coauthors and I address not only whether social norms matter but also how and when. Surveying 288 respondents, in the first article, we not only identified that descriptive norms influence donation intentions but also determined two mediators: perceived impact and personal involvement. Although intentions often predict behavior, the relationship between the two does not always exist. The second article examines whether aligned (both injunctive and descriptive norms being either supportive or unsupportive of the action) and unaligned (one of the types being supportive and the other unsupportive) social norms moderate the intentionbehavior link. An experiment involving 428 participants demonstrated a positive relationship between intentions and behavior. Surprisingly, both aligned (both types of norms being supportive) and unaligned (unsupportive injunctive and supportive descriptive) social norms moderate the intention-behavior relationship. The third article reports on two experiments involving 347 participants. The findings suggest that (a) both supportive and unsupportive norms affect giving intentions, (b) injunctive norms are more powerful than descriptive ones, and (c) unaligned social norms decrease donation intentions by negatively influencing collective efficacy. The dissertation contributes to the scientific literature by furthering several theories, including social norms theory, social expectation theory, focus theory, collective action theory, theory of planned behavior, and attitude-behavior theory. The findings also have practical implications for content creation and persuasion techniques that charitable organizations can use to increase individual donations.
... Social factors affect sustainable consumer behaviour. Pro-social behaviour, being about collaboration and activities to protect the welfare of others, include obviously environmental protection attitudes and behaviours (Weinstein and Ryan, 2010). Antonides and Van Raaij (1998) define this concern as an attitude that, in turn, is linked to environmental consequences. ...
Abstract Purpose This study intends to contribute to the literature of eco-innovation by examining the pro-environmental intentions and behaviour among consumers through their understanding of eco-innovation. Thus, the relationship among eco-innovation, general pro-social attitude, generativity, environmental concern, purchasing intentions and buying environmentally friendly products and the differences of the relationship between high and low emotional loyalty and Generation Y and Z were investigated via structural equation modelling (SEM). Design/methodology/approach Data were collected through an online questionnaire directed to Indian consumers, and analysis was done through partial least square structural equation modelling (PLS-SEM) in two stages, i.e. measurement model and structural model. Findings Results confirm the relationships established in the proposed model, and some differences were found between the levels of emotional loyalty and the Generations Y and Z. The research shows that individualistic norms and perceived marketplace influence play a purposeful role in transforming environmental concerns into buying behaviour towards eco-innovation-driven products. Practical implications From a policy and management perspective, the results not only imply the importance of continuous performance and environmental improvement but also those policies hindering diffusion and adoption need to be addressed. Green buying is an elusive task but can be opportunely attained by marketers by adding elements of eco-innovations and understanding mindsets of consumers to create win–win situations for themselves and consumers. Originality/value The results reinforced that emotional loyalty and Generations Y and Z vitally impact consumers' green buying decision within the framework of eco-innovation and cognitive factors.
... Our last goal in this study is to understand how different intergroup prosocial behavior profiles are related to young adults' sense of belongingness at their universities. Prosocial behavior not only benefit others but also benefit one's own physical and psychological wellbeing (e.g., Van Willigen 2000; Weinstein & Ryan, 2010). However, prosocial behavior was treated as a global construct in these studies, how prosocial behavior toward various ingroup and outgroup members are related to their well-being, specifically, their belongingness, is unclear. ...
Article
Full-text available
In an increasingly diverse world, understanding young adults’ intergroup prosocial behavior toward diverse others may inform ways to reduce intergroup conflict and cultivate an equitable and inclusive society. The college years are often the first time that young adults begin to explore their social identities and intergroup relations independently from their parents. Thus, we focused on college students and examined social dominance orientation, social positions, prosocial obligation, and the sense of belongingness in relation to their intergroup prosocial behavior across four domains (i.e., age, gender, race/ethnicity, and department affiliation). Participants were 1163 young adults aged 18 to 24 years (63.2% females, 34.5% males, and 2.3% gender diverse; 50.7% White, 19.6% Latino, 25% Asian, 2.3% Black) from a large public Southwestern university. Four profiles of intergroup prosocial behavior were identified and they were differentially related to the social, cognitive, and contextual correlates we examined. Overall, findings highlighted the need to foster intergroup prosocial behavior and the benefits of intergroup prosocial behavior to young adults’ sense of belongingness.
... From the perspective of RMT, supportive interactions that provide understanding, empathy, and valuing lead the recipient to feel satisfied in terms of both autonomy and relatedness needs, which together underlie true intimacy (Deci & Ryan, 2014). Conceptually and empirically, they go hand-in-hand in supportive relationships, possibly even more so within interactions (Weinstein & Ryan, 2010). Because both autonomy and relatedness are met when relational contexts provide support, our findings across the studies that high-quality listening satisfies both psychological needs underline the relationally supportive qualities associated with the listening behaviors we manipulated (Kluger & Itzchakov, 2022 We designed the studies to manipulate the quality of listening cleanly, but in doing so, we might have created extremely positive listening, as indicated by manipulation checks that were at the very top of their scales. ...
Article
Full-text available
Memories of rejection contribute to feeling lonely. However, high-quality listening that conveys well-meaning attention and understanding when speakers discuss social rejection may help them to reconnect. Speakers may experience less loneliness because they feel close and connected (relatedness) to the listener and because listening supports self-congruent expression (autonomy). Five experiments (total N = 1,643) manipulated listening during visualized (Studies 1, 4, 5) and actual (Studies 2, 3) conversations. We used different methods (video vignettes; in-person; computer-mediated; recall; written scenarios) to compare high-quality to regular (all studies) and poor (Study 1) listening. Findings across studies showed that high-quality listening reduced speakers’ state loneliness after they shared past experiences of social rejection. Parallel mediation analyses indicated that both feeling related to the listener and autonomy satisfaction (particularly its self-congruence component; Study 5) mediated the effect of listening on loneliness. These results provide novel insights into the hitherto unexplored effect of listening on state loneliness.
... To test this possibility, we examined the extent to which Buddy Up, a universal, easy-toimplement classroom intervention that facilitated preschoolers' other-gender peer interactions (Hanish et al., 2021), contributed to two central indicators of social competence during early childhood: prosocial and aggressive behaviors (Hay et al., 2021). We focused on these behaviors because they are foundational aspects of children's social repertoires and are directly related to social, emotional, and academic outcomes (Layous et al., 2012;Miller-Johnson et al., 2002;Olson, 1992;Weinstein & Ryan, 2010). Although there is considerable variability, some young children do engage in other-gender interactions and/or have other-gender friends (Fabes et al., 2003). ...
Article
Full-text available
The gendered nature of children’s peer relationships has received little attention as a mechanism of change for students’ social-emotional competencies. To address this gap, we tested the effects of an easy-to-implement universal intervention (Buddy Up) that paired preschoolers with other-gender peers for enjoyable, cooperative, and structured classroom activities. We considered whether the Buddy Up intervention, relative to a control condition, predicted changes in children’s aggression and prosocial behavior. Participants were 140 preschoolers (53.6% boys; Mage = 56.49 months; 78% Mexican/Mexican-American) from the Southwestern U.S. Following a two-week pretest period in January (T1), teachers in intervention classrooms implemented the Buddy Up program, which continued until the end of the school year. Posttest data were collected in May (T2). As hypothesized, Buddy Up was associated with increased prosocial behavior and reduced aggression. Testing other-gender friendship participation as a moderator indicated that Buddy Up’s effectiveness on prosociality and aggression was not significantly moderated by children’s other-gender friendship. We also tested other-gender friendship participation as a mediator and found that Buddy Up increased children’s likelihood of having other-gender friends which led to greater prosocial behavior. These findings demonstrated the utility of Buddy Up and the potential for positive outcomes associated with the facilitation of other-gender relationships in early childhood.
... Evoking empathy may not only benefit people who are BLV. Research has shown people who engaged in prosocial behaviours report high subjective well-being, vitality, and self-esteem [45]. To date, much effort has focused on instilling empathy in textbased CAs to offer social support to end-users [32,50]. ...
Presentation
Full-text available
This position paper aims to initiate a dialogue about the potential of a conversational agent in improving the board gaming experience for players who are blind or low vision. We present a view that a conversational agent can achieve the goal by acting as (1) an accessible tool to communicate board game rules to players who are blind or low vision and (2) an empathy-inducing tool for players who are sighted. We summarize existing research on board game accessibility barriers faced by players who are blind or low vision, followed by the description of our project that plans on investigating the first role of a conversational agent. We also summarize prior work on empathy and prosocial behaviours and we present a view that eliciting positive and negative empathy in players who are sighted can make the learning of game rules an enjoyable experience for people who are blind and low vision. In presenting this research direction that explores the second role of a conversational agent as an empathy-inducing tool, we argue that co-design can be a good methodology and we present specific steps scholars can take to arrive at inclusive design solutions.
... Through all theories mentioned, several studies has suggest that self-determination theory has been better than other theories as a predictor of behaviour (Moller, Ryan, & Deci, 2006;Hagger & Chatzisarantis, 2009;Weinstein & Ryan, 2010;Leung & Matanda, 2013). This is also proved by Webb, Soutar, Mazzarol, & Saldaris (2013) when the study found that the SDT has greater behavioural impact than other theories. ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Wasiyyah is a written document on the appointment of the executor to administer and transfer the estate of the testator after his/her death. However, although the wasiyyah's benefit has been widely disseminated through various promotional programs, yet the penetration rate of wasiyyah services in Malaysia remains low. This has resulted in Malaysia having too much-unclaimed property and frozen assets which indirectly impacting the country as assets for economic development cannot be leveraged. Therefore, there are two main objectives of this paper, first, this paper aims to identify factors that influence Muslim consumers motivation in patronizing wasiyyah services, second, to examine the relationship between psychological needs and consumers' intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. Based on the sub-theory of self-determination theory; cognitive evaluation theory (CET) and the basic psychological needs theory (BPNT), this paper plans to determine the relationships through survey questionnaire involving Malaysian Muslims who already patronized wasiyyah services. It is hoped that the study findings will provide insights to wasiyyah service providers in Malaysia to better understand the motivations underlying the consumer decisions in patronizing the services.
... In line with previous research, instances of beneficence and prosocial impact were clearly identifiable in students' responses and distinguishable from autonomy, competence, and relatedness (Martela & Tapani, 2018;Martela & Ryan, 2016, 2020. Interdependent themes in the data illustrated the supportive role of beneficence on the three basic needs, lending empirical support to research showing the impact of prosocial behaviors on well-being (Weinstein & Ryan, 2010) and happiness (Aknin et al., 2019). No evidence, however, indicated that beneficence was satisfied as a result of the other three needs, further positioning beneficence as a wellness enhancer rather than a fourth basic psychological need (Martela & Ryan, 2020). ...
Article
Full-text available
Self-determination theory (SDT) provides a cross-cultural, empirical framework for exploring what world (i.e., "foreign") language educators can do to support the satisfaction of their learners' basic psychological needs and, in turn, their autonomous motivation and well-being. Despite this, the identification of approaches to world language pedagogy and curriculum development that are supportive of learners' simultaneous and interdependent-rather than individual and isolated-basic needs satisfaction has been limited. To this end, this study sought to examine the characteristics of postsecondary world language learning environments that were supportive of the balanced, simultaneous satisfactions of autonomy, competence, and relatedness, as well as beneficence, a candidate need. Participants in the study included thirteen undergraduate world language learners at a large public university in the United States. Semi-structured interviews were analyzed through a qualitative approach involving multiple rounds of deductive coding and two stages of inductive thematic analysis. Results of the analysis identified six themes representing the characteristics of world language learning environments that students perceived to support their autonomy, competence, relatedness, and beneficence. Further, the analysis identified textual evidence for the interdependent satisfaction of students' basic psychological needs via the multidirectional influences of each need on the others. Recommendations for world language teachers and implications for theory and methodology are discussed.
... Prosocial behaviour is behaviour that is intended to benefit others (Eisenberger et al., 2003). It includes helpful interventions, volunteer work and donation in monetary or non-monetary form (Weinstein & Ryan, 2010). Social exclusion might motivate consumers to act prosocially to restore the threatened need for affiliation and regain acceptance (Lee & Shrum, 2012;Williams, 2007b). ...
Article
Full-text available
While social exclusion in the consumption context has gained significant interest recently, its literature remains fragmented and underexplored due to restricted categorization and limited conceptual lenses. This systematic review attempts to broaden social exclusion literature by including multiple possible aspects of social exclusion, and providing a nuanced approach to identifying changes in the consumption response of excluded individuals. Using the “Scientific Procedures and Rationales for Systematic Literature Review” (SPAR‐4‐SLR) (Paul et al., 2021) protocol to assemble, arrange, and assess studies published between 2010 and 2021, we selected 83 studies as the basis of this review. With the objective of providing a synthesized view of the existing literature and presenting possible explanations for inconsistencies, this paper (a) undertakes a systematic review of the existing research in the domain, (b) introduces a conceptual framework, and (c) provides a taxonomy to categorize diverse strands of consumption responses. Identifying gaps, this study also provides directions for future research using the TCCM (Theory, Characteristics, Context, and Methodology) framework (Paul and Rosado‐Serrano, 2019; Paul and Criado, 2020). This study can thus enable marketers, advertisers, and public policymakers to understand the needs of socially excluded individuals, and subsequently make more inclusive decisions.
... Prosocial behavior is an important part of socialization in the adolescent development process, which not only benefits the target of the behavior, but also promotes the positive psychological adaptation of the individual himself (Weinstein & Ryan, 2010). Individuals with high prosocial behavior are more likely to exhibit normal social adaptation patterns, including peer acceptance, social self and general self. ...
Article
Full-text available
To investigate the relationship between stress response and depression in vocational medical school students at the initial stage of COVID-19 epidemic, and to explore the mediating role of meaning in life and the moderating role of prosocial behavior. The COVID-19 Stress Response Questionnaire, the Meaning in Life Questionnaire, the Prosocial Behavior Scale and the Depression Scale, were used to investigate 3526 vocational medical school students. The results showed that: (1) The relationship between stress response and depression in vocational medical school students was partially mediated by presence of meaning and search for meaning. Stress response has indirect effect on depression of vocational medical school students through meaning in life. (2) Prosocial behavior moderated the relationship between meaning in life and depression. Specifically, meaning in life has a more significant effect on depression for college students with higher levels of prosocial behavior.
... In this investigation, we operationalized workplace gratitude and organizational kindness as input variables that can relate to higher levels of relatedness needs satisfaction, positive emotions, and life satisfaction as well as lower levels of negative emotions and COVID-19 anxiety. Our predictions cohere with prior studies demonstrating the mental health benefits of both kindness and gratitude on connectedness, optimism, and life satisfaction (Gherghel et al., 2019;Kerr et al., 2015;Weinstein & Ryan, 2010). There is also evidence showing how these psychological resources shield against the detrimental mental health impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic (Dennis & Ogden, 2022;Lee et al., 2021;Slavich et al., 2022). ...
Article
This research explored the association of perceptions of gratitude and kindness at work with well-being outcomes, such as relatedness needs satisfaction, life satisfaction, and COVID-19 anxiety among selected Filipino employees during the COVID-19 pandemic. Hierarchical regression analyses demonstrated that kindness positively predicted relatedness needs satisfaction even after controlling for participants' age, gender, employment status, and length of stay in the organization. Gratitude positively predicted life satisfaction. This research underscores the mental health payoffs associated with fostering gratitude and kindness in organizational contexts during the COVID-19 pandemic.
... Prosocial behavior, a central eudaimonic goal, has been reported to contribute significantly to life satisfaction. For example, people engaging in helping others reported higher happiness and positive moods (e.g., Dunn et al., 2008;Lyubomirsky et al., 2005;Weinstein & Ryan, 2010;Williamson & Clark, 1989), as well as enhanced psychological life satisfaction (e.g., Greenfield & Marks, 2004;Penner et al., 2005). The life satisfaction gained from prosocial behavior appears sustainable and relatively immune to adaptation (e.g., O'Brien & Kassirer, 2019). ...
Article
An increasingly large body of research in social psychology has underscored the power of brief situational interventions in promoting purposeful change. The present research contributes to the literature on positive psychology interventions (PPIs) by testing a novel volitional intervention that encourages people to engage in activities ‘outside their comfort zone.’ Participants were randomly assigned either to a condition that encouraged them to engage in an activity outside of their comfort zone over the following two weeks or to a control condition that encouraged them to keep a record of their daily activities. The intervention boosted the life satisfaction of people who were relatively less happy at baseline, with exploratory analyses tentatively suggesting benefits strongest among people who went outside their comfort zone by helping others. Discussion centers on the potential of behavioral ‘stretch’ interventions to promote positive change and well�being among people dissatisfied with their life.
... With regards to prosocial behaviour, it has been long thought that prosocial behaviours affect the wellbeing of the helper as well as the help recipient. Indeed, previous research did identify positive effects of prosocial behaviour on the wellbeing of the helper (Weinstein & Ryan, 2010). ...
Article
Full-text available
Abstract Background Mental health and subjective well‐being are of great interest in both health policy and research. There has been considerable debate regarding whether mental health difficulties and subjective wellbeing are two distinct domains or different ends of a single mental health spectrum. This study investigates if predictors of mental health difficulties and subjective wellbeing are the same or different in a large‐scale community‐based sample in the United Kingdom. Methods 13,500 adolescents in year 7 (aged 11–12) and again in year 8 (aged 12–13) completed surveys on emotional strengths and skills, support networks, mental health difficulties and wellbeing. Socio‐demographic factors were gathered from the National Pupil Database. Mental health difficulties and wellbeing scores were standardized to allow comparisons. Results The correlation between mental health difficulties and subjective wellbeing was −0.48, indicating a moderate overlap between the two domains. Some of the predictors (e.g., gender, ethnicity, problem solving, emotion regulation) in year 7 predicted both mental health difficulties and subjective wellbeing in year 8. However, some of the predictors in year 7 only predicted mental health difficulties (e.g., special education needs, empathy) and some only subjective wellbeing (e.g., prosocial behaviour, peer support) in year 8. Conclusion This study provides further evidence for differences in what predicts adolescents’ mental health difficulties and subjective wellbeing. It highlights the importance of not only focusing on preventing or treating symptoms of mental illness but also focusing on improving children’s wellbeing.
... Thus, it is expected that the basic psychological needs of the individual will not only be met by the therapist/researcher but also an environment of receiving need satisfaction and providing need support will be created in line with their interactions with group members. According to the SDT, not only receiving support, but also giving support is important for human well-being (Deci, La Guardia, Moller, Scheiner, & Ryan, 2006;Weinstein & Ryan, 2010). A difficulty of individual support/ intervention studies is the risk of not finding the external environment that will support change or well-being other than the laboratory, clinical, or educational environment. ...
Article
Full-text available
Psychodrama as a group therapy and intervention technique is based on role-plays as a way of rehearsing life. It has 100 years of history, and it has been widely used in different life domains and purposes since then. On the other hand, sometimes it has been criticized for lacking the methodological rigor of modern psychological science. Qualitatively and quantitatively, including a case study, we aim to show the effectiveness of psychodrama using a motivational science framework theoretically and empirically. We discuss why psychodrama is effective from an applied social psychological perspective—that is, to demonstrate that psychodrama fits well with self-determination theory (SDT), one of the renowned theories of human motivation, wellbeing, and development. Therefore, this article theoretically integrates those two streams of discussions in one vein of explanation: Psychodrama is effective because in many ways it is supportive of basic psychological needs via play and volitional action, which is necessary for autonomous functioning as depicted by SDT. We test and elaborate on this argument with a case study of a psychodrama group, with the three points of measurements taken before and after the group process as well as 2 years later in follow-up. We found expected and unexpected results regarding autonomous functioning and its associated variables as self-compassion and authenticity throughout time. We discuss the findings for further advancement of theory and practice of both psychodrama and SDT as well as its implications for partially supported hypotheses to guide further evidence-based research attempts in psychodrama.
... They are important because prosocial behaviors such as cooperating, sharing, donating, and helping others contribute to social harmony [2] and afford the human race to thrive [3]. Here, we focus on factors that might have affected students' prosocial behavior, because such behaviors have major societal and individual implications [4,5]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Although awe has been shown to increase prosocial behavior, there is limited knowledge about the mechanisms underlying this relationship, and about this relationship during unique periods. To bridge these gaps, this study examined the influence of awe on prosocial behaviors, the mediating role of the presence of meaning in life, and the moderating role of perceived social support. Based on longitudinal surveys from 676 Chinese college students we showed that: (1) awe was positively associated with prosocial behavior; (2) the presence of meaning in life mediated this association, and; (3) these associations were moderated by perceived social support. Specifically, the positive relationship between awe and the presence of meaning in life was only significant for college students with low perceived social support; and the positive relationship between the presence of meaning in life and prosocial behavior was stronger for college students with high perceived social support.
... Through all theories mentioned, several studies has suggest that self-determination theory has been better than other theories as a predictor of behaviour (Moller, Ryan, & Deci, 2006;Hagger & Chatzisarantis, 2009;Weinstein & Ryan, 2010;Leung & Matanda, 2013). This is also proved by Webb, Soutar, Mazzarol, & Saldaris (2013) when the study found that the SDT has greater behavioural impact than other theories. ...
Conference Paper
Wasiyyah is a written document on the appointment of the executor to administer and transfer the estate of the testator after his/her death. However, although the wasiyyah's benefit has been widely disseminated through various promotional programs, yet the penetration rate of wasiyyah services in Malaysia remains low. This has resulted in Malaysia having too much-unclaimed property and frozen assets which indirectly impacting the country as assets for economic development cannot be leveraged. Therefore, there are two main objectives of this paper, first, this paper aims to identify factors that influence Muslim consumers motivation in patronizing wasiyyah services, second, to examine the relationship between psychological needs and consumers' intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. Based on the sub-theory of self-determination theory; cognitive evaluation theory (CET) and the basic psychological needs theory (BPNT), this paper plans to determine the relationships through survey questionnaire involving Malaysian Muslims who already patronized wasiyyah services. It is hoped that the study findings will provide insights to wasiyyah service providers in Malaysia to better understand the motivations underlying the consumer decisions in patronizing the services.
Article
The aim of the research was comparison of self-determination ability and its components in individuals with hearing or visual impairment, and without impairment. The research sample consisted of 116 people (32 people with visual impairment, 21 people with hearing impairment, and 63 people without impairment) from individuals with hearing or visual impairment, and without impairment in the city of Shiraz city. Individuals with hearing impairment and visual impairment were selected through convenience sampling and individuals without impairment were selected through multistage random sampling. To measure the Self-determination, the Self-Determination Questionnaire (Gomez-vella Verdugo, Gil, Corbella, & Wehmeyer) was used. Data were analyzed by using one-way analysis of variance and Scheffe test. The results showed that the self-determination ability of individuals without impairment was significantly higher than individuals with hearing impairment and visual impairment. It is worth noting that there was no significant difference in self-determination ability between individuals with hearing impairment and visual impairment. The results of analysis of variance (MANOVA) showed that the self-determination ability of individuals without impairment was significantly higher than individuals with sensory impairment in the subscales of autonomy and psychological empowerment. Also, there was no significant difference in none of the subscales of self-determination between individuals with hearing impairment and individuals with visual impairment. According to research findings, it can be said that training of self-determination abilities is necessary for individuals with hearing impairment and visual impairment.
Article
Full-text available
In the changing and demanding university context, various situations are experienced wherein abilities to maintain motivation and activate problem solving could be relevant in students’ adjustment. Beyond the widely analyzed role of academic motivation, this study focused on the added value of social problem-solving ability in student adjustment in the academic context. Analyses based on the responses obtained from 253 students (197 women and 56 men) indicated the significant role of social problem-solving ability in student adjustment, with a small additional amount (f² = .09) 9% of variance in life satisfaction and medium additional amount (f² = .17) 15% of variance in depressive symptoms, beyond academic motivation. In particular, negative problem orientation was an important predictor of depressive symptoms (β = .41, p < .001) and life satisfaction (β = − .26, p < .001); however, positive problem orientation was only an important predictor of life satisfaction (β = .21, p < .01). This study also showed the predictive role of the value, expectancy, and affection components of motivation in student adjustment. Overall, the findings highlight the relevance of training in problem-solving orientation and motivational components to improve college students’ general well-being.
Chapter
It may seem paradoxical that working without remuneration can contribute to well-being, yet this is precisely what has been observed in empirical studies: Volunteer work can act as a psychosocial resource . In order to understand this rationale, it is important to see volunteering within the context of the salutogenic model and role theories. This helps explain how volunteering can contribute to maintaining health and promoting well-being; complement or compensate other areas of activity, especially paid employment; and contribute to a better work–life balance.
Chapter
The initial decision to volunteer should be distinguished from the willingness to continue to do so and to show effort. In the process of volunteering, new factors influencing motivation become apparent. The specific nature of the tasks that volunteers undertake, the behavior of the volunteer coordinator, contact with the people who are to benefit from the commitment, cooperation with other volunteers and professional staff of the organization, the reactions of the private environment, and the policies and strategies of the organization as a whole: these factors and many more influence whether volunteers develop a feeling of solidarity during the course of their engagement, and a commitment to the organization.
Article
The gendered nature of children's peer relationships has received little attention as a mechanism of change for students’ social-emotional competencies. To address this gap, we tested the effects of an easy-to-implement universal intervention (Buddy Up) that paired preschoolers with other-gender peers for enjoyable, cooperative, and structured classroom activities. We considered whether the Buddy Up intervention, relative to a control condition, predicted changes in children's aggression and prosocial behavior. Participants were 140 preschoolers (53.6% boys; Mage = 56.49 months; 78% Mexican/Mexican-American) from the Southwestern United States. Following a 2-week pretest period in January (T1), teachers in intervention classrooms implemented the Buddy Up program, which continued until the end of the school year. Post-test data were collected in May (T2). As hypothesized, Buddy Up was associated with increased prosocial behavior and reduced aggression. Testing other-gender friendship participation as a moderator indicated that Buddy Up's effectiveness on prosociality and aggression was not significantly moderated by children's other-gender friendship. We also tested other-gender friendship participation as a mediator and found that Buddy Up increased children's likelihood of having other-gender friends which led to greater prosocial behavior. These findings demonstrated the utility of Buddy Up and the potential for positive outcomes associated with the facilitation of other-gender relationships in early childhood.
Article
Based on social exchange theory, we develop and test a longitudinal model in which leaders’ expressed humility and team members’ helping behavior reciprocally influence each other over time and ultimately predict subsequent team performance and turnover. Using multi‐source, 3‐wave repeated measures data from 281 work teams, our cross‐lagged panel modeling results supported the hypotheses. We found that leader humility increased subsequent team helping behavior, and team helping behavior also promoted leader humility at a later time. As compared with leader humility, team helping behavior is a more proximal predictor of team performance and reduced team turnover rate. We found that leader humility has indirect effects on team performance and team turnover through the mediating role of team helping behavior. These findings shed new light on how leaders and teams can develop through their respective humble and helping behaviors, and how this reciprocal relationship ultimately enhances team effectiveness and helps reduce turnover of team members.
Article
Cave tourism is a very important aspect of the global tourist market, because in some parts of the world, it has been an active form of economic affirmation for decades. Precisely because of the need to improve and modernize the strategic management of this form of tourism, it is necessary to understand the needs of tourists who visit show caves, their motives and limitations. Research on the motives and travel constraints of tourists visiting show caves has been done in the past. However, this study provides a unique contribution to the literature related to the motivation and demotivation of (geo)tourists, since it deals with the comperhensive motivation-constraints scale. The primary contribution is reflected in the development of two scales — show cave visitor motivation scale (SCVMS) and show cave visitor constraints scale (SPVCS). The identified tourist motives and travel constraints could act as an important insight for targeted marketing towards different market segments and further differentiating tourism offer and boosting destination competitiveness.
Chapter
This chapter reviews the current types of aid and looks at how more and more people and organizations are getting involved in aid and philanthropy actions. To do this, it begins by describing the characteristics of current societies. Although the state has traditionally been the provider of responses to the needs of the population, the last decades have seen an increase in responses coming from non-governmental organizations, religious associations, citizens and social groups—particularly in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. The chapter further highlights how helping other people not only has an impact on the well-being of the recipients, but also on that of the givers. The chapter concludes with two cases: a social communication project during the COVID-19 sanitary emergency and a program of fellows for peace.
Article
目的:探究新冠疫情期间公众的内隐健康信念对焦虑、抑郁状态的影响及其机制。方法:采用内隐健康信念量表、健康防护行为参与度量表、亲社会行为参与度量表、广泛性焦虑量表(GAD-7)、患者健康问卷(PHQ-9),邀请全国各地942位18岁以上的成年人参与调查。结果:①内隐健康信念与焦虑、抑郁呈显著负相关;②健康防护行为参与度部分中介了内隐健康信念对抑郁的预测效应,但在内隐健康信念和焦虑之间没有中介效应;③亲社会行为参与度调节了内隐健康信念对抑郁的影响,但不调节内隐健康信念对焦虑的影响。结论:内隐健康信念能够通过健康防护行参与度对抑郁症状起预测作用,在该作用中亲社会行为参与度起调节作用。
Article
Full-text available
In this article, we attempt to distinguish between the properties of moderator and mediator variables at a number of levels. First, we seek to make theorists and researchers aware of the importance of not using the terms moderator and mediator interchangeably by carefully elaborating, both conceptually and strategically, the many ways in which moderators and mediators differ. We then go beyond this largely pedagogical function and delineate the conceptual and strategic implications of making use of such distinctions with regard to a wide range of phenomena, including control and stress, attitudes, and personality traits. We also provide a specific compendium of analytic procedures appropriate for making the most effective use of the moderator and mediator distinction, both separately and in terms of a broader causal system that includes both moderators and mediators. (46 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Full-text available
On the basis of self-determination theory (R. M. Ryan & E. L. Deci, 2000) and cultural descriptions drawn from H. C. Triandis (1995), the authors hypothesized that (a) individuals from different cultures internalize different cultural practices; (b) despite these differences, the relative autonomy of individuals' motivation for those practices predicts well-being in all 4 cultures examined; and (c) horizontal practices are more readily internalized than vertical practices across all samples. Five hundred fifty-nine persons from South Korea, Russia, Turkey and the United States participated. Results supported the hypothesized relations between autonomy and well-being across cultures and gender. Results also suggested greater internalization of horizontal relative to vertical practices. Discussion focuses on the distinction between autonomy and individualism and the relative fit of cultural forms with basic psychological needs.
Chapter
Full-text available
In this chapter, we discuss the conceptual foundations of the functional approach to volunteerism, empirical investigations of the functions served by volunteerism, and linkages between functionalist theorizing in the domain of voluntary helping and in other attitudinal and behavioral domains. These considerations form something of a two way street, with a functional approach contributing to an understanding of volunteerism as a form of sustained pro-social action and with this emerging understanding of the psychology of volunteerism contributing to the articulation of functionalist theorizing itself. Therefore, we will first review theoretical and empirical research on the functional approach to volunteerism. Then, we will explore some of the contributions of the functional approach to volunteerism to an understanding of the functional approach as a general perspective on human attitudes and behavior.
Article
Full-text available
This chapter focuses on one theoretical orientation—the threat to self-esteem model of reactions to aid—with the goal of introducing a conceptual development to it. The chapter discusses the basic postulates of the original Fisher et al. formulation and then examines the implications of it on the models of effective helping and coping. It discusses the way the findings of research on donor recipient similarity support the theoretical postulates. The chapter also describes the applied implications of the research and its place within the context of social psychology. This chapter illustrates that orientation opens the door for a true link between social psychological research and theory on helping and the world of social problems. Knowing recipients' immediate and long-term responses to help are likely to result in an enhanced ability to create helping programs that can truly help the recipient and enable the person to be self-reliant.
Article
Full-text available
In Study 1, participants who read about an extrinsically motivated target expected that task engagement would be less enjoyable and associated with less positive affect and that there would be poorer quality of interpersonal relations, compared with participants reading about an intrinsically motivated target. These effects were reversed when additional information disconfirmed initial perceptions of the target's motivation. In Study 2, participants who were taught a skill by an extrinsically motivated (paid) target reported lower interest in learning and lower task enjoyment than those taught by an intrinsically motivated (volunteer) target, despite receiving identical lessons and learning to the same criterion level. Lower levels of interest, task enjoyment, and positive mood "infected" a second learner when the first participant attempted to teach him or her the same skill. Results support a model linking social perception, expectancy formation, and motivational orientations toward activities.
Article
Full-text available
Criticisms of normative explanations of helping behavior are examined, and an explanation responsive to these criticisms is proposed. This explanation specifies conditions which affect the activation of personal norms and hence their influence on behavior. One hypothesis based on the explanation was tested: the impact of norms on behavior is a function of the tendency to deny or to ascribe responsibility to the self (AR). AR and personal norms toward donating bone marrow to a stranger were measured in a mailed questionnaire. Three months later, 132 women received mailed appeals to join a pool of potential donors from an unrelated source. As predicted, volunteering was a function of the AR × personal norm interaction (p < .0001). Personal norms had no impact on volunteering among those low on AR (deniers), but a substantial impact among those high on AR. Neither intentions to donate, attitudes toward transplants, nor various sociodemographic variables added to the variance in volunteering accounted for by the AR × personal norm interaction.
Article
Full-text available
W. Wilson's (1967) review of the area of subjective well-being (SWB) advanced several conclusions regarding those who report high levels of "happiness." A number of his conclusions have been overturned: youth and modest aspirations no longer are seen as prerequisites of SWB. E. Diener's (1984) review placed greater emphasis on theories that stressed psychological factors. In the current article, the authors review current evidence for Wilson's conclusions and discuss modern theories of SWB that stress dispositional influences, adaptation, goals, and coping strategies. The next steps in the evolution of the field are to comprehend the interaction of psychological factors with life circumstances in producing SWB, to understand the causal pathways leading to happiness, understand the processes underlying adaptation to events, and develop theories that explain why certain variables differentially influence the different components of SWB (life satisfaction, pleasant affect, and unpleasant affect). (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Book
Personality assessment measure for global self-esteem and components (sources) of self-esteem (e.g., competence, lovability, body appearance).
Article
Experience sampling methodology was used to examine the effects of current and prior problems on negative mood within and across days. Forty male community residents wore signal watches and kept diary records of problem occurrence and mood 8 times a day for 8 consecutive days. Trait negative affectivity (NA), prior mood, and concurrent stress were related to mood during the day. Mood in response to a current problem was worse if the prior time had been problem free than if the prior time had been stressful. High NA Ss were more reactive to concurrent stressors than were low NAs, but the effect was small. NA and current-day stress were the major influences of mood across days. High NAs were more distressed by current-day problems and recovered more slowly from problems of the preceding day. The benefits of conceptualizing the effects of daily stressors on mood in terms of spillover, response assimilation, habituation, and contrast are discussed.
Article
We conducted two studies to examine how a potential helper is affected by having a communal orientation toward a relationship with a potential recipient and by the potential recipient's sadness. We hypothesized that (a) having a communal orientation would increase helping and that (b) people high in communal orientation, but not others, would respond to a potential recipient's sadness by increasing helping. These hypotheses were tested in two studies. In Study 1, individual differences in communal orientation toward relationships were measured by using a new communal orientation scale reported for the first time in this article. In Study 2, manipulations were used to lead subjects to desire either a communal or an exchange relationship with another person. In both studies, subjects were exposed to a sad person or to a person in a neutral mood whom they were given a chance to help. As hypothesized, in both studies communally oriented subjects helped the other significantly more than did others. Also as hypothesized, in both studies communally oriented subjects but not others, increased helping in response to the other person's sadness although this effect reached statistical significance only in the second study. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Chapter
Altruism and helping behavior Why do we help others – when we do? The majority view in psychology (and Western thought) has long been that everything we do for others, no matter how noble, is directed toward the ultimate goal of self-benefit. This view is called universal egoism. A minority view is that even though helping is often motivated by self-benefit, under certain circumstances humans are also capable of altruism – of seeking another person's benefit as an ultimate goal. Social psychologists have entered this egoism-altruism debate, conducting experiments designed to test the competing views. Results of these experiments may surprise you. So may the implications. We humans spend much of our time and energy helping others. We stay up all night to comfort a friend who has just suffered a broken relationship. We send money to rescue famine victims halfway around the world, or to save whales, or to ...
Article
Volunteering is any activity in which time is given freely to benefit another person, group or cause. Volunteering is part of a cluster of helping behaviors, entailing more commitment than spontaneous assistance but narrower in scope than the care provided to family and friends. Although developed somewhat independently, the study of volunteerism and of social activism have much in common. Since data gathering on volunteering from national samples began about a quarter of a century ago, the rate for the United States has been stable or, according to some studies, rising slightly. Theories that explain volunteering by pointing to individual attributes can be grouped into those that emphasize motives or self-understandings on the one hand and those that emphasize rational action and cost-bene tit analysis on the other. Other theories seek to complement this focus on individual level factors by pointing to the role of social resources, specifically social ties and organizational activity, as explanations for volunteering. Support is found for all theories, although many issues remained unresolved. Age, gender and race differences in volunteering can be accounted for, in large part, by pointing to differences in self-understandings, human capital, and social resources. Less attention has been paid to contextual effects on volunteering and, while evidence is mixed, the impact of organizational, community, and regional characteristics on individual decisions to volunteer remains a fruitful held for exploration. Studies of the experience of volunteering have only just begun to plot and explain spells of volunteering over the life course and to examine the causes of volunteer turnover. Examining the premise that volunteering is beneficial for the helper as well as the helped, a number of studies have looked at the impact of volunteering on subjective and objective well-being. Positive effects are found for life-satisfaction, self-esteem, self-rated health, and for educational and occupational achievement, functional ability, and mortality. Studies of youth also suggest that volunteering reduces the Likelihood of engaging in problem behaviors such as school truancy and drug abuse.
Article
Studies in 2 work organizations tested a self-determination theory based model in which employees' autonomous causality orientation and their perceptions of their managers' autonomy support independently predicted satisfaction of the employees' intrinsic needs for competence, autonomy, and relatedness, which in turn predicted their performance evaluations and psychological adjustment. Path analysis indicated that the self-determination theory model fit the data very well and that alternative models did not provide any advantage.
Article
This article reports the development and validation of a scale to measure global life satisfaction, the Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS). Among the various components of subjective well-being, the SWLS is narrowly focused to assess global life satisfaction and does not tap related constructs such as positive affect or loneliness. The SWLS is shown to have favorable psychometric properties, including high internal consistency and high temporal reliability. Scores on the SWLS correlate moderately to highly with other measures of subjective well-being, and correlate predictably with specific personality characteristics. It is noted that the SWLS is suited for use with different age groups, and other potential uses of the scale are discussed.
Article
Replying to Batson (this issue), who argues that the difference between communal and exchange relationships is less than might be imagined, the authors review the communal/exchange distinction, discuss what it does and does not mean, and address specific issues raised by Batson. They conclude, contrary to claims by Batson, that (a) ingratiation cannot account for all the findings supporting the communal/exchange distinction; (b) if desire for a communal relationship leads to ingratiation, that does not contradict the distinction; (c) if communal norms are followed for other than altruistic reasons, that does not undermine the distinction, (d) the difference between communal and exchange relationships is not limited to the breadth of benefits exchanged; (e) the difference between communal and exchange relationships is not limited to a difference in etiquette; rather, the communal/exchange distinction provides a theoretical explanation for the difference in etiquette.
Article
Brazilian and Canadian students reported on the importance and frequency of cultural practices and values reflecting Triandis’s cultural model of individualistic-collectivistic and horizontal-vertical orientations. They also rated their relative autonomy for these practices and the degree to which parents and teachers supported self-determination theory’s psychological needs for autonomy, competence, and relatedness. It was predicted that in both samples, despite the mean differences, greater relative autonomy and need support would be associated with greater well-being and cultural identity. It was also expected that vertical cultural orientations would be less well internalized in both Brazilian and Canadian groups. Means and covariance structure analyses verified measurement comparability. Results generally supported the hypotheses. Discussion focuses on the importance of internalization across cultural forms, the differentiation of autonomy from individualism and independence, and the relations between horizontal cultural orientations and psychological needs support.
Article
The research reported here is a test of the applicability of an identity theory model, developed with samples of blood donors, to two other forms of institutional helping: volunteering and charitable donation. The model fits all three forms of helping; perceived expectations, parental modeling, personal norms, past behaviov, and role- identity as a donor are significant predictors of intentions to donate. Role-identity is predicted from perceived expectations, modeling, personal norms, and past behavior. Past behavior is consistently influenced by perceived expectations and modeling. Although the fit of the model is very similar across forms of giving, the past volunteer- ing of time-the most "public" form of donation-appears to be affected more strong- ly by others' expectations than are gifts of blood or money. Past blood donation is affected more strongly by modeling from parents than is volunteering. Feelings of moral obligation have a stronger effect on role-identity as a blood donor than as a donor of time or money.
Article
The hierarchical linear model (HLM) is now commonly accepted as a useful modeling approach for multilevel data resulting from randomized field experiments. When multiple outcomes of interest exist, a multivariate extension of the conventional univariate HLM offers advantages over the usual application of separate HLM analyses for each of the outcomes. In this article, the authors review these advantages, discuss the device that allows the univariate HLM procedure to model multiple outcomes, and present a series of multivariate models that would be useful in addressing typical questions in field experiments. In addition to the multivariate multilevel versions of basic analysis of variance (ANOVA) or analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) designs, the authors present more complex models that allow the testing of moderation and mediation of the treatment effect. The various analyses are illustrated with computer generated data for a hypothetical scenario.
Article
Three studies examined the effects of experimentally induced motivational orientations on the subtly different positive affects of vitality and happiness. We hypothesized, based on self-determination theory (Deci & Ryan, 1991; Ryan & Frederick, 1997), that doing well when autonomously motivated would enhance subjective vitality relative to doing well when controlled in one's motivation, but that doing well under the two motivational states would not have differential effects on happiness. Two experiments in which motivation was induced by instructions to participants about task engagement and a third experiment using an attributional methodology yielded the hypothesized pattern of effects. Results are discussed in terms of the importance of differentiating positive outcomes in terms of their underlying motives and of giving increased attention to understanding restorative environments.
Article
We construct an integrated theory of formal and informal volunteer work based on the premises that volunteer work is (1) productive work that requires human capital, (2) collective behavior that requires social capital, and (3) ethically guided work that requires cultural capital. Using education, income, and functional health to measure human capital, number of children in the household and informal social interaction to measure social capital, and religiosity to measure cultural capital, we estimate a model in which formal volunteering and informal helping are reciprocally related but connected in different ways to different forms of capital. Using two-wave data from the Americans' Changing Lives panel study, we find that formal volunteering is positively related to human capital, number of children in the household, informal social interaction, and religiosity. Informal helping, such as helping a neighbor, is primarily determined by gender, age, and health. Estimation of reciprocal effects reveals that formal volunteering has a positive effect on helping, but helping does not affect formal volunteering.
Article
The present study tested the posited structural path of influence through which perceived self-efficacy of affect regulation operates in concert with perceived interpersonal self-efficacy to determine prosocial behavior, which in turn influences satisfaction with life in four age groups. A strong sense of efficacy in the regulation of positive and negative affect was associated with a high perceived efficacy in the management of social relationships and in empathic engagement in others' emotional experiences. Interpersonal self-efficacy directly affected prosocial behavior and entirely mediated the influence of affective self-efficacy on it. As predicted, prosocial behavior directly influenced life satisfaction, showing a higher path of influence for the oldest group as compared to the other ones. The structural model provided a better fit for the data than did alternative models.
Article
Abstract—With the widespread emergence of required community-service programs comes a new opportunity to examine the effects of requirements on future behavioral intentions. To investigate the consequences of such “mandatory volunteerism” programs, we followed students who were required to volunteer in order to graduate from college. Results demonstrated that stronger perceptions of external control eliminated an otherwise positive relation between prior volunteer experience and future intentions to volunteer. A second study experimentally compared mandates and choices to serve and included a premeasured assessment of whether students felt external control was necessary to get them to volunteer. After being required or choosing to serve, students reported their future intentions. Students who initially felt it unlikely that they would freely volunteer had significantly lower intentions after being required to serve than after being given a choice. Those who initially felt more likely to freely volunteer were relatively unaffected by a mandate to serve as compared with a choice. Theoretical and practical implications for understanding the effects of requirements and constraints on intentions and behavior are discussed.
Article
The central focus of this research is on the development and testing of a theoretical framework to understand performance and retention of volunteers. The framework is centered on identity theory and includes both general and specific role identity as well as organizational variables. Data were obtained from two samples of volunteers for the American Cancer Society (ACS). Specific role identity as an ACS volunteer is predicted from general role identity and several factors related to perceived experiences in the organization. Specific role identity explains significant amounts of variance in the number of hours worked for ACS and other organizations as well as intent to remain an ACS volunteer. Results also suggest that volunteers may experience conflicts between the demands of their general and specific role identities. Finally, the effects of ACS role identity on volunteer behavior are compared with those of organizational commitment.
Article
The meaning and operation of negative personal norms-feelings of moral obligation to avoid a particular action-are examined Results show that women with negative personal norms help less in response to an appeal than those with no norms. Individual tendencies to deny responsibility moderate the impact of positive personal norms on altruistic helping, but not the impact of negative norms.
Article
Two experiments were conducted to determine whether an extrinsic incentive would undermine intrinsic, altruistic motivation for helping. In Experiment 1 male undergraduates agreed to help an experimenter code data. Pavment for coding was not mentioned (no-payment), was mentioned prior to agreement to help (paynent-prior), or was mentioned after agreement to help (payment-after). As predicted from Nisbett and Valins' overly sufficient justification hypothesis, subjects in the payment-prior condition rated themselves as less altruistic relative to a comparison other who did not help (a confederate) than did subjects in the no-payment condition. Subjects in the payment-after condition and in the no-request control group responded similarly to those in the no-payment condition. Experiment 2 provided a conceptual replication in a field setting of the payment-prior and no-payment conditions of Experiment 1. Results again indicated that prior payment undermined intrinsic, altruistic motivation for helping.
Article
It is argued that this book (see record 1999-04118-000) contains some interesting overview-type chapters that identify one aspect of self-reports and that provide researchers with findings that either help them to design their questionnaires so that they obtain more veridical self-reports or at least help them to interpret self-report findings accurately. However, some chapters put heavy emphasis on self-report in medical contexts and clinical practice. Researchers who work in other domains of the behavioral and social sciences may be disappointed to find that they book does not contain, among others, chapters on self-reports of stereotypes, attitudes, evaluations, and self-esteem. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Prosocial motivation is egoistic when the ultimate goal is to increase one's own welfare; it is altruistic when the ultimate goal is to increase another's welfare. The view that all prosocial behavior, regardless how noble in appearance, is motivated by some form of self-benefits may seem cynical. But it is the dominant view in contemporary psychology. Most contemporary psychologists who use the term have no intention of challenging the dominant view that all human behavior, including all prosocial behavior, is motivated by self-serving, egoistic desires. Contemporary pseudoaltruistic views can be classified into three types: altruism as prosocial behavior, not motivation, altruism as prosocial behavior seeking internal rewards, and altruism as prosocial behavior to reduce aversive arousal. If altruistic motivation exists, then one has to make some fundamental changes in the conception of human motivation and indeed of human nature. As yet, the evidence is not sufficiently clear to justify such changes. If the conceptual analysis and research outlined in the chapter have merit, then the threshold of an empirical answer to the question why one care for other will be reached.
Article
Wilson and Musick review some of the research on the supposed benefits of volunteering and describe briefly some of the results of their own work in this area. There is little doubt that there are individual benefits to be derived from doing volunteer work that reach far beyond the volunteer act itself and may linger long after the volunteer role is relinquished.